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Theodore Jesudas E Dandin

5WI11LVZ23

Under the Guidance of


Mr. K.V.Ramana Reddy
Assistant Professor,
UTL Technologies, VTU-Extension Center
Bangalore

Agenda
Abstract
Literature survey
Watermarking

Discrete Wavelet Transform


System Generator Architecture
Block Diagram
Results
Conclusion & Future Scope
References

Abstract
These days, people are using social networking sites for

sharing their life moments as images; on another side other


users can access or even download those digital images.
Faker can exploit by editing and modifying the original image.
This project work introduces a prototype for Digital Image

Authentication System (DIAS). This system can perform


invisible watermarking on image.
The complete system consists of two functions, one for hiding

information inside image, and the other for detecting


information from image.

To deal with the problem of trustworthiness of data,

authentication techniques are being developed to verify


the information integrity, the alleged source of data, and
the reality of data.
Cryptography

and steganography have been used


throughout history as means to add secrecy to
communication during times of war and peace.

Cryptography
The focus in cryptography is to protect the content of the
message and to keep it secure from unintended audiences.
Main task is to ensure users are able to communicate
securely over an insecure channel.

Steganography
Its the art and science of hiding information in ways that
prevent the detection of hidden messages.
Watermarking
Watermarking is the process of embedding a message on a
host signal which can be any form of multimedia

Image
Audio
Video
Text

Scope of the Project


Digital contents/ documents can be easily altered leaving no

trace of modification, attention is paid in increasing the


security as well as measures to improve the methods used for
authentication.
Cryptographic algorithms encrypt the data to secure the

information but authentication to the required level is not


possible.
Digital watermarking proves to be the frontrunner in the area of

authentication and copyrights management fields.

Literature Survey
Anand Bora et.al proposed a competitive analysis of Digital

image watermarking techniques. This paper surveys the


features and concepts pertaining to the two popular
watermarking algorithm types and analyses them.
Spatial Based techniques
Transform Based Techniques

They conclude saying transform domain are better candidates than

spatial domain for watermarking.


Mustafa Osman Ali, Elamir Abu Abaida Ali Osman et.al.. Proposed

an algorithm which works on spatial domain and uses secret key to


embed and extract watermark.

Pravin M.Pithiya, H.L. Desai, presented a new method to embed a

watermark into an image based on DCT ( Discrete Cosing


Transform). They explain digital image watermarking by analyzing
various parameters such as PSNR, SNR and MSE.
Reena Anju and Vandana propose an algorithm for digital

watermarking based on DCT and 3-level DWT. PSNR, normalized


correlation and computational time has been taken as performance
evaluation parameters.
Akhil Pratap Singh et. al.. Proposed a paper on Wavelet Based

Watermarking on Digital Image. Here the author uses 2D wavelet


decomposition for gray scale images. Alpha blending technique is
used for watermark insertion.

Watermarking
Watermarking is a branch of information hiding which is

used to hide proprietary information in digital media.


A watermarking system is usually divided into three

distinct steps
Embedding
Attack

Detection

Watermark Embedding Process


Watermark

Original Image

Embedding
Procedure

Watermarked
Image

Watermark Extraction Process


Watermarked
Image

Extraction
Procedure

Watermark

Original Image

Example for Visible Watermarking

Example of Invisible Watermarking

Discrete Wavelet Transform


Wavelets are mathematical functions that cup up data into

different frequency components and then study each


component.
The

wavelet transform provides


representation of the signal.

a time-frequency

Haar
A Haar wavelet is the simplest type of wavelet. They are

related to
Transform.

mathematical

operation

called

Haar

Haar Transform decomposes a discrete signal into two

subsignals of half its length.


One subsignal is a running average, the other subsignal is a

running difference.

Step 1:
A

A+B C+D

A-B

C-D

Step 2:
A

A+B

LL
A-B

LH

C+D

HL
C-D
HH

LL1

HL1

LH1

HH1

First level

LL2

HL2

LH2 HH2
LH1

HL1
HH1

Second level

Original
Image

LL

HL

LH

HH

Applications
Wavelet Transforms are applied in different fields ranging

from signal processing to biometrics.


