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WELDING, CUTTING, AND

BRAZING

Compressed Gases
General Requirements
Oxygen-Fuel Gas Welding and Cutting
Arc Welding and Cutting
Resistance Welding.
Research and Created by:
V. Menchavez
JWPS Journeyman Welding &
Piping Services

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Introduction

Welding, cutting, and brazing are


exceptionally dangerous.
Compressed gases are often used to
create an extremely hot flame.
Different welding techniques can cause
other hazards.
The welder can be injured or cause
damage to the work area in numerous
ways including fire, explosion, gas, and
fume hazards.
Good work practices must be followed
in all welding, cutting, and brazing
techniques to prevent injuries, fires,
and explosions.
This module covers the following
sections:

Compressed Gases
General Requirements
Oxygen-Fuel Gas Welding and Cutting
Arc Welding and Cutting
Resistance Welding.

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Objectives

At the end of this Welding, Cutting, and Brazing


module, you should be able to:
Understand the general requirements concerning
compressed gases
Identify the general safety requirements for all types
of welding
Understand the general characteristics for the
various types of welding
Identify the specific safety requirements for:

Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting


Arc welding and cutting
Resistance welding.

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Compressed Gases

Many welding and cutting


operations require the use of
compressed gases.

To understand these hazards,


we must understand that
compressed gases are stores
of potential energy.

It takes energy to compress


and confine the gas. That
energy is stored until
purposely released to perform
useful work or until
accidentally released by
container failure or other
causes.

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Compressed Gases

Some compressed gases,


acetylene for example, have
high flammability
characteristics.

Flammable compressed
gases, therefore, have
additional stored energy
besides simple compressionrelease energy.

Other compressed gases,


such as nitrogen, have simple
asphyxiating properties. Some
compressed gases, such as
oxygen, can augment or
compound fire hazards.

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Compressed Gases

Compressed gases are


regulated by many
standards. Two primary
standards are:

29 CFR 1910 Subpart Q


Welding, Cutting, and
Brazing covers the
handling, storage, and use
of compressed gases, such
as oxygen- fuel gas, when
they are consumed in the
welding process.

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Compressed Gases

29 CFR 1910 Subpart H


Hazardous Materials,
1910.101 - 1910.105
covers the general
requirements for the
handling, storage, and use
of compressed gases other
than those consumed in
the welding process.

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General Requirements

In addition to the Occupational


Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) regulations found in
Subparts Q and H of 29 CFR 1910
there are other applicable
regulations and information.

These include the Department of


Transportation (DOT) regulations,
and the Compressed Gas
Association (CGA) pamphlets.

These sources provide the


requirements for the general
category of compressed gases
and certain specific compressed
gases.

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General Requirements

An important aspect of these


regulations is the safety of
compressed gas storage
containers.

Specific requirements are made of


employers for the inspection of the
compressed gas cylinders.

Visual inspections are required to


ensure that the cylinders are safe.

The next page will go into more


detail regarding visual
examinations of compressed gas
storage containers and the safety
of these containers.

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General Requirements

Employers shall determine that compressed gas cylinders


under their control are in a safe condition to the extent that this
can be determined by visual inspection.

Visual and "other" inspections are required, but "other"


inspections are not defined.

These inspections must be conducted as prescribed in the


Hazardous Materials Regulations of the DOT contained in 49
CFR Parts 171-179 and 14 CFR Part 103.

Where these regulations are not applicable, these inspections


shall be conducted in accordance with CGA Pamphlets C-6
and C-8.

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General Requirements

According to DOT regulations: "A cylinder that leaks, is


bulged, has defective valves or safety devices, bears evidence
of physical abuse, fire or heat damage, or detrimental rusting
or corrosion, must not be used unless it is properly repaired
and requalified as prescribed in these regulations.

The term "cylinder" is defined as a pressure vessel designed


for pressures higher than 40 psia (pounds per square inch
absolute) and having a circular cross section.

It does not include a portable tank, multi-unit tank car tank,


cargo tank, or tank car.

DOT Marking Requirements

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General Requirements

The OSHA regulations contain


some sections regulating specific
compressed gases, including:

Acetylene
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrous oxide
Anhydrous ammonia
Liquefied petroleum gases.

Other compressed gases are in


common use and fall under
regulation Subpart H, 1910.101.

