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Analysis of Spur and Helical

Gears
prepared by Wayne Book
based on Norton, Machine Design
and
Mischke and Shigley
Mechanical Engineering Design

Simple model for

Beam for bending
stress
Cylinders in
contact for surface
contact stress

Idealized Shape of a Tooth for Stress Analysis

Simple model: cantilever
beam with applied force W
Tooth thickness t
Length l
Face width F
Max stress at root (a)
Mc (Wt l )t / 2 6Wt l

3
I
( Ft / 12 ) Ft 2

l
t

Wt

Consider the Shape of a Tooth

Uncertainties include:

point of maximum stress
beam thickness

Depends on pitch P, number of teeth N and

pressure angle
Y = Lewis form factor

Introduce Lewis Shape Factor

Wr

x
t

Wt

6Wt l Wt P 12l
2
Ft
F 2 Pt 2
By similar triangles
t/2
l
t2

x
x
t/2
4l
Wt P Wt P

2
t P FY
F
6l
2 xP
Y
3

Rather than calculate Y(P,, N), create a table, e.g. 14-2

Lewis equation has been improved by AGMA

Velocity Effect
(Its Barth not Barf)
Purely empirical adjustment for non-zero velocity
Barths equation (1800s) has been modified to account for
current practice and accuracy
V is velocity in ft/sec at the pitch line
Kv= 1200/(1200+V) (Modified Barth)
Metric form Kv= 6.1/(6.1+V), V in m/sec
Compare to endurance strength (reversing) or use
Goodman diagram (one direction)
Apply notch sensitivity, Marin factors. the works

Wt P

K v FY

Surface Durability: Contact Stress

Analyzed as two cylinders of
1/ 2
Wt
1 1
length l in rolling contact

c C p
with specified force
CV F cos r1 r2
1/ 2
Cylinder radii r1 and r2 vary

1 2
2
1 G
p

E p
E
cylinders
G

Translate into gear

Poisson's ratio
nomenclature as shown on E Young' s modulus
right

G, P subscriptsrefer togear and pinion

C v velocity factor

AGMA Approach
AGMA formula calculates stress for
Bending
Contact

Stress is compared to an allowable stress

(also called strength by Norton) based on
strength and conditions

Bending Stress gear

tooth
form
K K P K K K
Many terms are similar to
Wt I a d s m B
the Lewis equation
Kv F
J

for the application, load K I idler factor
sharing and size
K a applicatio n factor
K v velocity factor as in Lewis
Pd diametral pitch
F face width
K s size factor
K B rim backup factor
J tooth geometry factor

(low
precision)

Distributed
(higher
precision)

Kv Velocity Factor (similar to Barth)

(also provided in equations 11.16 11.19)

distributed for wide
face teeth
Keep F (face width)
8/pd < F < 16/pd
Nominally F = 12/pd

Application Factor
Created to account for known but
Electric motors are smooth while single
cylinder engines have shock
Centrifugal pumps are smooth loads while
rock crushers have shock

Other Factors
Size, Rim Thickness, Idler
Size
Fatigue tests are done on small specimins and
indications are that size results in weaker parts
Very large teeth might warrant Ks=1.25 to 1.5
Material properties created directly for gears
account for this

Rim thickness
In large diameter gears, the centers are
connected to a rim by spokes.
KB reflects failures across the radius

Allowable Bending Stress

Incorporate material strength St specific to gear
materials
St based on Brinell hardness of material
Environmental and application factors
KL = life factor
KT = temperature factor
KR = reliability factor

all

St K L

KT K R

Life Factor KL
(a specialized S-N curve)

BendingTemperature and Reliability

Factors
Strength data is based on 99%
Temperatures up to 250 deg F
use KT = 1

460 TF
KT
620

AGMA Bending Fatigue Strengths

(uncorrected)

tooth
gear
condition &
material
1/ 2
Wt Ca Cs CmC f
c CP

C
Fd
I
v

Contact Stress
Based on rolling
cylinder model
surface condition

C P elastic coefficient
Ca applicatio n factor
Cv velocity (dynamic)factor
Cs size factor
d pitch diameter
C f surfacecondition factor
I tooth geometry factor

Surface Geometry Factor I

I

cos

1
1

dp

p g
2

1 xp

rp cos 2
p rp
cos
pd
pd

g C sin p
pd diametrial pitch of pinion

pressureangle
(0 for full depth teeth)

AGMA Elastic Coefficient

(also from basic material properties and (11.23))

Other Surface Stress Factors

Cf = 1 for standard manufacturing methods
Ca, Cm, Cv, Cs are equal to corresponding K
values from bending

Allowable Contact Stress

(Norton calls Strength)
Material strength SC is the basis, specific to
gear materials
Sc based on Brinell hardness of material or
on tables in Norton
S ' fc CLCH
S fc

CT CR

CL = life factor
CH = hardness-ratio factor (pinion rel to gear)
CT = temperature factor
CR = reliability factor

Hardness Ratio Factor

Only applied to the gear material (not pinion)
Accounts for work hardening of the gear during
run-in
Depends on previous hardening (through hardened
vs surface hardened)
Pinion surface hardened
C H 1 B(450 HBg )

C H 1 A(mG 1)
mG gear ratio
HB p
HBg

1.2 then A 0

1.2

HB p

HB p

HBg

HBg

HB p
HBg

B 0.00075e

0.0112 Rq

B 0.00075e

0.052 Rq

(U .S .)

( S .I .)

0.00829

Helical Gears Brief Overview

The treatment of tooth stresses for helical
gears is very similar to spur gears
Bending and Surface stresses must be
analyzed
AGMA formulas are analagous
Tables also consider helix angle in range
of 10 to 30 degrees
For this class, be able to perform force
analysis but we will not cover tooth stresses

Forces, Helical
(Equations 12.3 in Norton)
n normal pressureangle
t circular pressureangle (for involute)
helix angle
cos

tan n
tan t

W total force
Wt W cos n

Wa W cos n

Bevel Gears

Treat force analysis of intersecting, straight

tooth, bevel gears
Equations (12.8 in Norton)

Forces, Bevel Gears

(Shigley, Fig 13-34)
Assume forces
concentrated at average
Net force surface
Decompose into
axial forces

pressure angle
pitch cone half - angle
Wt T / rave ; W Wt tan
Wr Wt tan cos
Wa Wt tan sin

Bending Strength from Hardness

(Fig 14-2 Shigley)

Contact Strength from Hardness

(Fig 14-3 Shigley)

"I've had a wonderful time, but this wasn't it."

- Groucho Marx (1895-1977)