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FUNDAMENTAL OF

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
EMT 113/4
CHAPTER 3:
AC MACHINES

Introduction
2 major classes:
a)
Asynchronous machines / induction machines :
Motors or generators whose field current is supplied by magnetic
induction (transformer action) into their field windings.

b)

Synchronous machines :
Motors or generators whose field current is supplied by a separate
dc power source.

Note:

1) Induction motor has the same physical stator as a synchronous


machine, with a different rotor construction.
2) The fields circuit of most synchronous and induction machines
are located on their rotors.

Motors = ac electrical energy mechanical energy


Generators = mechanical energy ac electrical energy

AC Machinery Fundamental
A SIMPLE LOOP IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELDS.

A rotating loop of wire within the magnetic field.


Magnetic field produced by a large stationary magnet produceconstant and uniform magnetic field, B.
Rotation of the loop induced a voltage in the wire.
V
eind

Current flows in the loop, a torque will be induced on the wire loop.

THE ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD


When two magnetic fields are present in a machine, a torque
will be created which will tend to line up the two magnetic
fields.
Magnetic field is produced by the stator and rotor of an ac
machine.
Then a torque will be induced in the rotor cause the rotor to
turn and align itself with the stator magnetic field.
The induced torque in the rotor would cause the rotor to
constantly chase the stator magnetic field around in circle
- the basic principle of all ac motor operation.

AC MACHINE POWER LOSSES


The efficiency of an AC machines is defined as:

Pout
X 100 %
Pin

Pin Ploss
X 100 %
Pin

Four types of losses in AC machines:


Electrical or copper losses (I2R losses)
Core losses
Mechanical losses
Stray load losses

VOLTAGE REGULATION AND SPEED REGULATION


VR is a measure of the ability of a generator to keep a
constant voltage at its terminals as load varies. It is defined
as follow:

VR

Vnl V fl
V fl

X 100%

SR is a measure of the ability of a motor to keep a constant


shaft speed as load varies.

SR

N nl N fl
N fl

X 100%

nl fl
SR
X 100%
fl

INDUCTION MOTORS

Induction Motors
Induction motors are the motor frequently encountered in industry.
It simple, rugged, low-priced and easy to maintain.
It run essentially constant speed from zero to full-load.
The speed is frequency-dependent and consequently these motors are
not easily adapted to speed control
Induction machines is called induction because the rotor voltage (which
produces the rotor current and the rotor magnetic field) is induced in the
rotor winding rather than physically connected by wires.

Induction Motor : Construction


A 3-phase induction motor has two main parts :
A stationary stator (stationary part of the machine)
Revolving rotor (rotating part of the machine)
The rotor is separated from the stator by a small air gap (the tolerances is
depending on the power of the motor).

Two types of rotor which can placed inside the stator:


a) Squirrel-cage induction motor (Cage rotor)

b) Wound rotor induction motor

a) Squirrel cage the conductors would look like one of the exercise wheels
that squirrel or hamsters run on.

Cage Induction Motor rotor consists of a series of conducting bars laid


into slot carved in the face of rotor and shorted at either end by large shorting
ring

Small cage rotor induction motor

Large cage rotor induction motor

b) Wound rotor have a brushes and slip ring at the end of rotor

Wound rotor has a complete set of three-phase winding that are mirror
images of the winding on the stator.
- The three phases of the rotor windings are usually Y-connected, the end of
the three rotor wires are tied to slip ring on the rotor shaft.
- Rotor windings are shorted through brushes riding on the slip rings.
Wound-rotor induction motors are more expansive than the cage induction
motors, they required much more maintenance because the wear associated
with their brushes and slip rings.

Induction Motor : Concepts


INDUCED TORQUE IN AN INDUCTION MOTOR
The three-phase of voltages has been applied to the stator, and three-phase set
of stator current is flowing . These currents produce a magnetic field BS , rotating
counterclockwise direction
The speed of the magnetic fields rotation in a cage rotor induction motor (Figure
7.6, Chapman) is given by

nsync
Where

120 f e
P

nsync = synchronous speed [r/min]


fe
= System frequency [Hz]
p
= number of poles

This equation shows that the synchronous speed increases with frequency and
decrease with the number of poles.