Examples include chlorine, vinyl


chloride, sulfur dioxide, methyl
chloride, hydrogen sulfide, ethane,
compressed air, and nitrogen.

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Quiz Question:

The term, cylinder, refers to any:

Cargo tank that meets DOT requirements


Container meeting EPA and OSHA
requirements
Pressure vessel designed for pressures higher
than 40 psia with a circular cross section
Portable tank designed for pressures over 60
psia

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Quiz Question:

DOT requires all of the following to be


marked on a cylinder EXCEPT the:

Special requirements
Retest dates
Serial number
Symbol of the user, manufacturer, or
purchaser

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Fire Prevention and Protection

Fire prevention and protection include


basic precautions, special precautions,
and safety precautions for the unique
situations involving welding and cutting
containers, and welding in confined
spaces.
The basic precautions for fire
prevention in welding, cutting, and
brazing focus on removal of fire
hazards.
They include the following:

If the object to be welded or cut cannot


readily be moved, all movable fire
hazards in the vicinity shall be taken to
a safe place
If the object to be welded or cut cannot
be moved and if all the fire hazards
cannot be removed, then guards shall
be used to confine the heat, sparks,
and slag, and to protect the immovable
fire hazards
If the above requirements cannot be
met, then welding and cutting shall not
be performed.

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Fire Prevention and Protection

Complying with the basic precautions for prevention of fires in welding is not
enough. Special precautions must also be taken. These include having the
proper fire extinguishing equipment available and having fire watchers
present, if needed.
Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be maintained in a state of
readiness for instant use. Such equipment may consist of pails of water,
buckets of sand, hoses, or portable extinguishers depending upon the nature
and quantity of the combustible material exposed.
Fire watchers are required whenever welding or cutting is performed in
locations where more than a minor fire might develop, or where any of the
following conditions exist:
Appreciable combustible materials, in building construction or contents, closer
than 35 feet to the point of operation
Appreciable combustible materials more than 35 feet away, but are easily
ignited by sparks.
A fire watch shall be maintained for at least a half hour after completion of
welding or cutting operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering
fires.

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Fire Prevention and Protection

Even if all of the special precautions have been taken, there


are still certain situations in which welding, cutting, or brazing
are not allowed.

Cutting or welding shall not be permitted in:

Areas not authorized by management


Buildings with impaired sprinkler systems
The presence of explosive atmospheres (mixtures of flammable
gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts with air)
Locations where explosive atmospheres may develop, such as:

Inside unclean or improperly prepared tanks or equipment which


have previously contained such materials (flammable gasses,
vapors, liquids, or dusts)
Areas with an accumulation of combustible dusts.

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Fire Prevention and Protection

Welding and cutting certain containers


may constitute a special situation that
requires additional safety precautions
beyond basic and special precautions.

No welding, cutting, or other hot work


shall be performed on used drums,
barrels, tanks, or other containers until
they have been thoroughly cleaned.

Cleaning must remove all flammable


materials present or any substances
such as greases, tars, acids, or other
materials which might produce
flammable or toxic vapors when
subjected to heat.

Any pipeline or connections to the drum


or vessel being welded shall be
disconnected or blanked.

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Fire Prevention and Protection

When welding or cutting is being


performed in any confined space,
the gas cylinders and welding
machines shall be left on the
outside.

When arc welding is to be


suspended for any substantial
period of time, such as during
lunch or overnight, all electrodes
shall be removed from the
holders.

The holders shall be carefully


located so that accidental contact
cannot occur and the machine
shall be disconnected from the
power source.

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Fire Prevention and Protection

Working in confined spaces


involves additional safety
precautions beyond the basic
and special precautions.

A confined space is defined in


29 CFR 1910.252 as a
relatively small or restricted
space such as a tank, boiler,
pressure vessel, or small
compartment of a ship.

Adequate ventilation is a
prerequisite to work in
confined spaces.

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Fire Prevention and Protection

When suspending gas welding or


cutting operations, eliminate the
possibility of gas escaping through
the nozzle by closing the torch
valves.

The gas supply to the torch must


be positively shut off at some point
outside the confined area
whenever the torch is not to be
used for a substantial period of
time, such as during lunch hour or
overnight.

Where practicable, the torch and


hose shall also be removed from
the confined space.

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Fire Prevention and Protection

Where welders must enter a


confined space through a manhole
or other small opening, means
shall be provided for quickly
removing them in case of
emergency.

