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MOBILE ROBOTS

Nirmal Kumar.M (121MC133)

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Mobile Robots
Mobile robots were born out of unmanned vehicles, which also
appear in WWII (for example an unmanned plane dropped the
atomic bomb at Nagasaki).
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Underwater Vehicles (UUV) and
Ground Vehicles (UGV).

Because tethered mobile vehicles could not move very far, and radio
communications were limited, an approach to mobile robots is to
endow them with the necessary control and decision capability autonomy
Autonomous Underwater/Ground/Aerial Vehicles (AUV/AGV/AAV).
Unlike manipulators, we do not think of a remotely controlled toy as
a mobile robot, suggesting that one of the fundamental aspects of
mobile robotics is the capacity for autonomous operation.
Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Anthropomorphic Robots

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Animal-like Robots

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Unmanned Vehicles

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robot History Timeline


1947-1949 first electric and hydraulic teleoperators are developed
by General Electric and General Mills. Force feedback is added to
prevent the crushing of glass containers during manipulation.
1949 - CNC machine tools for accurate milling of aircraft parts are
introduced.
1953 W. Grey Walter applies cybernetics principles to a robotic
design called machine speculatrix, which became a robotic
tortoise. The simple principles involved were:
Parsimony: simple is better. Simple reflexes are the basis of robot
behavior.
Exploration or speculation: the system never remains still except when
recharging. Constant motion is needed to keep it from being trapped.
Attraction: the system is motivated to move towards objects or light.
Aversion: the system moves away from certain objects, such as
obstacles.
Discernment: the system can distinguish between productive and
unproductive behavior, adapting itself to the situation.
Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

G. Walter Grey's tortoise

These vehicles
had a light sensor,
touch sensor,
propulsion motor,
steering motor,
and a two
vacuum tube
analog computer.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robot History Timeline

1954 George Devol replaced the slave manipulator in a teleoperator with the
programmability of the CNC controller, thus creating the first industrial robot, called
the Programmable Article Transfer Device.

1955 The Darmouth Summer Research Conference marks the birth of AI. Marvin
Minsky, from the AI lab at MIT defines an intelligent machine as one that would tend
to build up within itself an abstract model of the environment in which it is placed. If
it were given a problem, it could first explore solutions within the internal abstract
model of the environment and then attempt external experiments. This approach
dominated robotics research for the next 30 years.

1956 - Joseph Engleberger, a Columbia physics student buys the rights to Devols
robot and founds the Unimation Company.

1961 The first Unimate robot is installed in a Trenton, NJ General Motors plant to
tend a die casting machine. The key was the reprogrammability and retooling of the
machine to perform different tasks. The Unimate robot was an innovative mechanical
design based on a multi-degree of freedom cantilever beam. The beam flexibility
presented challenges for control. Hydraulic actuation was eventually used to alleviate
precision problems.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

UNIMATE robot

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robot History Timeline

1962 1963 The introduction of sensors is seen as a way to enhance the


operation of robots. This includes force sensing for stacking blocks (Ernst,
1961), vision system for binary decision for presence of obstacles in the
environment (McCarthy 1963), pressure sensors for grasping (Tomovic and
Boni, 1962). Robot interaction with an unstructured environment at MITs AI
lab (Man and Computer MAC project).

1968 Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan acquires a license for Unimate.

1968 Shakey, a mobile robot is developed by SRI (Stanford Research


Institute). It was placed in a special room with specially colored objects. A
vision system would recognize objects and pushed objects according to a
plan. This planning software was STRIPS, and it maintained and updated a
world model. The robot had pan/tilt and focus for the camera, and bump
sensors.

1971 -1973 The Stanford Arm is developed, along with the first language
for programming robots - WAVE.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robot History Timeline

Late 1970s First assembly applications of robotics are considered: water


pumps Paul and Bolles, typewriter Will and Grossman, Remote Center
of Compliance gripper (RCC) developed at Draper Labs.

1970s Innovation in the type of robots introduced: Unimation 2000,


Cincinnati Milacron (The tomorrow tool, T3) the first computer controlled
manipulator, the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly)
by Unimation, the SCARA (Selective compliant articulated robot for
Assembly) introduced in Japan and the US (by Adept Technologies).

1972 First snake-like robot ACM III Hirose Tokyo Inst. Of Tech.

1977 Development of mobile robot Hilaire at Laboratoise dAutomatique et


dAnalyse des Systemes (LAAS) in Toulouse, France. This mobile robot had
three wheels and it is still in use.

1970s JPL develops its first planetary exploration Rover using a TV


camera, laser range finder and tactile sensors.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Snake-like robot

A. Hirose (Tokyo IT)


Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Snake (MIT) and Swimming (Eel)


Robot (UHK)

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robot History Timeline

1980s Innovation in improving the performance of robot arms feedback


control to improve accuracy, program compliance, the introduction of
personal computers as controllers, and commercialization of robots by a
large number of companies: KUKA (Germany), IBM 7535, Adept Robot
(USA), Hitachi, Seiko (Japan).

