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STRUCTURES

OUTLINE

INTRODUCTION

•  The effects of water table must be considered for the design loading conditions.

DESIGN METHODS

•  The recommendations for strength design suggest inflated load factors to control service load crack widths in the range of 0.004 – 0.008 in.

• Design Methods

•  The current approach for RC design include computations done by a modified form of elastic analysis for composite reinforced steel/concrete systems.

•  The computed stresses serve as the indices of performance of the structure.

DESIGN METHODS
•  The load combinations to determine the required strength (U) are given in ACI 318. ACI 350 requires two modifications

concrete.

WALL THICKNESS

•  The concrete wall thickness will be calculated as follows:

• WALL THICKNESS

Effects of shrinkage

•  The difference in length between Fig. 2(b) and 2(c) is xC, an unknown quantity.

WALL THICKNESS

•  The total concrete tension stress = [CE sA s+ T]/[A c+nA s]

• WALL THICKNESS

•  This formula can be used to estimate the wall thickness

•  Therefore, wall thickness t=0.0003 T

WALL THICKNESS
•  The allowable steel stress f sshould not be made too small. Low f swill actually tend to increase the concrete stress and potential cracking.

•  Desirable to use a higher allowable steel stress.

REINFORCEMENT
•  The amount size and spacing of reinforcement has a great effect on the extent of cracking.

•  The amount of temperature and shrinkage reinforcement is dependent on the length between construction joints

REINFORCEMENT

•  In circular tanks the locations of horizontal splices should be staggered by not less than one lap length or 3 ft.

•  The length depends on the class of splice, clear cover, clear distance between adjacent bars, and the size of the bar, concrete used, bar coating etc.

CRACK CONTROL

•  A criterion for flexural crack width is provided in ACI 318. This is based on the Gergely-Lutz equation z=f s(d cA) 1/3

•  A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement having the same centroid as the reinforcement, divided by the number of bars.

CRACK CONTROL

•  For severe environmental exposures, z = 95 k/in.

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS TANKS

•  Wall with moment applied at base

CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

•  For the tank structure, assume

•  Yield strength of reinforcement = f y= 60,000 psi

CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

•  Each of these tables, presents the results as functions of H 2/Dt, which is a parameter.

•  Therefore, H 2/Dt = (20 2)/(54 x 10/12) = 8.89 (approx. 9 in.)

Table A-5 showing the ring tension values

Table A-7, A-12 showing the moment and shear

CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

•  The value of w uHR corresponds to the behavior where the base is free to slide. Since, it cannot do that, the value of w uHR must be multiplied by coefficients from Table A-5

• CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

A plus sign indicates tension, so there is a slight compression at the top, but it is very small.

•  Figure compares the ring tension for tanks with free sliding base, fixed base, and hinged base.

CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

•  Concrete cracking check

•  Therefore, adequate

• CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

• both the hinged and fix conditions

CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

•  The required reinforcement for the outside face of the wall for a maximum moment of 5,524 ft-lb/ft. is:

•  Required A s= w bdf’ c/f y= 0.167 in 2

• CIRCULAR TANK ANALYSIS

•  The applied shear is given by multiplying w uH 2with the coefficient from Table A-12

•  Applied shear = V u= 0.092 x w uH 2= 3912 kips < fV c

• RECTANGULAR TANK DESIGN

•  The behavior of rectangular tanks is different from the behavior of circular tanks

•  The ring tension in circular tanks was uniform around the circumference

RECTANGULAR TANK DESIGN
•  The design of rectangular tanks is very similar in concept to the design of circular tanks

•  The loading conditions that must be considered for the design are similar to those for circular tanks.

RECTANGULAR TANK DESIGN

•  Buoyancy Forces must be considered in the design process

•  The lifting force of the water pressure is resisted by the weight of the tank and the weight of soil on top of the slab

• RECTANGULAR TANK BEHAVIOR

y
z

the steel in the y (vertical direction).

y
x
RECTANGULAR TANK BEHAVIOR

•  The shear in one wall becomes axial tension in the adjacent wall. Follow force equilibrium - explain in class.

• RECTANGULAR TANK BEHAVIOR