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# A Seminar on

## “D.C MOTOR SPEED CONTROL BY

A FUZZY APPROACH”

## Under the Esteemed Guidance of

Presented By
INTRODUCTION:
DC motor converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy. DC motor is used in applications where wide
speed ranges are required. DC shunt motor exhibits a drooping
speed-torque characteristic. The speed of the DC motor is given by

V − Ia Ra  A  V Ia −Ra 
N= .  =
 k.
zϕ  P   ϕ 

## Hence, the speed can be controlled by varying,

Ø Flux/pole ( ). Field Control Method
Ø Voltage of armature circuit, by varying Ra, Armature Control
Method.
FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL SYSTEM:
A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is based on a set of control rules (fuzzy
rules) among linguistic variables.

Knowledge base

## Fuzzifier Decision making Defuzzifier

logic

Plant
THE COMPLETE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM:

Figure

## Error e Fuzzy Logic

Computer Controller
Ref Speed  de/dt

Vc
DC motor
Actual Speed

Where
Speed error (e)
The derivative of the speed error (de/dt)
Fig: Derivative of Speed error
Fig: Speed error
Fuzzy control rules

PL PS ZERO NS NL

PL PL NL NL

PS ZERO NS NL NL
PS

ZE PL PS ZERO NS NL
RO
PL PL PS ZERO NS

NS
PL PL PS

NL
PROPOSED FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER:

KNOWLEDGE
BASE

Fuzzifier Interference
Defuzzifier
Engine

Error Interpreter

Dc motor

## Fig : Block diagram of system with proposed FLC

The block diagram of the system with the proposed FLC is shown
in Figure. A new functional block called the Error Interpreter is added to
the basic system. The function of the block is to sense the error, identify
its ranges. And determine the location of the singletons. In this method,
the error and error rate are used to change the supporters in the motor
voltage singletons. The defuzzified output of controller is given by

## PLVC .PL + PSVC .PS + NSVC .NS + NLVC .NL

Vc =
PL + PS + NS + NL

Where PL, PS, NS. And NL is the inference membership values and
PLVC, PSVC, NSVC, and NLVC are the corresponding supports of change in
the motor voltage singletons
The steps in designing the controller are :
ØIdentify the variables (inputs, states and outputs) of the
plant.
ØPartition the universe of discourse or the internal spanned by
each variable into a number of fuzzy subsets, assigning each a
linguistic label.
ØAssign or determine a membership function for each fuzzy
subset.
ØAssign the fuzzy relationship between the inputs or states, fuzzy
subsets on the one hand and the outputs fuzzy subsets on the
other hand, thus forming the rule base.
ØChoose appropriate sealing factors for the input and output
variables in order to normalize the variables to the [0,1] or [-
1,1] interval.
ØFuzzification of the inputs to the controller.
ØUse fuzzy approximate reasoning to inference the output
contributed from each rule.
ØAggregate the fuzzy outputs recommended by each rule.
ØApply defuzzification to form a crisp output.

PARAMETERS:  Source type: DC
Amplitude: 220V.,Rated speed: 1500 rpm

Signal generator   Amplitude: 1; Frequency: 1
Gain=9.8
OUTPUT:
CONCLUSIONS:
The proposed fuzzy logic controller is
suitable for speed control of a DC motor. The personal computer
provides the necessary flexibility in setting any speed profile
with the use of fuzzy packages.
The proposed fuzzy controller gives better
response compared to the basic fuzzy controller. The step
response parameters can be closely controlled with the help of
simple operations within the controller.
h a n k U
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