One of the prominent applications is in the FBI fingerprint
compression standard. Wavelet Transforms are used to
compress the fingerprint pictures for storage in their data.
The wavelet transforms enables high compression ratios
with good quality of reconstruction.

System Generator Design Flow


System Generator is part of the ISE Design Suite and

provides Xilinx DSP block set such as adders, multipliers,


registers, filters and memories for application specific
design.
Designs are captured in the DSP friendly Simulink

modeling environment using a Xilinx specific Block set.


All of the downstream FPGA implementation steps

including synthesis and place and route are automatically


performed to generate an FPGA programming file.

On compilation the net list is generated and a draft for the

model and programming file in Verilog HDL is created


which can be accessed using Xilinx ISE.
The module is checked for behavioral syntax check,

synthesized and implemented on FPGA.


The Xilinx System Generator itself has the feature of

generating User constraints file (UCF).

Block Diagram
Original Image
Communication Channel
Watermark
Embedding
Algorithm

Watermark
Retrieval
Algorithm

Watermark Image

Watermarked Image
Extracted Watermark

Specifications
Inputs
Original Image of size 256 256
Watermark Image of size 256 256
Algorithms
Watermark Embedding and retrieval Algorithms.

Output
Watermarked Image
Extracted Watermark

Watermark Embedding Block


Cover Image

2-Level DWT

Watermark
Image

2-Level DWT

Alpha Blending
Technique

Inverse 2-Level
DWT

Watermarked
Image

WMI = k*(LL1) + q * (WM1) (1)

Where:
LL1

= low frequency approximation of the original


image
WM1 = Watermark Image
k,q = scaling factors for the original and
watermark image

Watermark Extraction
Watermarked
Image

2-Level
DWT

Extract
watermark

RW = (WMI k * LL2)

Watermark
Image

... (2)

Where
RW = Recovered Watermark
LL2 = low frequency approximation of the original image
WMI = Watermarked Image

Simulink Model

Hardware Model
1

2
3

Results
Test Case 1:
Sl.

No

Original

Watermark

PSNR for recovered


watermark

0.1

11.77

0.5

9.01

0.01

11.96

0.05

11.91

0.0001

11.97

0.0035

12.22

Best
Result

Watermarked

Extracted
Watermark

0.007

12.21

0.085

12.05

0.78

6.745

10

5.157

MSE vs Scaling Factor


10000
9000
8000
7000

MSE

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0.1

0.5

0.01

0.05

0.0001

0.0035

k( scaling factor )

0.007

0.085

0.78

PSNR vs Scaling Factor


14

12

10

PSNR

0
0.1

0.5

0.01

0.005

0.0001 0.0035

k (scaling factor)

0.007

0.085

0.78

Test Case 2:
Sl.N

Original

Watermark

PSNR for recovered


watermark

0.1

9.083

0.5

6.648

0.01

9.564

0.05

9.357

0.00

9.613

01
6

0.00

9.596

35
7

0.00

9.579

7
8

Watermarked

Extracted
Watermark

0.08

9.167

5
9

0.78

5.008

10

3.835

Best Result

MSE vs Scaling Factor


8.00E+03

7.00E+03

MSE

6.00E+03

5.00E+03

4.00E+03

3.00E+03

2.00E+03

1.00E+03

0.00E+00
0.1

0.5

0.01

0.05

0.0001

k ( scaling factor )

0.0035

0.007

0.085

0.78

PSNR vs Scaling Factor


12

10

PSNR

0
0.1

0.5

0.01

0.005

0.0001

0.0035

k (scaling factor)

0.007

0.085

0.78

Conclusion
The results obtained, ensure that the data which has been

received, was been sent by a valid source without any


modification in the contents by a faker in between.
Thus authenticating the received information through

watermarking is achieved.

Future Scope
In

the presented work, watermarking has been


implemented using DWT and LL2 sub-band of the
original image has been chosen to insert the watermark
and reconstruct it back.
The watermark and original image information are
actually prominent in LL2 sub-band and other sub-band
carries minimal information.
Sending only the information of the LL2 sub-band data
securely can be considered as the amount of data sent is
less and saves memory on the contrary.

