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Lesson 2

Introduction to Computer Networks

Network Topology
The network topology
defines the way in
devices are connected.
A network topology
describes the layout of
the wire and devices as
well as the paths used
by data transmissions
The network topology
describes the method
used to do the physical
wiring of the network.

Network Topology
Topology is both physical and logical:
Physical Topology means the physical design
of a network including the devices, location
and cable installation.
Logical Topology refers to the fact that how
data actually transfers in a network as
opposed to its design.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Bus Topology
Commonly referred to
as a linear bus, all the
devices on a bus
topology are connected
by one single cable.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Star & Tree Topology

The star topology is the most
commonly used architecture in
Ethernet LANs.
topology resembles spokes in
a bicycle wheel.

Larger networks use the

extended star topology also
called tree topology. When
used with network devices that
filter frames or packets, like
bridges, switches, and routers,
reduces the traffic on the wires
by sending packets only to the
wires of the destination host.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Star & Tree Topology

The star topology is the most
commonly used architecture in
Ethernet LANs.
topology resembles spokes in
a bicycle wheel.

Larger networks use the

extended star topology also
called tree topology. When
used with network devices that
filter frames or packets, like
bridges, switches, and routers,
reduces the traffic on the wires
by sending packets only to the
wires of the destination host.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Ring Topology
A frame travels around the
ring, stopping at each node.
If a node wants to transmit
data, it adds the data as well
as the destination address to
the frame.
The frame then continues
around the ring until it finds
the destination node, which
takes the data out of the
Single ring All the devices on the
network share a single cable
Dual ring The dual ring topology
allows data to be sent in both

When node # 1 receives the empty frame, it inserts a

token in the token bit part of the frame. This operation
may just be an insertion of a 1 bit
The node then inserts the message it wants to send
as well as the address of the receiving node in the
The frame is then successively received and
examined by each node in the network. First it is sent
to node #2. Node #2 examines the frame and
compares the address in the frame to its own
address. Since addresses do not match, it passes the
frame onto node #3, which does the same thing
When the frame is received by node #4, the address
of the node matches the destination address within
the frame. The node copies the message and
changes the token bit in the frame to 0
The frame is then sent over to node #5. This node
also compares addresses and sends it to node #6
which does the same procedure
When node #1 receives the frame, it examines the
token bit and recognizes that it has been changed to
0. Node #1 then concludes that the message has
been received by the intended node: node #4. Node
#1 then empties the frame and releases the empty
frame back into the network for circulation

Introduction to Computer Networks

Mesh Topology
The mesh topology
connects all devices
(nodes) to each other
for redundancy and
fault tolerance.

It is used in WANs to
interconnect LANs and
networks like those
used by banks and
financial institutions.
Implementing the mesh
topology is expensive
and difficult.

HYBRID Topology
In a hybrid topology, two or
more topologies are combined
to form a complete network
design. Networks are rarely
designed using only one type
of topology. For example, you
may want to combine a star
with a bus topology to benefit
from the advantages of each.
Two types of hybrid topologies
are commonly in use: star-bus
topology and star-ring
Next: network cables

Introduction to Computer Networks

Network Components
Physical Media
Interconnecting Devices

Networking Software

Introduction to Computer Networks

Networking Media
Networking media can
be defined simply as
the means by which
signals (data) are sent
from one computer to
another (either by cable
or wireless means).

A cable that connects two computers
or network components is called a
segment. Cables differ in their capabilities
and are categorized according to their
ability to transmit data at varying speeds,
with different error rates. The three major
categories of cables that connect most
networks are:


Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties:
shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair
(UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best
option for school networks
The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade
wire to extremely high-speed cable.
The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket.
Each pair is twisted with a different number of
twists per inch to help eliminate interference from
adjacent pairs and other electrical devices.

The following summarizes the features of
UTP cable:
Speed and throughput10 to 1000 Mbps
Average cost per nodeLeast expensive
Media and connector sizeSmall
Maximum cable length100 m (short)

Commonly used types of UTP cabling are as

Category 1

Used for telephone communications. Not suitable

for transmitting data.

Category 2

Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4

megabits per second (Mbps).

Category 3

Used in 10BASE-T networks. Can transmit data at

speeds up to 10 Mbps.

Category 4

Used in Token Ring networks. Can transmit data

at speeds up to 16 Mbps.

Category 5

Can transmit data at speeds up to 100 Mbps.

Category 5e

Used in networks running at speeds up to 1000

Mbps (1 gigabit per second [Gbps]).

Category 6

Used in networks running at speeds up to 1000

Mbps (1 gigabit per second [Gbps]).







Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

The following summarizes the
features of STP cable:
Speed and throughput10 to
100 Mbps
Average cost per node
Moderately expensive
Media and connector size
Medium to large
Maximum cable length100
m (short)
Although UTP cable is the least expensive cable, it may be susceptible to radio
and electrical frequency interference (it should not be too close to electric
motors, fluorescent lights, etc.). If you must place cable in environments with
lots of potential interference, or if you must place cable in extremely sensitive
environments that may be susceptible to the electrical current in the UTP,
shielded twisted pair may be the solution. Shielded cables can also help to
extend the maximum distance of the cables.

