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Chapter 7 - The Valuation and Characteristics of


A systematic process through which the price at which a
security should sell is established - Intrinsic value
Real assets (houses, cars) have value due to services they provide
Financial assets (paper) represent rights to future cash flows
Value today is PV

Different opinions about securities values come from

different assumptions about cash flows and interest rates
Stocks are hardest to value because future dividends and prices are
never guaranteed.

The Basis of Value

Any securitys value is the present value of the
cash flows expected from owning it.
A security should sell for close to that value in
financial markets

The Basis of Value

Using a resource to
benefit the future rather
than for current
Putting money to
work to earn more
Common types of

What the investor
receives for making an
1 year investments
return = $ received / $
Debt investors receive
interest. Equity
investors get dividends
+ price change

The rate of return on an investment is the
interest rate that equates the present value of
its expected cash flows with its current price
Return is also known as
Yield, or

Return On One Year Investment

Return is what the investor receives
Can be expressed as a dollar amount or as a rate
Rate of return is what the investor receives divided by what was invested
For debt investments: the interest rate
In terms of the time value of money:
Invest PV at rate k and receive future cash flows of
principal = PV, and
interest = kPV
at the end of a year, so
FV1 = PV + kPV
FV1 = PV(1+k)
PV =

(1 + k)

The Basis for Value

Discount Rate
The term discounted rate is often
used for interest rate

Returns on Longer-Term Investments

Bonds represent a debt relationship in which
an issuing company borrows and buyers lend.
A bond issue represents borrowing from many
lenders at one time under a single agreement

Bond Terminology and Practice

A bonds term (or maturity) is the time from the
present until the principal is returned
A bonds face (or par) value represents the
amount the firm intends to borrow (the
principal) at the coupon rate of interest


Coupon Rates
Coupon Rate the fixed rate of interest paid
by a bond
In the past, bonds had coupons attached,
today they are registered
Most bonds pay coupon interest semiannual


Bond ValuationBasic Ideas

Adjusting to Interest Rate Changes
Bonds are originally sold in the primary market and
trade subsequently among investors in the
secondary market.
Although bonds have fixed coupons, market
interest rates constantly change.
How does a bond paying a fixed interest rate
remain salable (secondary market) when interest
rates change?


Bond ValuationBasic Ideas

Bonds adjust to changing yields by changing
their prices
Selling at a Premium bond price above face value
Selling at a Discount bond price below face value

Bond prices and interest rates move in

opposite directions


Determining the Price of a Bond

The value (price) of a security is equal to the
present value of the cash flows expected from
owning it.
In bonds, the expected cash flows are
Interest payments are fixed, occurring at regular
Principal is returned along with the last interest


Determining the Price of a Bond

Figure 7-1 Cash Flow Time Line for a Bond
This bond has 10 years until maturity, a par value of
$1,000, and a coupon rate of 10%.?


Determining the Price of a Bond

The Bond Valuation Formula
The price of a bond is the present value of a stream
of interest payments plus the present value of the
principal repayment

PB PV(interest payments) + PV(principal repayment)

Interest payments are annuities--can use
the present value of an annuity formula:

Principal repayment is a lump sum in the

future--can use the future value formula:
FV[PVFk, n ]


Determining the Price of a Bond

Two Interest Rates and One More
Coupon Rate
k - the current market yield on comparable bonds
Current yield - annual interest payment divided by
bonds current price
Not used in valuation
Info for investors


Figure 7-2 Bond Cash Flow and

Valuation Concepts


Concept Connection Example 7-1

Finding the Price of a Bond
Emory issued a $1,000, 8%, 25-year bond 15 years ago.
Comparable bonds are yielding 10% today.
What price will yield 10% to buyers today?
What is the bonds current yield?
Assume the bond pays interest semiannually.

Concept Connection Example 7-1

Finding the Price of a Bond
Must solve for present value of bonds expected cash flows at todays
interest rate. Use Equation 7.4 :

PB PMT[PVFA k, n ] + FV[PVFk, n ]
The payment is 8%
x $1,000, or $80
annually. However,
it is received in the
form of $40 every
six months.

The future value is

the principal
repayment of $1,000.

k represents the periodic current

market interest rate, or
10% 2 = 5%

n represents the
number of interestpaying periods until
maturity, or
10 years x 2 = 20.