Early 1980s Multi-fingered hands developed, Utah-MIT arm (16 DOF)


developed by Steve Jacobsen, Salisburys hand (9 dof).

1977-1983 Stanford cart/CMU rover developed by Hans Moravec, later on


became the Nomad mobile robot.

1980s Legged and hopping robots (BIPER Shimoyama) and Raibert


1986.

1984 -1991 V. Braitenberg revived the tortoise mobile robots of W. Grey


Walter creating autonomous robots exhibiting behaviors. Hogg, Martin and
Resnick at MIT create mobile robots using LEGO blocks (precursor to
LEGO Mindstorms). Rodney Brooks at MIT creates first insect robots at MIT
AI Lab birth of behavioral robotics.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

KUKA
They can load,
unload, deburr,
flame-machine,
laser, weld, bond,
assemble, inspect,
and sort.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

IBM 7535
IBM 7535
Manufacturing
System provided
it advanced
programming
functions,
including data
communications,
programmable
speed.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Utah-MIT arm

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Nomad mobile robot


The XR4000 is an
advanced mobile robot
system that incorporates
state of the art drive,
control, networking,
power management,
sensing, communication
and software
development
technologies.
Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute


CAT Robots

Tetrobot: Modular & Reconfigurable Stewart Platform


(Sanderson & Lee)
Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

CAT-Mobile: Autonomous Tractor-Trailer


Robot (Wen, Divelbiss, Popa)

Robot History Timeline


1990s Humanoid robots Cog, Kismet (MIT), Wasubot, WHL-I
Japan, Honda P2 (1.82m, 210kg), and P3 (1.6m, 130kg), ASIMO.
1990s Entertainment and Education Robots SARCOS (Jurassic
Park), Sony AIBO, LEGO Mindstorms, Khypera, Parallax.
ROBOCUP, the competition simulating the game of soccer played
by two teams of robots having been held around the world since
1997 (Osaka) .
1990s Introduction of space robots (manipulators as well as
rovers the MARS rover 1996), parallel manipulators (StewartGough Platforms), multiple manipulators, precision robots
(Robotworld), surgical robots (RoboDoc), first service robots (as
couriers in hospitals, etc)

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Lego Mindstorms

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Asimo
Honda announced
the development of
new technologies
for the nextgeneration ASIMO
humanoid robot,
targeting a new
level of mobility.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Entertainment robots from SARCOS

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Kismet MIT AI Lab


Kismet consists
of a head with
large eyes with
eyelids, bushy
eyebrows,
rubber lips, and
floppy ears.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Cog MIT AI Lab


Cog is a humanoid
robot. It has a torso,
arms and a head but no
legs. Cog's torso does
not have a spine but it
can bend at the waist
from side-to-side and
from front-to-back and
can twist its torso the
same way a person can.
Cog's arms also move
in a natural way.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Hierarchical family of robots (KTeam - Switzerland)


Khepera (6 in)

Koala (20 in)

Alice (1 in)

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robot History Timeline


2000s IRobot introduces the first autonomous vacuum
Roomba.
2000s Mini and micro robots, Smart Dust Pister @ Berkeley,
UTA, EPFL/Lausanne, microfactories.
2000s Military applications - Robotic assistants for dangerous
environments and reconnaissance, AUVs and UUVs, etc.
2000s Environmental Robotics
2000s Robotic Deployment of Sensor Networks
2000s Humanoid Robotics Takes Off

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

USC Mobile Robots

Robot teams (A. Howard)


Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Flying Insect (UCB)

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Solar AUV II
SAUV-II from Autonomous Underwater
Research Institute (AUSI) New Hampshire

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robotics Applications
Today, commercial robots are used routinely in the following
applications:
Industrial Manufacturing Transforming objects - arc/spot welding,
milling/drilling, glueing/sealing, laser/water jet cutting, grinding,
deburring, screwing, painting, and assembly.
Material Handling: Pick and Place- palletizing (placing objects on a
pellet in an ordered way), warehouse loading/unloading, part sorting,
packaging, electronic chip pick and place, hazardous material handling.
Measurement: object finding, contour finding, inspection, 3D
registration.
Entertainment robotics: animated figures, flight simulator, robotic pets.
Service robotics: robotic aids for handicapped people, artificial limbs,
robotic vacuum, courier.
Military robotics: defusing explosive devices, scout robots, UAVs.
Surgical Robotics: drilling, suturing, cauterizing, tool holding.

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Hierarchical family of robots (UMN)


Scout & Ranger Series

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

ARV Wall-Climbing Robot for


Fuselage Inspection

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robotics Applications
Robot prices
continue to drop
compared to the
cost of human
labor.
In the year 2000,
78% of all robots
installed in the US
were welding or
material-handling
robots.
Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006

Robotics Applications

Dan O. Popa, Robotics 5325, Spring 2006