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable supports 10 to 100 Mbps and is
relatively inexpensive,
although it is more costly than UTP on a per-unit
length. However, coaxial cable can be cheaper
for a physical bus topology because less cable
will be needed.
Coaxial cable can be cabled over longer
distances than twisted-pair cable. For example,
Ethernet can run approximately 100 meters (328
feet) using twisted-pair cabling. Using coaxial
cable increases this distance to 500m (1640.4

The two types of coaxial cabling are thick coaxial
and thin coaxial.
Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as thinnet.
10Base2 refers to the specifications for thin coaxial
cable carrying Ethernet signals.
The 2 refers to the approximate maximum segment
length being 200 meters. In actual fact the maximum
segment length is 185 meters. Thin coaxial cable is
popular in school networks, especially linear bus

Coaxial Cable
Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as
10Base5 refers to the specifications for thick coaxial
cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 5 refers to the
maximum segment length being 500 meters.
Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective plastic
cover that helps keep moisture away from the center
conductor. This makes thick coaxial a great choice
when running longer lengths in a linear bus network.
One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it does not
bend easily and is difficult to install.

Coaxial Cable
The following summarizes the features of
coaxial cables:
Speed and throughput10 to 100 Mbps
Average cost per nodeInexpensive
Media and connector sizeMedium
Maximum cable length500 m (medium)

Coaxial Cable Connectors

The most common type of connector
used with coaxial cables is the BayoneNeill-Concelman (BNC) connector.
Different types of adapters are available
for BNC connectors,
including a T-connector,
barrel connector and




Thinnet cable

British Naval Connector
Bayone-Neill Concelman

Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass
core surrounded by several layers of protective
It transmits light rather than electronic signals
eliminating the problem of electrical interference.
This makes it ideal for certain environments that
contain a large amount of electrical interference.
It has also made it the standard for connecting
networks between buildings, due to its immunity
to the effects of moisture and lighting.

Fiber Optic Connectors

ST Connector
Straight (ST)

SC Connector
Standard Connector (SC)



The Wi-Fi Alliance is a global, non-profit organization that

helps to ensure standards and interoperability for
wireless networks, and wireless networks are often
referred to as WiFi. The original Wi-Fi standard (IEEE
802.11) was adopted in 1997. Since then many
variations have emerged (and will continue to emerge).
Wi-Fi networks use the Ethernet protocol.

Network Adapter
A network card, network adapter or NIC
(network interface controller)
is a piece of computer hardware designed
to allow computers to communicate over a
computer network.

Network Adapater
A network adapter interfaces a computer to a
network. The term "adapter" was popularized
originally by Ethernet add-in cards for PCs.
is a physical and data link layer technology
for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was
invented by engineer Robert Metcalfe.

Every common adapter supports either Wi-Fi

(wireless) or Ethernet (wired) standards.

Network Adapter
As the data passes through the cable to
the network adapter, it is formatted into
A packet is a logical grouping of
information that includes a header, which
contains location information and user

Network Adapter
Each network adapter has a unique address that is
incorporated into chips on the card. This address is
called the physical, or media access control (MAC),

The network adapter reads the destination address to

determine if the packet is to be delivered to this
computer. If it is, the network adapter then passes
the packet on to the operating system for processing.
If not, the network adapter discards the packet.

The network adapter performs

the following functions:
Receives data from the computer's operating
system and converts it into electrical signals that
are transmitted onto the cable.
Receives electrical signals from the cable and
translates them into data that the computer's
operating system can understand
Determines whether data received from the
cable is intended for the computer
Controls the flow of data between the computer
and the cabling system

Network Adapters

Network Adapters

Routers filter out network traffic by specific protocol
rather than by packet address. Routers also divide
networks logically instead of physically. An IP router can
divide a network into various subnets so that only traffic
destined for particular IP addresses can pass between
segments. Network speed often decreases due to this
type of intelligent forwarding. Such filtering takes more
time than that exercised in a switch or bridge, which only
looks at the Ethernet address. However, in more
complex networks, overall efficiency is improved by
using routers.
The IP address is the default for Linksys brand home broadband routers.
This address is set by the manufacturer at the factory, but you can change it at any time
using the network router's administrative console.
If you have forgotten your LinkSys router password, the easiest thing to do is to
reset your router to the factory default settings.
To restore the router configuration to factory defaults, hold the reset button on the
unit for 30 seconds.

Ethernet switches are an expansion of the
concept in Ethernet bridging. LAN
switches can link four, six, ten or more
networks together.
Switches are sometimes called "multi-port
bridges" for this reason.

A bridge device filters data traffic at a
network boundary. Bridges reduce the
amount of traffic on a LAN by dividing it
into two segments.


Wireless access points (APs or WAPs) are
specially configured nodes on wireless local
area networks (WLANs).
Access points act as a central transmitter and
receiver of WLAN radio signals.
Access points used in home or small business
networks are generally small, dedicated
hardware devices featuring a built-in network
adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter.
Access points support Wi-Fi wireless
communication standards.

Access point

Nov. 23/24 Thursday/ Friday Seatwork3
Nov. 26/27 Monday/Tuesday Quiz 1
Lesson 3. Assignment No. 3
What is static and dynamic IP address?
What is public and private IP address?
IP Classes and its range of IPs.
What is the use of the IP address
Differentiate network ID and host ID?