Concept Connection Example 7-1

Finding the Price of a Bond
Substituting :

PB $40[PVFA 5%, 20 ] + $1,000[PVF5%, 20 ]

$40[12.4622] + $1,000[0.3769]
$498.49 $376.90

This is the price at

which the bond must sell
to yield 10%. It is
selling at a discount because
the current interest rate
is above the coupon rate.
The bonds current yield is
$80 $875.39, or 9.14%.


Maturity Risk Revisited

Related to the term of the debt
Longer term bond prices fluctuate more in response
to changes in interest rates than shorter term bonds
AKA price risk and interest rate risk


Table 7-1 Price Changes at Different Terms Due to an

Interest Rate Increase from 8% to 10%


Figure 7.3 Price Progression with

Constant Interest Rate


Finding the Yield at a Given Price

Calculate a bonds yield assuming it is selling
at a given price
Trial and error guess a yield calculate price
compare to price given

PB PMT PVFAk, n + FV PVFk, n

Involves solving for k, which is
more complicated because it
involves both an annuity and a

Use trial and error to solve

for k, or use a financial

Concept Connection Example 7-3

Finding the Yield at a Price
Benson issued a $1,000, 8%, 30-year bond 14
years ago.
Bond is now selling for $718.
What is yield to an investor buying it today?
Semiannual interest.

Concept Connection Example 7-3

Finding the Yield at a Price
As interest rates rise, bond prices fall, so yield must
be above 8%.
Guess 10% and apply Equation 7.4
PB PMT PVFA k, n + FV PVFk, n
$40 PVFA 5, 32 + $1,000 PVF5, 32
$40 15.8027 + $1,000 0.2099
Next guess must be lower to drive price further down.
Answer is just below 12%


Call Provisions
If interest rates fall, a firm may wish to retire old, high
interest bonds by refinancing with new, lower interest

To ensure ability to refinance, issuers make bonds callable

Investors dont like calls lose high interest
Issuers and investors compromise
Call provisions usually have
A call premium
Extra money paid if called

Period of call protection

Guaranteed not to call for a number of years.


Figure 7-5 Valuation of

a Bond Subject to Call


Call Provisions
Valuing the Sure-To-Be-Called Bond
Requires that two changes be made to bond
valuation formula

PB PMT[PVFA k, n ] + FV[PVFk, n ]

The future value

becomes the call
price (face value plus
call premium).

n now represents
the number of
periods until the
bond is likely to be


Call Provisions
The new formula becomes
PB = PMT[PVFAk,m] + CP[PVFk,m]
m = time to call
CP = call price = FV + Call Premium


Concept Connection Example 7-4 Basics:

Pricing a Likely to Be Called Bond
Northern issued a $1,000, 25-year bond 5 years ago.
Call provision: Can call after 10 years with the payment of
one additional years interest at coupon rate.
Coupon rate is 18%. Market rate is now 8%.
What is the bond worth today?
Interest payments are semiannual.

Concept Connection Example 7-4 Basics:

Pricing a Likely to Be Called Bond
The bond must yield the current rate of interest in either case.

Concept Connection Example 7-4 Basics:

Pricing a Likely to Be Called Bond

PB (call) PMT[PVFAk,m ] CP[PVFk,m ]

m = number of periods to call
CP = call price = face value + call premium

= (.18 x $1,000) / 2 = $90

= 5 x 2 = 10
= 8% /2 = 4%
= $1,000 + .18($1,000) = $1,180

PB (call) = $90 [PVFA4,10] + $1,180 [PVF4,10]

= $90[8.1109] + $1,000[.6756]
= $729.98 + $797.21
= $1,527.19

The Refunding Decision

When current interest rates fall below the
bonds coupon rate, a firm must decide
whether to call in the issue
Compare interest savings to cost of making call:
Call premium
Flotation costs Broker fees, printing costs, etc.