This rotating field BS passes over the rotor bars and induces a voltage in them

eind (v B) l
Where :

v = velocity of the bar relative to the magnetic field


B = magnetic flux density vector
l = length of conductor in the magnetic field

It is a relative motion of the rotor compared to the stator magnetic field


that produces induced voltage in a rotor bar. The rotor current flow
produces a rotor magnetic field, BR.
The induce torque in the machine is given by;

ind kBR BS

So, resulting torque is counterclockwise.

The voltage induced in a rotor bar depends on the speed of the rotor
relative to the magnetic fields

THE CONCEPT OF ROTOR SLIP


Slip speed is defined as the differences between synchronous speed and
rotor speed:

nslip nsync nm

The other term used to describe


the relative motion is slip, which
is relative speed expressed on a
per unit or a percentage basis.
The slip is defined as :

Where

s
s

nslip = slip speed of the machines


nsync = speed of the magnetic field
nm = mechanical shaft speed of motor

nslip
nsyns

100%

nsyns nm
nsyns

100%

The previous equation also can be expressed in term of angular velocity


(radians per second) as :

sync m
s
100%
sync
If the rotor turns at synchronous speed, s=0 ; if the rotor is stationary (locked or
stop) , s=1. All normal motor speeds fall somewhere between those limits.
As for mechanical speed

nm (1 s)nsync

m (1 s)sync
These equation are useful in the derivation of induction motor torque and power
relationship.

THE ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ON THE ROTOR.


The induction motor works by inducing voltages and current in the rotor of the

machine-called a rotating transformer.


Like a transformer; primary (stator) induced a voltage in the secondary
(rotor)
Unlike a transformer, the secondary frequency not necessarily the same as
primary.
If the rotor of a motor is locked so that it cannot move, the rotor will have the

same frequency as the stator.


If the rotor turns at synchronous speed, the frequency on the rotor will be zero.
For nm=0 r/min & the rotor frequency fr=fe slip, s = 1
nm=nsync & the rotor frequency fr=0 slip, s = 0
- For any speed in between, the rotor frequency is directly proportional to
the difference between the speed of the magnetic field nsync and the speed of
the rotor nm.
n n

sync

nsync

THE ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ON THE ROTOR


Since the slip of the rotor is defined as :

nsync nm

Then the rotor frequency can be expressed as :

nsync

f r sf e

Substituting between these two equation become :


But nsync = 120fe/P, so

P
f r (nsync nm )
fe
120 f e
Therefore,

P
fr
(nsync nm )
120

fr = frequency rotor; fe = frequency stator

fr

nsync nm
nsync

fe

Induction Motor : Equivalent Circuit


a) Transformer model
model of the transformer action-induction of voltages and
currents in the rotor circuit of an IM is essentially a
transformer operation.
as in transformer model certain resistance, self
inductance in
primary (stator) windings; magnetization
curve and etc.
b)Rotor circuit model
- The greater the relative motion between the rotor and the
stator magnetic fields, the greater the resulting rotor voltage
and frequency.
- Locked-rotor or blocked-rotor the largest relative motion
when the rotor is stationary.
c) Final Equivalent circuit
- Refer the rotor part of the model over the stator side.

A) TRANSFORMER MODEL

STATOR
Symbol Description
aeff

Effective turn ratio ratio of the


conductors per phase on the
stator to the conductors per phase
on the rotor

IDEAL TRANSFORMER

ROTOR

Xm

Resistance losses (correspond


to iron losses, windage and
friction losses)

E1

Primary internal stator voltage

ER

Secondary internal rotor


voltage

R1

Stator Resistance

X1

Stator Leakage Reactance

RR

Rotor Resistance

Rc

Magnetizing reactance

XR

Rotor Reactance

Induction motor operates on the induction of voltage and current in its


rotor circuit from the stator circuit (transformer action).

