You are on page 1of 38



Some Relations-3

One NSEI= supports 64 BTS and 128 TRX if any one of them is
full then we can assign second NSEI port in same BSC
1TRX=117 subscriber
1 subscriber=25 m erlangs (TCH)
1 subscriber=.004 m erlangs(SD)
1 TRX=2.94 erlang(2% GOS )
2 TRX=8.2 erlang(2% GOS )
3 TRX=14.6 erlang(2% GOS )
4 TRX=21.2 erlang(2% GOS )
If BSC 3VI, OSS is 4 and System is S11 then max capacity of
BSC is 660 TRXs.
If OSS 4.2 and system S12 is using then max capacity of BSC
will be 2000TRXs

KPI’s to be monitored

SD Blocking
SD Drop
TCH Blocking
TCH Assignment
TCH Drop

Phone TCH Blking SDCCH Seizer CSSR or TCH Assignment Call completion Rate (TCH Drop call) . TCH Conn. Call Phone Ref.Call Establishment Get Service Get SDCCH Establish SD Channel SD Blking Est.

C7 link failures. a Clear Request is sent to the MSC . . This could be caused by software errors.  If a call is abnormally disconnected.If the Call is disconnected in a normal Fashion then Clear Message with cause code Call Control is sent. It is important to establish what types of calls are failing. and over what percentage of the network it is occurring. congestion. then we have a call drop scenario.What is Dropped Call?  All cell resources are available but calls are failing.HW problems or many other reasons.

SDCCH CHANNEL :  SDCCH is a dedicated channel which is using for LAC updation. . Call setup. SMS in idle mode. It works in UL & DL.

After AGCH. .SD Blocking:  SD blocking means that you are not getting SD resource for the call origination.If such a case arises the customer will not be able to originate any call. There are no of reasons for that. When MS connects with NW then RACH and AGCH are provided.SDCCH is provided but if SDCCH is not provided at this time due some problems or due to unavailable of SD by BSC .it’s called as SD Blocking.

If at a particular time call is attempted and it fails then it known as Blocking. . but they differ from each other.Difference Between Blocking and Congestion:  It is very important to know difference between blocking and congestion. Some people think that both are same. If all the SD resources are full and not available for SD assign then its come into congestion.

Reasons for SD Blocking: Some of them are  LAC boundary. . HW Prob.

. Check the No. Check LAC boundary. 3. 5. if less then increase SD channel taking care that there is no TCH Blocking. Hardware check / shift SD to new time slot Some times BMA and HYS parameters are useful to remove SD Blocking.Solutions for removal of SD Blocking:  Here are some steps by which we can reduce SD Blocking- 1. Use of Dynamic SDCCH (It is a BSC parameter and will be applied on whole BTS). 4. 2. of SDCCH channel Available. If location update is more then change the LAC of that site and set C2 and HYS.

change the values of RXP. may be issue of uplink or downlink issue in that cells for UL put a TMA in that cell and for DL provide tilt . Sometimes SD drop occurs because queuing(10s) is not activated in the orient that antenna . If SD drop is high plz look on parameters likeovershooting . shift the SD time slot . interference. it is called as SD Drop. PMAX. may be hardware issue.SD Drop:    As per diagram shows when we assigned SD for call origination and at that time due to some problem or any mismatch comes by which SD loss occurs. It occurs between allocation of SD and before TCH allocation.

If SD Drop is high: If SD drop is high plz look on parameters like Overshooting  Shift the SD time slot  Hardware issue  Interference  Change the values of RXP PMAX  It may be uplink or downlink issue in which cells for UL put a TMA in that cell and for DL provide tilt  Re orient that antenna .

Due to ICM Band(CDMA) High LAPD Utilization Heavy blocking and DR feature being used extensively .Reasons of SD Drop:              Hardware Fault. Abis Drop. Outage. Bad Coverage. Overshooting. MAIO mismatch. Interference. High TR Fail. High Path Loss. Wrong Parameter Planning.

Co-BSIC & Co BCCH.Solutions for removal of SD Drop: Interference:   Check the BCCH Plan (C/I or C/A). Check interference by Interference scanning. Check clean BCCH by frequency scanning. Arrange Drive Test:    The best way to find the real issues for Interference makes DT. .

Check the sample log according to TA.Overshooting:      LAC Planning. . Mount position Effective Tilt. If a cell is picking call from long distance. Cell orientation need to be defined according to clutter.

then.Cont… High TR Fail:  Check and clear TR fail from OSS end. Check cards. check the transmit path. Bad Coverage:  If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink. feeder and etc. . Drops due to Low Signal Strength. feeder connection and etc. check the receive path of this particular TRX. VSWR.  If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink. Check receiver sensitivity.  Use MapInfo or Google Earth to find location of sites.

.  VSWR of the Cell.In this case BCCH shift from one to other TRX will reduce SD drop.  Check Path Imbalance. High LAPD Utilization:  Check LAPD util report from OSS.  TRX condition. .  Connector Connection.Cont.  Some times you will find issues on BCCH TRX. Hardware Fault:  Check Alarms.

