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Analysis of Spur and Helical

Gears
prepared by Wayne Book
based on Norton, Machine Design
and
Mischke and Shigley
Mechanical Engineering Design

The Gnashing of Teeth

Simple model for


loaded gears
Beam for bending
stress
Cylinders in
contact for surface
contact stress

Idealized Shape of a Tooth for Stress Analysis


Simple model: cantilever
beam with applied force W
Tooth thickness t
Length l
Face width F
Max stress at root (a)
Mc (Wt l )t / 2 6Wt l

3
I
( Ft / 12 ) Ft 2

l
t

Wt

Consider the Shape of a Tooth


Uncertainties include:

point of load application l


point of maximum stress
appropriate load component
beam thickness

Depends on pitch P, number of teeth N and


pressure angle
Conservative assumptions are made
Y = Lewis form factor

Introduce Lewis Shape Factor


Wr

x
t

Wt

6Wt l Wt P 12l
2
Ft
F 2 Pt 2
By similar triangles
t/2
l
t2

x
x
t/2
4l
Wt P Wt P

2
t P FY
F
6l
2 xP
Y
3

Rather than calculate Y(P,, N), create a table, e.g. 14-2


Lewis equation has been improved by AGMA

Velocity Effect
(Its Barth not Barf)
Purely empirical adjustment for non-zero velocity
Barths equation (1800s) has been modified to account for
current practice and accuracy
V is velocity in ft/sec at the pitch line
Kv= 1200/(1200+V) (Modified Barth)
Metric form Kv= 6.1/(6.1+V), V in m/sec
Compare to endurance strength (reversing) or use
Goodman diagram (one direction)
Apply notch sensitivity, Marin factors. the works

Wt P

K v FY

Surface Durability: Contact Stress


Analyzed as two cylinders of
1/ 2
Wt
1 1
length l in rolling contact

c C p
with specified force
CV F cos r1 r2
1/ 2
Cylinder radii r1 and r2 vary

with contact point

Depends on elastic material C p


1 2
2
1 G
properties and radii of
p

E p
E
cylinders
G

Translate into gear


Poisson's ratio
nomenclature as shown on E Young' s modulus
right

G, P subscriptsrefer togear and pinion


C v velocity factor

AGMA Approach
AGMA formula calculates stress for
Bending
Contact

Stress is compared to an allowable stress


(also called strength by Norton) based on
strength and conditions

Bending Stress gear

tooth
loading geometry
form
K K P K K K
Many terms are similar to
Wt I a d s m B
the Lewis equation
Kv F
J

Additional terms account Wt tangential load


for the application, load K I idler factor
sharing and size
K a applicatio n factor
K v velocity factor as in Lewis
Pd diametral pitch
F face width
K s size factor
K m load distribution factor
K B rim backup factor
J tooth geometry factor

J factor sample table


Tip loading
(low
precision)

Distributed
loading
(higher
precision)

Kv Velocity Factor (similar to Barth)


(also provided in equations 11.16 11.19)

Load Distribution Factor


Loads are less evenly
distributed for wide
face teeth
Keep F (face width)
8/pd < F < 16/pd
Nominally F = 12/pd

Application Factor
Created to account for known but
unquantified shock in load
Electric motors are smooth while single
cylinder engines have shock
Centrifugal pumps are smooth loads while
rock crushers have shock

Other Factors
Size, Rim Thickness, Idler
Size
Fatigue tests are done on small specimins and
indications are that size results in weaker parts
Very large teeth might warrant Ks=1.25 to 1.5
Material properties created directly for gears
account for this

Rim thickness
In large diameter gears, the centers are
connected to a rim by spokes.
KB reflects failures across the radius

Idler: use KI = 1.42

Allowable Bending Stress


Incorporate material strength St specific to gear
materials
St based on Brinell hardness of material
Environmental and application factors
KL = life factor
KT = temperature factor
KR = reliability factor

all

St K L

KT K R

Life Factor KL
(a specialized S-N curve)

BendingTemperature and Reliability


Factors
Strength data is based on 99%
reliability. Adjust up or down.
Temperatures up to 250 deg F
use KT = 1
Adjust for higher temperatures

460 TF
KT
620

AGMA Bending Fatigue Strengths


(uncorrected)

tooth
gear
condition &
loading geometry geometry
material
1/ 2
Wt Ca Cs CmC f
c CP

C
Fd
I
v

Contact Stress
Based on rolling
cylinder model
Added terms for size,
load distribution,
surface condition

C P elastic coefficient
Ca applicatio n factor
Cv velocity (dynamic)factor
Cs size factor
d pitch diameter
Cm load distribution factor
C f surfacecondition factor
I tooth geometry factor

Surface Geometry Factor I


I

cos

1
1

dp

p g
2

1 xp

rp cos 2
p rp
cos
pd
pd

g C sin p
pd diametrial pitch of pinion
rp pitch radius of pinion

pressureangle
p radius of curvaturefor pinion
g radius of curvaturefor gear
x p fraction addendum elongation
(0 for full depth teeth)

AGMA Elastic Coefficient


(also from basic material properties and (11.23))

Other Surface Stress Factors


Cf = 1 for standard manufacturing methods
Ca, Cm, Cv, Cs are equal to corresponding K
values from bending

Allowable Contact Stress


(Norton calls Strength)
Material strength SC is the basis, specific to
gear materials
Sc based on Brinell hardness of material or
on tables in Norton
S ' fc CLCH
S fc
Adjust for conditions

CT CR

CL = life factor
CH = hardness-ratio factor (pinion rel to gear)
CT = temperature factor
CR = reliability factor

Surface Fatigue Strengths

Surface Fatigue Life Factor

Hardness Ratio Factor


Only applied to the gear material (not pinion)
Accounts for work hardening of the gear during
run-in
Depends on previous hardening (through hardened
vs surface hardened)
Pinion surface hardened
C H 1 B(450 HBg )

Both through hardened


C H 1 A(mG 1)
mG gear ratio
HB p
HBg

1.2 then A 0

1.2

HB p

HB p

1.7 then A 0.00698

HBg

HBg

1.7 then A 0.00898

HB p
HBg

B 0.00075e

0.0112 Rq

B 0.00075e

0.052 Rq

(U .S .)

( S .I .)

Rq rms surfaceroughnessin microinch


0.00829

HB p , HBg Brinnel hardness of pinion, gear

Helical Gears Brief Overview


The treatment of tooth stresses for helical
gears is very similar to spur gears
Bending and Surface stresses must be
analyzed
AGMA formulas are analagous
Tables also consider helix angle in range
of 10 to 30 degrees
For this class, be able to perform force
analysis but we will not cover tooth stresses

Forces, Helical
(Equations 12.3 in Norton)
n normal pressureangle
t circular pressureangle (for involute)
helix angle
cos

tan n
tan t

W total force
Wt W cos n

cos transmitted force

Wa W cos n

sin axial force

Wr W sin n radial force

Bevel Gears

Treat force analysis of intersecting, straight


tooth, bevel gears
Equations (12.8 in Norton)

Forces, Bevel Gears


(Shigley, Fig 13-34)
Assume forces
concentrated at average
radius
Net force surface
Decompose into
transmitted, radial and
axial forces

pressure angle
pitch cone half - angle
Wt T / rave ; W Wt tan
Wr Wt tan cos
Wa Wt tan sin

Bending Strength from Hardness


(Fig 14-2 Shigley)

Contact Strength from Hardness


(Fig 14-3 Shigley)

"I've had a wonderful time, but this wasn't it."


- Groucho Marx (1895-1977)