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Lubrication

Lubrication of diesel engine has two purpose:

1. to lubricate
2. to remove heat
The lubricating oil is taken from a drain
tank usually underneath the engine
by a screw or gear pump. It is
cooled, filtered and supplied to the
engine by an inlet oil pipe rail at a
pressure of approx. 4 bar.

Lubrication of a trunk type engine


The luboil is supplied to the main bearings
of the crankshaft through drillings in the
frame of the engine. Through drilled
passages of the crankshaft, the luboil
flows to the crankpins and bottom end
bearings. The luboil is then led through
drilled passage of connecting rod to piston
gudgeon pins and top end bearings. From
top end bearing the luboil is led to
underneath of piston crown for cooling and
then it drops back into the crankcase.

Lubrication of a trunk type engine

The cylinder liner and piston rings must


also be lubricated. This luboil is supplied
by splash from luboil leaving rotating
bottom end bearing after lubricating the
bottom end bearings. Oil scraper rings
scrape most of the splashed oil, but some
oil which escapes the scraping action is
spread up and down the surface of the
liner by the piston rings.

Some large trunk type engines also have


cylinder oil being supplied to the liner
under pressure by separate pumps. The
oil is led to the liner through drillings,
where grooves distribute it
circumferentially. The piston rings spread
it up and down the surface of the liner.

Cylinder Luboil functions


1. Lubricate piston rings and liner to
minimize wear of both
2. Provide a film of oil between piston ring
and liner to seal gases of combustion
space from crankcase
3. To neutralize acidic products of
combustion so that corrosion of liners
and bearings may be prevented

Luboil is also supplied to the rocker gear


which operates the inlet and exhaust
valves and the cams and camshaft
bearings. Some times this part of
lubrication is kept separate from
lubrication mentioned above to minimize
contamination of leaky fuel getting into the
main crankcase luboil.

A pre luboil pump is sometimes fitted, especially


to engines where the main luboil pump is engine
driven.. This pump is electrically driven and
circulates the luboil around the engine prior to
starting.

Lubrication of a crosshead type engine


Luboil is supplied to main bearings, camshaft and
camshaft bearings. A separate supply is led via a
swinging arm or a telescopic pipe to the crosshead,
where some of it is diverted to cool the piston (traveling
up and back through the piston rod) and whilst some is
used to lubricate the crosshead bearing and guides and
the rest is led to the bottom end bearing or crankpin
bearing via a drilling in the connecting rod. Lub oil may
also be used to operate the hydraulic exhaust valves. On
some engines the luboil led to the crosshead is boosted
to 16 bars by another pump in series. This luboil is also
used to operate the hydraulic reversing gear.

The cylinder liners of crosshead type of


engines are lubricated by a separate set of
injection pumps, which use a different
specification of oil. The oil is led to the
liner through drillings, where grooves
distribute it circumferentially. The piston
rings spread it up and down the surface of
the liner. This luboil has same functions as
stated above for separate cylinder
lubrication of trunk type engines.

Timed cylinder lubrication


Cylinder lubrication should be injected in carefully
metered amounts. The injection points should be spaced
around the periphery in such a way as to ensure
adequate coverage when the piston passes the feed
points. The best timing for injection is suggested as
being between the first and second rings. The difficulties
in achieving this are great, but injecting at TDC and to a
lesser extent BDC assists
Lubrication is of the total loss system i.e. the oil is
expected to be completely combusted without residue.
The oil is injected through quills which pass through the
liner wall.

Consequences of under and over lubricating


Over lubrication will lead to excessive deposit build up
generally in the form of carbon deposits. This can lead to
sticking of rings causing blowpast and loss of
performance, build up in the underpiston spaces leading
to scavenge fires, blockage and loss of performance of
Turboblowers as well as other plant further up the flue
such as waste heat recovery unit and power turbines.
Under lubrication can lead to metal to metal contact
between liners causing microseizure or scuffing.
Excessive liner and piston wear as well as a form of
wear not only associated with under lubrication but also
with inadequate lubrication called cloverleafing

Cylinder Luboil Pump

The fine adjustment operates in such a way that


by screwing it in the stroke of each pump may
be accurately metered. Additionally it may be
pushed into give a stroke enabling each p/p to
be tested. The eccentric stroke adjuster acts as
a coarse adjustment for all the pumps in the
block. Additionally it may be rotated to operate
all the pumps, as is the case when the engine is
pre-lubricated before starting. Correct operation
of the injection pumps whilst the engine is
running can be carried out by observing the
movement of the ball

Electronic cylinder lubrication


Exact injection timing of cylinder lube oil is essential for efficiency. A
move to electronics for the control of this has been made by some
large slow speed engine manufacturers.
The system is based on an injector which injects a specific volume
of oil into each cylinder on each ( though more normally alternate)
revolution of the engine. Oil is supplied to the injector via a pump or
pumps. A computer, which is synchronised to the engine at TDC
each revolution, finitely controls the timing . Generally most efficient
period for lubrication is taken at the point when the top rings are
adjacent to the injection points.
The injection period is governed by the opening of a return or 'dump'
solenoid which relieves system pressure.
Quantity can be adjusted by manually limiting the stroke of the main
lubricator piston, by altering the injection period or by the use of
multiple mini-injections per revolution.
The high degree of accuracy with this system allows for lower oil
consumption rates.

Shown is the injector unit fitted to modern camshaft less


slow speed engines. The motive force is via a dedicated
or common hydraulic system. The hydraulic piston acts
on multiple plungers one for each quill. At the dedicated
time the electric solenoid valve energises and allows
hydraulic oil to act on the piston commencing oil
injection. One or two pumps per unit may be fitted
dependent on cylinder diameter and oil flow
requirements.
Precise control of the timing of injection allows oil to be
delivered into the ring pack, something which has proved
impossible with mechanical means. This has reduced oil
consumption by as much as 50%. Pre- lubrication for
starting may be built into the bridge remote control
system or carried out manually.

Cylinder lubricator quill