Dangerous Bonds with

Surprising Calls
Bonds can have obscure call features buried
in their contract terms.
Most common type a sinking fund provision
requires an issuer to call in and retire a fixed
percentage of the issue each year
Generally no call premium
Provision is for the benefit of the bondholder


Risky Issues
Sometimes bonds sell for a price far below
what valuation techniques suggest
Issuing company may be in financial trouble
Buying the bond is very risky
In theory riskier loans should be discounted at
higher rates leading to lower calculated prices


Convertible Bonds
Unsecured bonds exchangeable for a fixed
number of shares of stock at the bondholder's
Conversion ratio - the number of shares of stock
received for each bond
conversion ratio

bond's par value

shares exchanged

Conversion price - the implied stock price if bond

is converted into a certain number of shares
Convertibles usually pay lower coupon rates


Concept Connection Example 7-5 Basics:

Investing in Convertible Bonds
Harry Jenson purchased one of Algo Corp.s 9%, 25year convertible bonds at its $1,000 par value a year
ago when the companys common stock was selling for
$20. Similar bonds without a conversion feature
returned 12% at the time. The bond is convertible into
stock at a price of $25. The stock is now selling for $29.
Algo pays no dividends.
Notice that this bonds coupon rate was set below the
market rate for nonconvertible issues.


Concept Connection Example 7-5 Basics:

Investing in Convertible Bonds
a. Harry exercised the conversion feature
today and immediately sold the stock he
received. Calculate the total return on his
b. What would Harrys return have been if he
had invested $1,000 in Algos stock instead of
the bond?

Concept Connection Example 7-5 Basics:

Investing in Convertible Bonds
shares exchanged

par value
conversion price




The proceeds from selling those shares at the current market price were

40 x $29 $ 1,160
In addition the bond paid interest during the year of

$1,000 x .09 $90

So the total receipts from the bond investment were

$1,160 $90 $ 1,250

Concept Connection Example 7-5 Basics:

Investing in Convertible Bonds


Concept Connection Example 7-5 Basics:

Investing in Convertible Bonds


Concept Connection Example 7-5 Basics:

Investing in Convertible Bonds
Notice that the convertible enabled Harry to
participate in some but not all of the rapid price
appreciation of Algos stock.
Also notice that had the stock price fallen, an
investment in it would have had a negative
return, but the convertible would have returned
the 9% coupon rate.

Convertible Bonds
Effect of Conversion on Financial Statements
and Cash Flow
An accounting entry removes the value of
convertible bonds from long-term debt placing it
into equity as if new shares were sold
No immediate cash flow impact, but ongoing cash
flow implications exist
Interest payments stop
But dividend payments may start


Advantages of Convertible Bonds

To Issuing Companies

To Buyers

Convertible features are

sweeteners enabling a
risky firm to pay a lower
interest rate
Viewed as a way to sell
equity at a price above
Usually have few or no

Offer the chance to

participate in stock price
Offer a way to limit risk
associated with a stock


Forced Conversion
A firm may want bonds converted
As stock price rises convertible represents a lost
opportunity to sell new equity at a higher price

Convertible bonds are always issued with call

features which can be used to force
Issuers generally call convertibles when stock
prices rise to 10-15% above conversion prices


Valuing (Pricing) Convertibles

A convertibles price can depend on either
its value as a traditional bond or
the market value of the stock into which it can be

A convertible is always worth at least the

larger of its value as a bond or as stock


Figure 7-6 Value of a Convertible Bond


Effect on Earnings Per ShareDiluted EPS

Upon conversion convertible bonds cause
dilution in EPS
EPS drops due to the increase in the number of
shares of stock outstanding

Thus outstanding convertibles represent a

potential to dilution of EPS


Concept Connection Example 7-7 - Dilution

Montgomery Inc. Issued two thousand $1,000, 8% coupon
convertible bonds three years ago. Each bond is convertible into
stock at $25 per share. All of the Bonds remain outstanding, i.e.,
none have converted.
Last year net income was $3 million. One million shares stock
were outstanding for the entire year, and the firms marginal tax
rate was 40%.
Calculate Montgomerys basic and diluted EPS for the year.
Basic EPS
net income number of shares
$3,000,000 1,000,000 = $3.00.

Concept Connection Example 7-7 Dilution

Diluted EPS
Assumes all bonds are converted at beginning of year.
1. Add the number of newly converted shares to denominator.
2. Adjust net income for after tax effect of interest saved.
1. Shares exchanged:
Par Conversion price = $1,000 $25 = 40 shares/bond
40 shares/bond 2,000 bonds = 80,000 shares
New shares outstanding = 1,000,000 + 80,000 = 1,080,000
2. Adjust the net income by interest saved:
Interest paid on bonds: .08 x $1,000 x 2,000 = $160,000
After tax: $160,000 (1-.4) = $96,000
New net income = $3,000,000 + $96,000 = $3,096,000

Diluted EPS: $3,096,000 1,080,000 = $2.87

Institutional Characteristics of Bonds

Kinds of Bonds
Bonds are either bearer or registered
Registered, Owners of Record, Transfer Agents
Owners of registered bonds are recorded with a
transfer agent.