References
[1] F. Petitcolas, R. Anderson and M. Kuhn, Attacks on Copyright
Marking Systems in Information Hiding, LNCS, Berlin, vol.
1524, pp. 218-238,1998.
[2] Gurupreet kaur, Kamaljeet kaur,Image watermarking using LSB,
IJARCSSE, volume 3, Issue 4,pp858-861, April 25, 2013.
[3] Pravin M.Pithiya, H.L. Desai,DCT based Digital Image
Watermarking, De-watermarking & Authentication, IJLTET, vol.2,
Issue 3,pp. 213-219, May 2013.
[4] Akhil Pratap Singh et. al.., Wavelet Based Watermarking on
Digital Image, Indian Journal of Computer Science and
Engineering Vol 1 No 2, 86-91.

[5] Mustafa Osman Ali, Elamir Abu Abaida Ali Osman et. al..
Invisible Digital Image Watermarking in spatial domain with
random localization, International Journal of Engineering and
Innovative Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, November 2012.
[6] R.S. Alomari, A AI-Jaber, "A Fragile watermarking algorithm for
content authentication" in IEEE Trans. JCIS, vol. 2, No. 1, April,
2004.
[7] X. Zhang, S. Wang, "Fragile watermarking with error-free
restoration capability," in IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, vol. 10,
no. 8, December, 2008.
[8] Chih-Yang Lin and Yu-Tai Ching, A Robust Image hiding
method using wavelet technique, Journal of information
science and engineering vol 22, 163-174 (2006)

[9] Cox, I. J., Kilian, J., Leighton, F. T., Shamoon, T.,Secure Spread
Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia", IEEE Trans.On Image
Processing, No. 6, Vol. 12,pp 1673-1687, 1997.
[10] Ibrahim Nasir, Ying Weng, Jianmin Jiang, A new robust
watermarking scheme for color images in spatial domain,

[11] Henri Bruno Razafindradina and Attoumani Mohamed Karim,


Blind and Robust Images watermarking based on wavelet and edge
insertion, International journal on cryptography and information
security, vol 3, No 3, September 2013.
[12] William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, principles
and practices,Pearson Education.

13] Raghuveer M. Rao and Ajith S. Bapardikar, Wavelet TransformIntroduction to theory and applications. Pearson Education 2000.

[14]Neeraj Bhargava, M.M Sharma, Abhimanyu Singh Garhwal and


Manish Mathuria, Digital Image Authentication system Based on
Digital Watermarking, International conference on Radar,
Communication and Computing, pp 185-189, December 2012.
[15]Sasmita Mishra, Amitav Mahapatra, Pranati Mishra, A Survey on
Digital Watermarking Techniques, International Journal of
Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 4 (3) 2013,
451-456.

DWT Sub-Block

Embedding Sub-Block

IDWT Sub-Block

Watermark Extraction Sub block

PSNR

The PSNR block computes the peak signal-to-noise ratio, in

decibels, between two images. This ratio is often used as a


quality measurement between the original and a compressed
image. The higher the PSNR, the better the quality of the
compressed or reconstructed image.

Frame Serial

Frame Deserial

DWT vs. DCT


No need to divide the input coding into non-overlapping

2-D blocks, it has higher compression ratios avoid


blocking artifacts.
Allows good localization both in time and spatial
frequency domain.
Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent
scaling
Better identification of which data is relevant to human
perception higher compression ratio.

Modifications done here is easily visible

Considered best
Region for
Modification

Leads to local
Distortion along
edges

Spartan 6 FPGA
Optimized for high

performance logic.
2.1 Mbits/sec of fast
block RAM.
6 Phase-locked loop
58 DSP slices
500 MHz+ clock speeds

Key Features:
Xilinx Spartan-6 LX45 FPGA, 324-pin BGA package.
128 MByte DDR2 16 bit wide data.
10/100/1000 Ethernet PHY.
On board USB2 ports for programming and data transfer.
USB-UART and USB-HID port (for mouse/keyboard).
Two HDMI video input ports and two HDMI output ports.
AC-97 codec with line-in, line-out, mic and headphone.
Real time power monitors on all power rails.
16 Mbyte x 4 SPI flash for configuration and data storage.
100 MHz CMOS oscillator.
48 I/O are routed to expansion connectors.
GPIO includes 8 LEDs, 6 buttons and 8 slide switches.
Shifts with a 20W power supply and USB cable.