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Sampling, Production, Buyer,
Costing, Techpack, etc

Production, Sourcing, etc

Focuses on reduction in variation

DMAIC principle can be used in merchandizing
Major variation/errors occurs in T & A calendar dates and sampling
Six Sigma can be applied to reduce two major variations happening
Cut to ship ratio
Sample hit rate

Suppose a factory received an export order of

10000 pieces of basic white polo T-shirts.
Factory cuts 2% extra shirts as buffer and
finally they have shipped exactly 10,000
pieces to your buyer.

Implication: cost incurred in 200 extra pieces

that would return minimum to no value
Considering this scenario if manufacturing cost
of 1 garment is Rs 40, money lost in producing
extra pieces style is 40 x 200 = Rs 8000 and if
yearly a company handles 500 orders so
money lost = 500 x 8000 = Rs 40,00,000 ,

Of the 200 extra pieces, some might:

Get lost/misplaced/stolen
Have defects so critical they make the product useless
Holes in the A-zone of the garment
Missed yarn
Excessive shrinkage

Have subtle defects that allow sale from factory outlets

Quantify the number of unaccounted pieces by checking the tickets

Quantify the number of defects
In fabric:
Missed yarn in the fabric
Holes in the fabric

In spreading & cutting:

Fabric not given enough time to relax

High tension in plies while laying
Misaligned patterns that result in spirality
Change in armhole shape and circumference due to improper cutting

In manufacturing
Oil stains
Puckering at sleeve cap

Collect details of missing ticket numbers (floor, line, supervisor)

Collect and study the data from the spreading & cutting inspectors
and end line inspectors
Sort and prioritize the different nature of defects and their frequency
Trace the source of the problem
Fabric defects:
Check if fabric defects are present in a few rolls or many so as to mark
the batch number for caution
Check track record of the fabric supplier
Fabric defects can be identified by 100% inspection

Spreading & cutting:

Standardize the relaxation time for fabric
Perform periodic checks and maintenance on the spreading equipment for
variations in tension
Inspect the marker for alignment before laying
Deploy simple tools like guidelines or yarns perpendicular to the length of
the table so as to prevent misalignment
Periodic maintenance of cutting equipment
Stringent checking of cut panels for critical dimensions and shapes like the

Periodic maintenance of machines
Stringent checks for adherence to norms (wearing gloves)
Strict inline inspection

Security check of workers at exit
Prevent pile up of pieces at the end line inspection table
Create a checklist of the pieces being forwarded from sewing to
washing, finishing, packaging so that each piece is accounted for


Prudent vendor selection

Check track record
Analyze its customers
100% inspection

Standardize all the improvement practices and

make them formal practices
Follow strong enforcement so that those
practices dont just stay as norms, they become a
When in the deployment stage, equip each
improvement practice with a control chart to help
study the statistics in real-time
Create check list and assign personnel for the

Kaizen used with Six Sigma and other tools like 5s, Poka Yoke for
process improvement and waste elimination.
In an administrative/service process, it is usually more challenging to
see the physical flow, which makes it more problematic to improve

Uniform file format and data integrity across all departments:

E.g. Inspection checklist etc

Strict definition of processes :

Using check lists, to prevent reoccurring mistakes made in samples like fit or
proto samples

Reduction/Elimination of paper usage:

Prevent clutter of files by going electronic,
Organized collection of Email and electronic files, done according to files
Use E prototyping methods, in which the fit and other samples are checked
virtually on body, thus reducing sampling errors

Task and assignment ID:

Continuous Improvement to eliminate rework on fit sample

For Specific categories of garments and for different samples a
check list can be developed to ensure that the fit sample is approved
at one go, so a checklist that address all issues must be made
For eg :
All the critical area of the garment like in shorts , waist, hip, side
seam the fit should without any unevenness
Full adherences to be paid to the tolerances
If the sampling team consider some aspect that would require
deviation from standard given by buyer to ensure proper fit
should be conveyed to the merchandiser immediately before
product , like increase of allowance by to provide better fit