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By Nikhil Yadav

What is Hardware ?
Hardware is physical , external and tangeable parts of the

It enables computers to produce and show computer
It gives easy access to commands.
Example Desktop , Monitor , Mouse , Printer and

Main Hardware Components of a computer

Input Device - used by the user to put data into the

Processor manipulates the data that input device gives it.
Internal memory holds data and programs while the
computer is on.
Backing storage stores data and programs while the
computer is off.
Output device reports results to the user or causes
something to happen.

Types of Computers

Mainframe Computers
Mainframe computers are computers used primarily by corporate

and governmental organizations for critical applications, bulk data

processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics,
enterprise resource planning, and transaction processing. The term
originally referred to the large cabinets that housed the central
processing unit and main memory of early computers. Later, the
term was used to distinguish high-end commercial machines from
less powerful transaction processing units. The term originally
referred to the large cabinets that housed the central processing
unit and main memory of early computers. Later, the term was
used to distinguish high-end commercial machines from less
powerful units.

Personal Computers
A Personal Computer (Pc) is a general-purpose computer,

whose size, capabilities, and original sale price makes it useful

for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly
by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. This
contrasted with the batch processing or time-sharing models
which allowed larger, more expensive minicomputer and
mainframe system to be used by many people, usually at the
same time. Large data processing systems requires a full-time
staff to operate efficiently.

Embedded Computer
An embedded computer is a system with a computer

dedicated to perform a computing function within a larger

mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time
computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete
device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By
contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal
computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide
range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many
devices in common use today.
Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either
microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP).

Mainframe Computer

Personal Computer

Embedded Computer

Embedded Chip

Input Devices
In computing, an Input Device is any peripheral used to provide

data and control signals to an information processing system such

as a computer or other information appliance. Examples of input
devices include keyboards, mice, scanners, digital cameras and
Many input devices can be classified according to:
Modality of input (e.g. mechanical motion, audio, visual, etc.)
The input is discrete (e.g. key presses) or continuous (e.g. a
mouse's position, though digitized into a discrete quantity, is fast
enough to be considered continuous)
The number of degrees of freedom involved (e.g. two-dimensional
traditional mice, or three-dimensional navigators designed for
CAD applications)

A 'keyboard' is a human interface device which is represented as a

layout of buttons. Each button, or key, can be used to either input

a linguistic character to a computer, or to call upon a particular
function of the computer. Traditional keyboards use spring-based
buttons, though newer variations employ virtual keys, or even
projected keyboards.
Examples of types of keyboards include:
Computer keyboard
Chorded keyboard

Pointing Devices
Keyboard devices are the most commonly used input devices

today. A Pointing Device is any human interface device that

allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. In the case
of mice and touch screens, this is usually achieved by
detecting movement across a physical surface. Analog
devices, such as 3d mice, joysticks, or pointing sticks,
function by reporting their angle of deflection. Movements
of the pointing device are echoed on the screen by
movements of the pointer, creating a simple, intuitive way to
navigate a computer's GUI.

Image and Video Capture Devices

Digital Cameras Takes images as well as videos.
Camcorder - This is an electronic device that combines a

video camera and a video recorder into one unit.

Webcam - This is a video camera that feeds its image in real
time to a computer or computer network. Unlike an IP
camera (which uses a direct connection using ethernet or WiFi), a webcam is generally connected by a USB cable,
FireWire cable, or similar cable.
Image Scanner - This is a device that optically scans images,
printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to a
digital image.

Audio Input Devices

Microphone- It is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor

that converts sound into an electrical signal.

MIDI Keyboard- It is typically a piano style user interface
keyboard device used for sending MIDI signals or commands
over a USB or MIDI cable to other devices connected and
operating on the same MIDI protocol interface.

Output Devices
An Output Device is any piece of computer hardware

equipment used to communicate the results of data

processing carried out by an information processing system
which converts the electronically generated information into
human-readable form.
Examples Printer , Headphones , Speakers.

Examples in Detail
Printer - This is a peripheral which produces a representation of an

electronic document on physical media such as paper or transparency

film. Many printers are local peripherals connected directly to a nearby
personal computer. Individual printers are often designed to support
both local and network connected users at the same time.
Headphones - These are a pair of small loudspeakers that are designed
to be held in place close to a user's ears. Headphones either have wires
for connection to a signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio, CD
player, portable media player or mobile phone, or have
a wireless receiver, which is used to pick up signal without using a cable.
Computer speakers (multimedia speakers) - These are speakers external
to a computer, that disable the lower fidelity built-in speaker. They
often have a low-power internal amplifier.

Storage Devices
Data storage device - These are devices for recording and

storing Data.
A storage device may hold information, process information,
or both. A device that only holds information is a
recording medium. Devices that process information may
either access a separate portable recording medium or a
permanent component to store and retrieve information.
Examples USBs , Hardisks .

Input Devices



Capture Devices

Storage Devices

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