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# Map and Compass

## Map and Compass

One of the Ten Essentials
Map and Compass

## A GPS isnt always the answer

Subject to
Signal
Batteries
User knowledge

The Compass
How does it work?
Magnetic Fields of the Earth
Directed at Magnetic North Pole

Compass
Whats it Good for?
Compass by itself to walk in a straight line on

With a Map
Find where you are
Find where youre going

The Compass
Compass Circle has 360
N
Directions correspond to a degree
North = 360 or 000
E

East = 90
South = 180
West = 270

The Map
Second part of Essential

The Map
Many different kinds of maps
Aviation Maps
Nautical Maps
US Geological Survey (USGS) maps

## USGS Maps are what we use most for hiking

1 inch = 24,000 feet
Map lines and border are aligned with True North

The Map
Legend
Somewhere on the map that describes all the
information used on that map

Symbols
Scale of Map
Distance Scale
Compass Rose
Date of Data

The Map
Symbols

=Mine
=Year Round Stream or River
=Seasonal or Dry Stream or River
=Year Round Lake
=Seasonal or Dry Lake
=Structure
=Trail

The Map
Symbols

=Vegetation

=Peak
=Church
=School

The Map
Contour Lines
Show Elevation

## More Importantly show

change in elevation

## Steep Contour Lines close together

Relatively Flat Contour Lines far apart

The Map
Map Legend

Data Date
Distance Scale
Compass Rose

The Map
Coordinates
Determine a position on the map
Different Coordinate Systems

Longitude
Has 180
000 at Greenwich England
Measured East - West

Latitude
Has 90
00 at Equator
Measured North - South

The Map

Latitude

Longitude

The Map
Latitude and Longitude are measured in Degrees , minutes , seconds
Can also be measured as Degrees, Minutes .000 or
Degrees.000
Each Degree, , is divided into 60 Minutes,
Each Minute , , is divided into 60 Seconds,

3327.000 or 332700 N

11709.000 or 1170900 W

The Map
Can also use UTM grid system
Consists of 6 digit number to determine your position
Both Lat/Long and UTM can be found on many USGS Maps

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Use the map and the Compass together to:
Find where youre at
Find where youre going
Also:
Can I make it in the time I have
Where is the best campsite
Where is water

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
To use the map and the compass together you
must first get them looking at the same North
Map Aligned with True North
Compass aligned with Magnetic North
Difference is caused by magnetic fields of the
Earth

## You must Orient the map

Align the map with Magnetic North or
Align the compass with True North

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Map may have a Compass Rose as on our map

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Orienting the Map with the Compass Rose
Mag N) with the Magnetic North, MN, line on the
compass rose

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Now rotate the map
until the index lines
up with the North
needle
oriented to Magnetic
North and can be
used with your
compass

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Orienting the Map without the Compass Rose
Difference between Magnetic North (compass) and
True North (Map) is given as a Deviation or
Declination value East or West

Declination = 13 E

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Note the difference and adjust the dial on your
compass so the North reference is now True North
Rule is:
East is Least
Subtract Deviation from 360
West is Best

Declination = 13 E

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
East is Least
Subtract 13 East Deviation from 360
347
Set 347 on the top of your compass dial
347

360

Declination = 13 E

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool

OR
347
347

## Now align the edge

of the compass with
any North-South line
on the map
The edge of the
map or a line of
longitude.

Declination = 13 E

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool

Declination = 13 E
347

OR

347

## Rotate the map

and compass until
the needle is aligned
with the index set at
347

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
One other way to
orient a map is to
line it up with known
features on the map
with known features
you see such as
etc..

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
For example you
left and a peak
behind you you can
rotate the map to
match what you see.

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Now the Map and
to use together as a
tool to find where
you are, find where
you are going or
identify any other
feature you may see
like a lake or peak.

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
To determine your location look for a prominent feature
you can match to the map.
Take your Compass and point the index at the feature.

Now rotate your dial until 360 is aligned with the North needle
The heading lined up with the index is your bearing to that
feature.
In this example - 190

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Note that bearing
Now do the same thing with another known feature on
the map

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Where the bearing lines intersect on your map is your
approximate location
The more features you use the more accurate your
position will be.
This is called triangulation
A GPS does the same thing with satellites

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Bearings to different features give your approximate
location

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Now you can use this location to get a heading off the
map to where you might want to go
For example the heading from this location to the mine
is approximately 165

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Now an exercise
You are standing somewhere on the map
You see Nielsen Peak and take a bearing of 165
You see a small lake and the bearing is 097
You see the Gaging Station and the bearing is 180
Where are you????

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Now an exercise
You are standing somewhere on the map
You see Nielsen Peak and take a bearing of 165
You see a small lake and the bearing is 097
You see the Gaging Station and the bearing is 180
Where are you????
You are at the Cemetery

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
What is the Latitude and Longitude of your location???

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
What is the Latitude and Longitude of your location???
N332932
W1170828

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Now another exercise
You are standing somewhere on the map that is a high
place
You see a mine and take a bearing of 070
You see a bend in a river and the bearing is 004
You see Nielsen Peak again and take a bearing of 111
Where are you????

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
Now and exercise
You are standing somewhere on the map
You see Nielsen Peak and take a bearing of 165
You see a small lake and the bearing is 097
You see the Gaging Station and the bearing is 180

## You are on the small peak halfway between Hwy 15

and the edge of the map about 2 inches from the
bottom

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
What is the Latitude and Longitude of your location???

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
What is the Latitude and Longitude of your location???
N332708
W1170912

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
From your location you want to go to the intersection
of Via Novillo and Camino Estribo where the cars are
waiting.

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
From your location you want to go to the intersection
of Via Novillo and Camino Estribo where the cars are
waiting.

Approximately 342

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
What is the Latitude and Longitude of the cars???
N332821
W1170937

## The Map and Compass

Together as a Tool
This has been a lot of information but we hope you
now appreciate the usefulness of the map and
compass as tools by themselves and as a backup to a
GPS