An induction motor is called a singly excited machine, since power is


supply to only the stator circuit.
The flux in the machine is related
to the integral of the applied voltage
E1.
The curve of magnetomotive force
versus flux (magnetization curve)
for this machine is compared to a
similar curve for a power
transformer.

B) ROTOR CIRCUIT MODEL


Suppose the motor run at a slip s, meaning that the rotor speed is ns (1-s),
where ns is the synchronous speed, then this modify the values of VOLTAGE
and CURRENT on the primary and secondary side.
The frequency of the induced voltage at any slip will be given
fr = sfe

Assuming ER0 is the magnitude of the induced rotor voltage at LOCKED


ROTOR condition the actual voltage induced because of slip (s) is,
ER = sER0
The resistor is not frequency sensitive, the value of RR remain the same.

The rotor inductance is frequency sensitive (X=L=2fL) then


XR = sXR0
Figure 6 shows the equivalent circuit when motor is running at a slip (s).

Equivalent circuit of a wound-rotor when it at locked or blocked condition


The frequency of the voltages and currents in the stator is f, but the
frequency of the voltages and currents in the rotor is sf.

jXR=jsXR0

Then, resulting rotor equivalent circuit as


below.
The rotor current flow can be found as
:

ER
IR
RR jX R

ER
IR
RR jsX R 0

ER = sER0

The rotor circuit model of


an induction motor

sE R 0
IR
RR jsX R 0
IR

ER 0
RR

jX R 0

ZReq

RR

Then the rotor equivalent circuit become:


jsXR0

IR

ER 0
RR

jX R 0

ER0

ZReq

The rotor circuit model with all


the frequency (slip) effects
concentrated in resistor RR

RR
s

C) FINAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT


Remember, in transformer, the voltages, currents and impedances on the
secondary side of the device can be referred to PRIMARY side by turn ratio of
the transformer :

VP V ' s aVs
IP I 'S

IS
a

Z 'S a 2 Z S
The same transformation can be used for the induction motors rotor circuit by
using effective turn ratio aeff

E1 E ' R aef fER 0


I2

IR
a eff

Z2 a

ef

RR
f ( jX R 0 )
s

The rotor circuit model that will be referred to the stator side as shown below

The per-phase equivalent circuit of an induction motor.

Input is 3 phase system of


voltages and currents.

Output is
mechanical.

The power flow diagram of an induction motor shows the relationship between
the input electric power and output mechanical power.

Induction Motor :Power & Torque

The per-phase equivalent circuit of an induction motor

Input current

I1

V
Z eq

Where

R2
Z eq R1 jX1 [(Rc jX m ) //( jX 2 )
s

Induction Motor :
Torque Speed Characteristics

1.

The induced torque of the motor is zero at synchronous speed.

2.

The torque speed curve is nearly linear between no-load and full-load. In
this range, the rotor resistance is much larger than the rotor reactance.
So, the rotor current increasing linearly.

3.

There is maximum possible torque that cannot be exceeded (called


pullout torque or breakdown torque) is 2-3 times the rated full-load torque.

4.

Starting torque on motor is slightly larger than full-load.

5.

The torque on the motor for a given slip varies as the square of the
applied voltage.

6.

If the rotor of the induction motor is driven faster than synchronous speed,
then the direction of the induced torque in the machine reverse and
become generator.

7.

If motor turning backward, relative to the direction of the magnetic field,


the induced torque will stop the machine very rapidly and will try to rotate
it in the other direction (called plugging).

Induction Motor : Speed Control

By pole changing
By line frequency control
By line voltage control
By changing the rotor resistance
Note: 1 h.p = 746 Watts

SYNCHRONOUS
MACHINE

Synchronous Machine : Introduction


Transformer energy transfer device.
(transfer energy from primary to secondary)
- form of energy remain unchanged. (Electrical)
(DC/AC) Machines electrical energy is converted to mechanical or vice versa.

Motor operation
The field induced voltage, E permits the motor to draw power from the line
to be converted into mechanical power. This time, the mechanical output
torque is also developing. The induced voltage is in opposition to the
current flow-called counter emf.