An attendant with a pre-planned


rescue procedure shall be
stationed outside to observe the
welder at all times and shall be
capable of putting rescue
operations into effect.

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Protection of Personnel

Protection of personnel focuses


on protecting the welder from
hazards other than general fire
protection.
Protection of personnel in welding
or cutting operations can involve
fall protection, eye protection, and
protective clothing.
When working at heights, a welder
or helper working on platforms,
scaffolds, or runways shall be
protected against falling through
the use of:

Railings
Safety belts
Life lines
Some equally effective
safeguards.

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Protection of Personnel

Welding, cutting, or brazing operations conducted without


proper eye protection create a serious eye injury hazard.

Helmets and hand shields shall be arranged to protect the


face, neck, and ears from direct radiant energy from the arc.

They shall be used during all arc welding or arc cutting


operations, excluding submerged arc welding. helpers or
attendants shall be provided with proper eye protection.

Helmets and hand shields shall be made of a material which is


an insulator for heat and electricity.

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Protection of Personnel

Helmets, shields, and goggles shall not be readily flammable


and shall be capable of withstanding sterilization.

Where the work permits, the welder should be enclosed in an


individual booth or in a non-combustible screen painted with a
finish of low reflectivity such as zinc oxide (an important factor
for absorbing ultra-violet radiation) and lamp black.

Booths and screens shall permit circulation of air at floor level.

People adjacent to the welding areas shall be protected from


the rays by non-combustible or flameproof screens or shields
or shall be required to wear appropriate goggles.

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Protection of Personnel

Because of the danger of burns and


clothing catching fire, employees
exposed to the hazards created by
welding, cutting, or brazing operations
shall be protected by personal
protective equipment in accordance
with the requirements of 29 CFR
1910.132.

Appropriate protective clothing required


for any welding operation will vary with
the size, nature, and location of the
work to be performed.

Welders should always select clothing


materials which will provide maximum
protection from sparks and hot metal.

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Protection of Personnel

Because of the danger of burns and clothing catching


fire, employees exposed to the hazards created by
welding, cutting, or brazing operations shall be
protected by personal protective equipment in
accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.132.

Appropriate protective clothing required for any welding


operation will vary with the size, nature, and location of
the work to be performed.

Welders should always select clothing materials which


will provide maximum protection from sparks and hot
metal.

The shirt should have full sleeves, no pockets, and


should be worn outside the trousers with collar
buttoned.

The trousers should have no cuffs and should extend


well down to the safety shoes.

Safety shoes and fire-resistant gauntlet gloves are also


needed.

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Health Protections-Ventilation

Regardless of the precautionary


measures taken, some materials
require special ventilation because
they are particularly hazardous.

Mechanical ventilation and other


specific control measures are
required when welding or cutting
is done with the following
materials:

Fluorine compounds
Zinc
Lead
Beryllium
Cadmium
Mercury
Cleaning compounds
Stainless steel

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Quiz Question:

Under General Requirements of 29


CFR 1910.252, special precautions
include ensuring that all fire
extinguishing equipment is maintained
and in a state of readiness.

True
False

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Quiz Question:

Helmets or hand shields shall be used


during arc welding or arc cutting
operations except when the material
does not cause excessive sparks or
during submerged arc welding.

True
False

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Quiz Question:

When welding or cutting is being


performed in any confined space, the
gas cylinders and welding machines
may be inside the confined space.

True
False

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Oxygen-Fuel Gas Welding


and Cutting

In this Welding, Cutting, and Brazing


module, three specific types of welding
are covered.
These are listed below:

Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting


Arc welding and cutting
Resistance welding.

This section deals specifically with


oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting.
The Oxygen-Fuel Gas Welding and
Cutting section is based on 29 CFR
1910.253.
This section provides information about
the five topic areas that are listed to the
left.
Each topic is presented with guidance
information so that you will be able to
prevent accidents and promote work
safety when welding or cutting.

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General Requirements

General Requirements of Oxygen-Fuel


Gas Welding and Cutting, 29 CFR
1910.253, focuses on using acetylene
safely.

Under no conditions shall acetylene be


generated, piped (except in approved
cylinder manifolds), or utilized at a
pressure in excess of 15 pounds per
square inch gauge (psig) or 30 pounds
per square inch absolute (psia).

The 30 psia limit is intended to prevent


unsafe use of acetylene in pressurized
chambers such as caissons,
underground excavations, or tunnel
construction.