Check for parameter:  Check the Timer T 3101  Check the Timer T 200(20ms)  T11 Expired(10 s)  MAIO check. ..Cont.

It is the failed call attempts which the MS user can notice. .TCH Blocking:    When TCH is not allocated to the user after SD allocation . It takes place due to lack of TCH is TCH Blocking.

 HW Problem.  Lock TRXs. .Reasons for TCH Blocking: Some of them are High Utilization of TCH  Time slot faulty.

. Check FRL & FRU. try to share the traffic of that cell with the neighboring cell by changing tilt or orientation. Add another TRX. If TRX addition not possible.Solutions for removal of TCH Blocking:     Implement half rate or Dual rate.

After the SD request MS gets TCH successfully and the call transfers to TCH it means TCH assignment is successful. It degrades due to HW problems.TCH Assignment:     It’s a process of by which TCH is assigned to the MS. For the best KPI TCH assignment should tend to 100%. .

High TCH Blocking.Reasons for TCH Assignment failure:        Hardware Fault(TRx) VSWR High Path Loss. Loose connections. DR being used extensively . Faulty TMA.

. Connection from BTS to Antenna Connector connection Check TMA. Check TRXs Check BOIA card.Solutions for removal of TCH Assignment:         Clear VSWR IF TRXs are faulty lock them and try to replace them soon to avoid blocking Path Imbalance clear.

. change RXP and RLT value. For TCH drop first cross check the BCCH of that cell.TCH drop occurring.TCH Drop:   Drop during conversation is known as TCH drop.neighbor defined. Find out there is any interference . hardware issue may be. It takes place after connect ACK msg on TCH.

Reasons for TCH Drop:         Wrong Parameter Planning. BAD HOSR. Due to Low Coverage. Due to ICM Band(CDMA) . Outage. Overshoot. Hardware Fault. High TR Fail.

Solutions for removal of TCH Drop: Check Parameter:    Check the BCCH Plan (C/I or C/A).. Check the Timer T 100(should be 20 ms) Check Overshooting:     If a cell is picking call from long distance. Co-BSIC & Co BCCH. Mount position should be check . Site Orientation. Check the sample log according to TA. Effective tilt should be check.

. Check the Neighbor Plan High TR Fail:  Check and clear TR fail from OSS end.Cont. . Improve HOSR:   Check the Hopping plan.

. Drops due to Low Signal Strength. then. . check the transmit path.Cont. Check receiver sensitivity. VSWR.  Mount position should be check.  If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink. check the receive path of this particular TRX. feeder connection and etc.  Effective tilt should be check.  Use MapInfo or Google Earth to find location of sites. Check cards. Bad Coverage:  If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink. feeder and etc.

 Path imbalance.  Connector Connection.Cont.  Check VSWR.  Check Slips.  Check the Hopping plan. Check HW:  Check Alarms on site.  Check TMA .  Check TRXs..

then check the slips on A-ter.  Down Time of the cell. then go for a check for that particular even attach with that site. .  TRX condition.. Drop Reason because of HW Issues:  if drops are only on one site.  BTS should not getting the temperature alarm continuously.  If drops are on all sites connected to a single link.  If Drops are distributed on all site of the BSC. then check the slip or interference on that Abis interface.Cont.

HOSR: Hand over success rate:  If HOSR will be good TCH drop will also be good.  If Handover success rate degrades call drop rate will take place. .

HW Issues.Reasons for HOSR:            Improper Neighbor planning. LAC boundary. CO-BCCH-BSIC issues in Neigh. DAC value mismatch. SL value. Parameter Check. HSN clash. Overshoot. Syn mismatch. Low Coverage .

Solutions for removal of HOSR: Arrange Drive Test:  The best way to find the real issues for HO fail make DT and check layer 3 msg gor HO fail.     . Avoid extra neighs.  If there are high fail delete and recreate neighs. Neighbor Tuning:  Try to retune neighbors Avoid CO-BCCH-BSIC neighbors. Delete long distance neighs.By DT it is very easy to find the fail between cells. Check neighs are defined form both ends.

IUR. IDR. .Cont. 4. 2. PMRG. Check SYN. 5. Check HSN. Retune LMRG. QMRG. 3. LUR. Parameter Check: Retune Rx level Acc min Neighbour.It can change bw 90.-95. Retune LDR..-105.  1.

In this case ping-pong HI takes place by which fail takes place.Cont. High fail takes place there will be Inter MSC cells. So it the inter distance is high its batter to del that kind of neigh. Define proper LAC in neigh cells. .. High fail takes place there will be Inter BSC cells. Overshoot:  When neighs are far away then chances of HO fail increases. LAC Boundary    Check LAC boundry.

Cont. HW Issues:     Clear HW issues.. . Check TRXs. Check BOIA Card. Check outages. Because if it is faulty incoming and outgoing HO will be fail.

if there is a lot of random access failures try to check hardware too. Software synchronization. IDB Setting and reloading.High RACH Failures:  Other reasons look for Random access statistics. filter check etc) . It includes thorough hardware audit including CF Reloading.