Generator operation
The field induced voltage, E is in the same direction as the current and is called
the generated voltage. The machine torque opposes the input mechanical
torque that is trying to drive the generator, and it is called the counter torque.

Generally, the magnetic field in a machine forms the energy link


between the electrical and mechanical systems.
The magnetic field performs two functions:
Magnetic attraction and repulsion produces mechanical torque
(motor operation)
The magnetic field by Faradays Law induces voltages in the coils
of wire. (generator operation)

Synchronous Machine : Construction


Have an outside stationary part, (stator)
The inner rotating part (rotor)
The rotor is centered within the stator.
Air gap - the space between the outside of
the rotor and the inside of the stator

Origin of name: syn = equal, chronos = time


Synchronous machines are called synchronous because their mechanical
shaft speed is directly related to the power systems line frequency.

STATOR
The stator of a synchronous
machine carries the armature or
load winding which is a threephase winding.
The armature winding is formed
by interconnecting various
conductors in slots spread over the
periphery of the machines stator.

When current flows in the winding,


each group produces a magnetic pole
having a polarity dependent on the current
direction, and a magnetomotive
force (mmf) proportional to the current
magnitude.

ROTOR

2 types of rotors
- cylindrical (or round) rotors
- salient pole rotors.
Salient pole rotor less expensive than round rotors
and rotate at lower speeds
The rotor carries the field winding. The
field current or the excitation current is
provided by an external dc source.
Synchronous machine rotors are simply
rotating electromagnets built to have as
many poles as are produced by the stator
windings.
Dc currents flowing in the field coils
surrounding each pole magnetize the rotor
poles. The magnetic field produced by the
rotor poles locks in with a rotating stator
field, so that the shaft and the stator field
rotate in synchronism.

Synchronous GENERATOR
1. GENERATOR
The rate of rotation of the magnetic fields in the machine is related to
the stator electrical frequency, given as:

nm P
fe
120

f e electrical frequency, in Hz
nm mechanical speedofmagnetic field, in r / min
P number of poles

The internal generated voltage of a synchronous generator is given as,

E A K
This equation shows the magnitude of the voltage induced in a given stator
phase.

The per phase equivalent circuit

Voltage Regulation:
If the generator operates at a terminal voltage VT while supplying a load
corresponding to an armature current Ia, then;

In an actual synchronous machine, the reactance is much greater than the


armature resistance, in which case;

Among the steady-state characteristics of a synchronous generator, its

voltage regulation and power-angle characteristics are the most important


ones. As for transformers, the voltage regulation of a synchronous generator
is defined at a given load as;

Phasor Diagram:
The phasor diagram is to shows the relationship among the
voltages within a phase (E,V, jXSIA and RAIA) and the current IA in
the phase.

Lagging P.F

Leading P.F.

Power and Torque:


In generators, not all the mechanical power going into a synchronous
generator becomes electric power out of the machine
The power losses in generator are represented by difference between output
power and input power shown in power flow diagram below.
Pconv

Losses:
Rotor
- resistance; iron parts moving in a magnetic field causing currents to
be generated in the rotor body
- resistance of connections to the rotor (slip rings)
Stator
- resistance; magnetic losses (e.g., hysteresis)
Mechanical
- friction at bearings, friction at slip rings
Stray load losses
- due to non-uniform current distribution

The input mechanical power is the shaft power in the generator given by equation:

Pin appm
The power converted from mechanical to electrical form internally is given by

The real electric output power of the synchronous generator can be expressed
in line and phase quantities as

and reactive output power

In real synchronous machines of any size, the armature resistance


RA is more than 10 times smaller than the synchronous reactance
XS (Xs >> RA). Therefore, RA can be ignored

Synchronous MOTOR

POWER AND TORQUE

Example
Example 3.3 : Synchronous Generator.
A three-phase, wye-connected 2500 kVA and 6.6 kV generator operates at fullload. The per-phase armature resistance Ra and the synchronous reactance, Xd,
are (0.07+j10.4). Calculate the percent voltage regulation at :
(a) 0.8 power-factor lagging
(b) 0.8 power-factor leading.

END OF CHAPTER 3