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General Requirements

Absolute pressure is equal to


gauge pressure plus atmospheric
pressure, which at sea level
averages 14.7 pounds per square
inch (psi).

Thus, at sea level, a gauge


pressure reading of 15 psi is equal
to an absolute pressure of 29.7
psi.

This requirement is not intended


to apply to storage of acetylene
dissolved in a suitable solvent in
cylinders manufactured and
maintained according to DOT
requirements, or to acetylene for
chemical use.

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General Requirements

When using acetylene, experience


indicates that 15 psig is generally
acceptable as a safe upper
pressure limit.
Using acetylene at pressures in
excess of 15 psig pressure (or
about 30 psia pressure) is a
hazardous practice.
Free gaseous acetylene is
potentially unstable at pressures
above 15 psig and could
decompose with explosive
violence.
The decomposition characteristics
of acetylene gas are avoided by
keeping the gas in liquid solution
and storing it in cylinders of
unique construction.

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General Requirements

Internally, acetylene cylinders are


not designed like other kinds of
compressed gas cylinders.
Acetylene cylinders are never
hollow. These cylinders contain a
porous, calcium silicate filler and a
suitable solvent, usually acetone,
because, under pressure,
acetylene by itself is unstable.
Acetone is used because it has
the ability to absorb over 400
times its own volume of acetylene
at 70 F.
To learn more about the use of
calcium silicate in cylinders, click
on the term below.

Calcium Silicate

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Cylinders

Regardless of the interior


construction of the cylinders, all
portable cylinders used for the
storage and shipment of
compressed gases shall be
constructed and maintained in
accordance with the regulations of
the U.S. Department of
Transportation, 49 CFR Parts 171179.

When using or handling cylinders


and containers, it is important to
know about:

Cylinder approval and marking


Storage of cylinders
Operating procedures.

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Cylinders

Compressed gas cylinders shall


be legibly marked, for the purpose
of identifying the gas content, with
either the chemical or trade name
of the gas.

Such marking shall be by means


of stenciling, stamping, or labeling,
and shall not be readily
removable.

Whenever practical, the marking


shall be located on the shoulder of
the cylinder.

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Cylinders

Appropriate marking not only enables proper use, but also assists in proper
storage.

The following information generally applies to all cylinders:

Cylinders shall be kept away from radiators and other sources of heat
Inside of buildings, cylinders shall be stored in a well-protected, well-ventilated, dry
location, at least 20 feet (6.1 m) from highly combustible materials.
Cylinders should be stored in assigned places away from elevators, stairs, or
gangways, or other areas where they might be knocked over or damaged by
passing or falling objects, or subject to tampering
Empty cylinders shall have their valves closed
Valve protection caps, where the cylinder is designed to accept a cap, shall always
be in place, hand-tight, except when cylinders are in use or connected for use. The
valve protection cap is designed to take the blow in case the cylinder falls.

Additional requirements exist for the storage of fuel gas and oxygen cylinders.
Click on the appropriate term for more information.

Fuel Gas Cylinders


Oxygen Cylinders

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Cylinders

The potential dangers related to


cylinders containing compressed gases
require that cylinders be stored and
operated properly.

Operation must emphasize the


absence of oily or greasy substances.

Follow these rules of operation:

Cylinders, cylinder valves, couplings,


regulators, hose, and apparatus shall
be kept free from oily or greasy
substances
Oxygen cylinders or apparatus shall not
be handled with oily hands or gloves
A jet of oxygen must never be
permitted to strike an oily surface,
greasy clothes, or enter a fuel oil or
other storage tank.

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Cylinders

The valve outlet and regulator are two


critical components of compressed gas
cylinders that must be used properly.
Valve protection caps protect the valve
from damage and oil and grease.
The valve-protection cap shall not be
used for lifting cylinders from one
vertical position to another.
The cap may accidentally and suddenly
come loose.
Should a cylinder without a cap fall or
be knocked over, the valve may be
damaged or sheared off, causing a
sudden release of pressure.
If the valve outlet of a cylinder becomes
clogged with ice, thaw with warm not
boiling water.