Kinds of Bonds
Secured bonds and mortgage bonds
Backed by specific assets - collateral

Unsecured bonds - riskier

Subordinated debentures
Lower in payment priority than senior debt

Junk bonds
Risky companies - high interest rates


Bond RatingsAssessing Default Risk

Bonds are assigned quality ratings reflecting
their probability of default.
Higher ratings mean lower default probability
Higher rated bonds pay lower interest rates

Bond rating agencies (Moodys, S&P) evaluate

bonds (and issuers), and assign a ratings


Bond RatingsTable 7.2

Figure 7-7 Yield Differentials between Highand Low-Quality Bonds


Controlling Default Risk

Bond Indentures
Bond indentures attempt to prevent borrowing
firms from becoming riskier after bonds issued
restrictive covenants limit activities and payouts

Safety also provided by sinking funds

Provide money for repayment of bond principal


Appendix 7-A - Lease Financing

A lease is a contract giving one party (lessee)
the right to use an asset owned by another
(lessor) for a periodic payment
Individuals usually lease houses, apartments, and
Companies lease equipment and real estate


Leasing and Financial Statements

Originally leasing allowed use without ownership
Lease payments recognized as income statement
expenses, but
No impact on balance sheets
No recognition of ownership or obligation to pay

Improved appearance of financial ratios

Not real

Led to widespread use of lease financing

The leading form of off balance sheet financing


Misleading Results
Off balance sheet financing makes financial
statements misleading
Missed lease payments can cause failure just like
a missed interest payment on debt
Not showing leases on the balance sheet can
mislead investors into thinking a firm is stronger
than it is


FASB 13 Redefines Ownership

1970s: Concerns about leasing led to FASB 13
Prior to FASB 13 an asset was owned for financial
statement purposes by whoever held title
Regardless of who used it
FASB 13 redefined ownership for financial reporting
purposes in economic terms
FASB 13 stated that the real owner of an asset is
whoever enjoys its benefits and bears its risks and


Operating and Capital (Financing)

Under FASB 13 lessees must capitalize
financing leases
Puts the value of leased assets and the liability for
payments on the balance sheet
Long term leases for high value assets

Operating leases can still be listed off the

balance sheet
Short term leases for lower value items

Rules must be met for a lease to be classified

as an operating lease

Financial Statement Presentation of

Leases by Lessees
Operating leases
Recognize rent expense
No balance sheet entries

Financing (Capital) leases

Recognize asset and lease obligation on balance
Recognize depreciation expense for asset
Amortize lease obligation like a loan


Leasing from the Perspective

of the Lessor
Lessors are usually financial institutions banks, finance or insurance companies
Lease payments are calculated to offer the
lessor a given return
Lessor holds legal titlecan repossess assets
if lessee defaults
Lessors get better treatment in bankruptcy
proceedings than lenders


Residual Values
Residual valuethe value of asset at the end
of the lease
Makes lease pricing and return calculations
more complex
Important negotiating points between lessee
and lessor


Lease Vs. Buy

The Lessees Perspective
Broad financing possibilities
Debtavailable through bonds or banks
Leasingavailable through leasing companies

Conduct a lease vs. buy comparison

Choose the lowest cost option in a present value

Leasing is almost always more expensive


The Advantages of Leasing

Lessors usually require no down payment,
lenders want significant money down
Lessors restrictions less stringent than
Easier credit with manufacturers/lessors


The Advantages of Leasing

Short leases transfer the risk of obsolescence
to lessors
Tax deducting the cost of land
Increasing liquiditythe sale and leaseback
Tax advantages for marginally profitable


Leveraged Leases
The ability to depreciate assets reduces taxes
Government shares the cost of ownership
Unprofitable firms lose this benefit as they pay no tax
But can get some benefits with a Leveraged Lease

In a leveraged lease, a profitable lessor buys

equipment financing a portion with borrowed money
(hence a leveraged lease)
Leveraged Lessor receives the tax benefits of ownership

Lessor shares those tax benefits with the lessee

through lower lease payments
Lessees savings can be very substantial


Figure 7A-1 Leveraged Leases