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Cylinders

Like the valve outlet, the regulator must


be carefully protected.
Unless cylinders are secured on a
special truck, regulators shall be
removed and valve-protection caps,
when provided for, shall be put in place
before cylinders are moved.
Cylinders not having fixed hand wheels
shall have keys, handles, or nonadjustable wrenches on valve stems
while these cylinders are in service.
Unless connected to a manifold, always
attach a regulator to the compressed
gas cylinder before use.
Make certain that the regulator is
compatible for the particular gas and
service pressure.
Make sure the regulator is clean and
has a clean filter installed in the inlet
nipple.

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Cylinders

Before attaching the regulator, remove


the protective cap from the cylinder.
Stand to one side of the cylinder.
Open the cylinder valve slightly for an
instant, and then close it. This
"cracking" of the cylinder valve will
clean the valve of dust or dirt which
may have accumulated during storage.
Dirt can damage critical parts of a
regulator, and may cause a fire or
explosion.
Before a regulator is removed from a
cylinder valve, the valve shall be closed
and the gas released from the
regulator.
An acetylene cylinder valve shall not be
opened more than one and one-half
turns of the spindle.
This permits adequate flow of acetylene
and allows ready closing of the valve in
an emergency situation.

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Quiz Question:

Experience indicates that 15 psig is


generally acceptable as a safe upper
pressure limit for acetylene.

True
False

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Quiz Question:

"Cracking" of the cylinder valve


removes any impure gases.

True
False

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Quiz Question:

An acetylene cylinder valve shall not


be opened more than one and one-half
turns of the spindle.

True
False

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Manifolding of Cylinders

Sometimes when welding, a portable


cylinder is not used as the source of
gas.

A service pipe system can be used to


provide a manifolding effect.

Manifolding is the gathering of multipleline fluid inputs into a single intake


chamber.

In other words, the combining of gases


needed for welding.

This can be accomplished through the


use of portable outlet headers.

Each header will control the flow of a


particular gas.

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Manifolding of Cylinders

Portable outlet headers (shown in


purple) consist of the nozzle and hoses
that can be connected to a portable
cylinder or a service pipe.

Portable outlet headers shall not be


used indoors except for temporary
service where the conditions preclude a
direct supply from outlets located on
the service piping system.

Each outlet on the service piping from


which oxygen or fuel gas is withdrawn
to supply a portable outlet header shall
be equipped with a readily accessible
shut-off valve (shown in red in the
figure to the left).

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Manifolding of Cylinders

Each service outlet on portable


outlet headers shall be provided
with a valve assembly that
includes a detachable outlet seal
cap (shown in yellow), chained or
otherwise attached to the body of
the valve.

The primary reasons for using a


seal cap are to protect the outlet
pipe thread from damage and to
prevent the deposit of oil or
grease on the threads.

Many times the caps are not used.


Failure to use the seal cap can
result in damage to threads and
ground seals. This can cause
leaky connections

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Service Pipe Systems

Service piping systems must meet all


design and installation safety
requirements.
Pipe shall be at least Schedule 40 and
fittings shall be at least standard weight
in sizes up to and including 6-inch
nominal.
Schedule 40 pipe is standard black iron
pipe which has a working pressure of
up to 125 psi and is always tested
before use.
Problems might arise when line
extensions are made with other types
of pipe or aluminum tubing. Therefore,
a close inspection is necessary.
There are special requirements for
service pipe systems when using
oxygen or acetylene.

Oxygen
Acetylene or Acetylene Compounds

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Service Pipe Systems

Now that we understand material and


design requirements, lets consider the
installation of a service pipe system.
All piping shall be run as directly as
practical. It will be protected against
physical damage with proper allowance
for expansion, contraction, jarring, and
vibration.
Pipe laid underground in earth shall be
located below the frost line and
protected against corrosion.
After assembly, piping shall be
thoroughly blown out with air, nitrogen,
or carbon dioxide to remove foreign
materials.
For oxygen piping, only oil-free air, oilfree nitrogen, or oil-free carbon dioxide
shall be used.

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Service Pipe Systems

Low points in piping carrying moist gas


shall be drained into drip pots
constructed so as to permit pumping or
draining out the condensate at
necessary intervals.

Drain valves for this purpose shall have


outlets closed with screw caps or plugs.

Piping from overhead lines shall have


drip pots at each station. These drip
pots either have a plug or petcock on
the bottom.

Underground installations have no


draining system.

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Service Pipe Systems

Open end valves or petcocks shall be


used.

However, drip pots located out of


doors, underground, and not readily
accessible, may be controlled by valves
if they are equipped with a means to
secure them in the closed position.

Pipes leading to the surface of the


ground shall be cased or jacketed
where necessary to prevent loosening
or breaking.

Pipes leading to the surface from


underground lines have to be secured
to prevent breaking or to avoid other
damage to them.

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Service Pipe Systems

Another important consideration for


underground piping is protection
against corrosion.
Underground pipe and tubing and
outdoor ferrous pipe and tubing shall be
covered or painted with a suitable
material for protection against
corrosion.
Once installation is completed, piping
systems shall be tested and proved gas
tight at 1 times the maximum
operating pressure, and shall be
thoroughly purged of air before being
placed in service.
The material used for testing oxygen
shall be oil free and non-combustible.
Flames shall not be used to detect
leaks.

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Pipe System Protection

The entire service pipe


system must be
protected against
build-up of excessive
pressure and leaks.

This protection is
accomplished with:

Protective equipment
Regulators
Proper hose and hose
connections.

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Pipe System Protection

Protective equipment
is divided into the two
categories listed here.

Pressure Relief Device


Piping Protective
Equipment

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Pipe System Protection

Another method of controlling pressure


involves the use of pressure-reducing
regulators.
Pressure-reducing regulators shall be
used only for the gas and pressures for
which they are intended.
When regulators or parts of regulators,
including gages, need repair, the work
shall be performed by skilled
mechanics who have been properly
instructed.
Most production shops do not have the
proper equipment to make repairs.
For any equipment repairs or if there
are questions about performance
reliability, contact the manufacturer.
Gages on oxygen regulators shall be
marked "USE NO OIL."

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Pipe System Protection

In addition to using release devices, the


system must be designed, using proper
hoses, to protect against leaks.

The Oxygen hose is green and has a


right-hand threaded nut for connecting
to the torch.

The Acetylene fuel gas hose is usually


red (sometimes black) and has a lefthand threaded nut for connecting to the
torch.

Hose and hose connections shall be


clamped or otherwise securely fastened
in a manner that will withstand, without
leakage, twice the pressure to which
they are normally subjected in service,
but in no case less than a pressure of
300 psi.

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Pipe System Protection

Oil-free air or an oil-free inert gas shall


be used for the test.

Hoses showing leaks, burns, worn


places, or other defects rendering it
unfit for service shall be repaired or
replaced.

When inspecting hoses, look for


charred sections close to the torch.

These may have been caused by flashback. Also check that hoses are not
taped up to cover leaks.

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Quiz Question:

One of the primary uses of the seal


cap is to create an airtight seal over
the valve assembly.

True
False

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Quiz Question:

Hose and hose connections are


clamped to prevent leakage at 300 psi
or twice the pressure to which they
would normally be subjected,
whichever is greater.

True
False

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Quiz Question:

An oxygen hose is red and has a lefthand threaded nut for connecting to
the torch.

True
False

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Arc Welding and Cutting

The second specific type of


welding discussed in this
module is Arc Welding and
Cutting.

This Arc Welding and Cutting


section provides information
about the three topic areas
that are listed to the left.

The information presented


here will prevent accidents
and promote work safety when
undertaking arc welding or
cutting operations.

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Arc Welding and Cutting

In the arc welding process, an electric


current passing through the welding rod
or electrode is forced to jump or arc
across a gap.
The resulting arc produces the intense
heat necessary for the welding or
cutting operation.
Arc welding is used to fabricate nearly
all types of carbon or alloy steels, the
common nonferrous metals, and is
indispensable in the repair and
reclamation of metallic machine parts.
Arc cutting is primarily used for rough
cuts or for scrapping because of the
uneven cut that results. It has also
been used for underwater cutting in
salvaging operations.
While most precautions and safe
practices are common to oxy-fuel gas
welding, there are some that are unique
to either gas or arc welding.

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Arc Welding and Cutting

Shielding is one of the unique


requirements of arc welding.
Experience has shown that welds will
have better chemical and physical
properties if the air can be kept away
from the weld puddle.
Such gases as oxygen, hydrogen, and
nitrogen, along with water vapor
(moisture) all tend to reduce the quality
of the weld.
Dirt, dust, and metal oxides
(contaminants) also reduce the weld
quality.
Shielding of the arc preserves the
integrity of the weld joint.
Shielding is provided either by:

Decomposition of the electrode


covering, known as flux
A gas (or gas mixture) which may or
may not be inert.

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Arc Welding and Cutting

Arc welding and cutting involves a


variety of processes. Some of the
more common processes are
listed below.

Shielded Metal-Arc Welding


(SMAW)
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
(GTAW)
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Arc Cutting
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)
Air Carbon-Arc Cutting (AAC)
Arc Gouging

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Arc Welding and Cutting

Alternating Current (AC)

Direct Current (DC)

Manual

80 Volts

100 Volts

Automati
c

100 Volts

100 Volts

Automatic refers to machine or mechanized

When arc welding, either


alternating or direct current is
used.
The AC and DC limits shown
below left shall not be exceeded
For AC welding under wet
conditions or warm surroundings
where perspiration is a factor, the
use of reliable automatic controls
for reducing no-load voltage is
recommended to reduce the
shock hazard.
Some of the older AC machines
do not have an automatic control
and are on load all the time.
It is easy to receive an electric
shock when the equipment is not
handled properly.

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Arc Welding and Cutting

Arc welding requires proper installation


of equipment. A critical part of
installation is ensuring that proper
grounding is completed.
The frame or case of the welding
machine (except engine-driven
machines) shall be grounded under the
conditions and according to the
methods prescribed in Subpart S,
Electrical.
Conduits containing electrical
conductors shall not be used for
completing a work-lead circuit.
Pipelines shall not be used as a
permanent part of a work-lead circuit,
but may be used during construction,
extension, or repair providing current is
not carried through threaded joints,
flanged bolted joints, or caulked joints
and that special precautions are used
to avoid sparking at connection of the
work-lead cable.

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Arc Welding and Cutting

Before starting operations, all


connections to the machine shall
be checked to make certain that
they are properly made.
The work lead shall be firmly
attached to the work.
Magnetic work clamps shall be
free from adherent metal particles
of spatter on contact surfaces.
Coiled welding cable shall be
spread out before use to avoid
serious overheating and damage
to insulation.
During welding operations, cables
with splices within 10 feet (3m) of
the holder shall not be used.

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Arc Welding and Cutting

Before starting operations, all


connections to the machine shall
be checked to make certain that
they are properly made.
The work lead shall be firmly
attached to the work.
Magnetic work clamps shall be
free from adherent metal particles
of spatter on contact surfaces.
Coiled welding cable shall be
spread out before use to avoid
serious overheating and damage
to insulation.

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Resistance Welding

The third welding process covered


in this module is resistance
welding.

Resistance welding utilizes


pressure and heat that is
generated in the pieces to be
welded by resistance to an electric
current.

When conducting resistance


welding, all equipment shall be
installed by a qualified electrician
in conformance with Subpart S,
Electrical.

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Resistance Welding

If spot and seam welding


machines are used, the following
precautions must be taken:

All doors and access panels of all


resistance welding machines and
control panels shall be kept
locked and interlocked to prevent
access to live portions of the
equipment by unauthorized
persons.
In all press welding operations, if
there is a possibility of the
operator's fingers being under the
point of operation, effective
guards must be used.
Examples of effective guards
include an electronic eye safety
circuit, two hand controls, or
protection similar to that
prescribed for punch press
operations.

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Resistance Welding

The hazard of flying sparks shall be,


wherever practical, eliminated by
installing a shield guard of safety glass
or suitable fire-resistant plastic at the
point of operation.

Additional shields or curtains shall be


installed as necessary to protect
passing persons from flying sparks.

All foot switches shall be guarded to


prevent accidental operation of the
machine.

Two or more safety emergency stop


buttons shall be provided on all special
multi-spot welding machines, including
2-post and 4-post weld presses.

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Resistance Welding

Additionally, all portable welding guns,


transformers and related equipment
suspended from overhead structures,
eye beams, trolleys, etc., shall be
equipped with safety chains or cables.

Safety chains or cables shall be


capable of supporting the total shock
load in the event of failure of any
component of the supporting system.

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Quiz Question:

In arc welding, shielding of the arc is


provided to preserve the integrity of
the weld joint.

True
False

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Quiz Question:

In resistance welding, all equipment


shall be installed by a qualified
electrician.

True
False

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Summary

In this module we discussed:

Compressed Gases
General Requirements
Oxygen-Fuel Gas Welding and Cutting
Arc Welding and Cutting
Resistance Welding.

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