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By: Mike Riddle Institute for Creation Research
By: Mike Riddle Institute for Creation Research
By: Mike Riddle Institute for Creation Research

By: Mike Riddle

Institute for Creation Research

 Origins  Geologic time scale  The origin of strata  Uniformitarianism  Liquefaction 
 Origins  Geologic time scale  The origin of strata  Uniformitarianism  Liquefaction 
  • Origins

  • Geologic time scale

  • The origin of strata

    • Uniformitarianism

    • Liquefaction

    • Turbidity currents

  • Grand Canyon

  • Analysis of long ages

  • The Bible and the worldwide Flood

  • Long ages uniform processes Or Young earth catastrophic event
    Long ages uniform processes Or Young earth catastrophic event
    Long ages uniform processes Or Young earth catastrophic event

    Long ages

    uniform processes Or

    Young earth

    catastrophic event

    Long ages uniform processes Or Young earth catastrophic event
     Represents a cross-section through the earth‟s crust  Youngest rocks at the surface and oldest
    • Represents a cross-section through the

    earth‟s crust

    • Youngest rocks at the surface and oldest

    rocks at the bottom

    • It represents the total sedimentary

    activity of all the geologic ages

    • Textbooks suggest the column is supposed to be at least 100 miles thick

    Is the geologic column a fact or a hypothetical

    classification scheme used to support evolution?

     Consists of 10 layers  All 10 layers can be found in very few locations
    • Consists of 10 layers

    • All 10 layers can be found in very few locations

    (less than 1% of the earth‟s surface)

    • The worldwide average thickness of the column is about 1-mile!!! (it should be 100 miles)

    • The standard column was built by superposition from many different locations

    • The entire column (including thickness) can only be found in textbooks

    100 miles Complete Column (Textbooks) Actual column North Dakota
    100 miles
    100
    miles

    Complete

    Column

    (Textbooks)

    Actual column North Dakota

     Uniformitarianism (evolution model)  Liquefaction  Turbidity currents
    • Uniformitarianism (evolution model)

    • Liquefaction

    • Turbidity currents

    Evolution Model The doctrine that ancient geologic changes occurred largely in response to slow and gradual
    Evolution Model The doctrine that ancient geologic changes occurred largely in response to slow and gradual

    Evolution Model

    The doctrine that ancient geologic changes occurred largely in response to slow and gradual processes

    The present is the key to determining the past

    Is there another way to explain the data?

    Associated with quicksand, earthquakes and wave action The 1995 Kobe earthquake (M=6.9) in Japan The strong

    Associated with quicksand, earthquakes and wave action

    Associated with quicksand, earthquakes and wave action The 1995 Kobe earthquake (M=6.9) in Japan The strong
    Associated with quicksand, earthquakes and wave action The 1995 Kobe earthquake (M=6.9) in Japan The strong

    The 1995 Kobe earthquake (M=6.9) in Japan

    The strong ground motions that collapsed the Hanshin Expressway also caused severe

    liquefaction damage to port and wharf facilities.

    Harold L. Levin, Contemporary Physical Geology , 2nd edition (New York: Saunders College Publishing, 1986), p.

    Harold L. Levin, Contemporary Physical Geology, 2nd edition (New York: Saunders College Publishing, 1986), p. 251.

    “Often during earthquakes, fine-grained water- saturated sediments may lose their former strength

    and form into a thick mobile mudlike material. The process is called liquefaction.

    The liquefied sediment not only moves about

    beneath the surface but may also rise through

    fissures and “erupt” as mud boils and mud

    „volcanoes.‟”

     Liquefaction occurs whenever water is forced up through loose sediments  During the Genesis Flood,
    • Liquefaction occurs whenever water is forced up through loose sediments

    • During the Genesis Flood, there would have been enormous waves

    • During the Flood, water would have been forced into the ocean floor via compression from waves

    Compressed water stored Water released liquefaction Compressed water stored
    Compressed water stored Water released liquefaction Compressed water stored
    Compressed water stored Water released liquefaction Compressed water stored
    Compressed water stored Water released liquefaction Compressed water stored

    Compressed water stored

    Water released

    Compressed water stored Water released liquefaction Compressed water stored

    liquefaction

    Compressed water stored Water released liquefaction Compressed water stored
    Compressed water stored Water released liquefaction Compressed water stored

    Compressed

    water stored

     Differences in density, size, or shape of adjacent particles will cause them to fall at
    • Differences in density, size, or shape of

    adjacent particles will cause them to fall

    at different speeds

    • This sorting produces the layering typical in sedimentary rocks

     Differences in density, size, or shape of adjacent particles will cause them to fall at

    Many thin layers

    deposited rapidly

    An experiment in fossil order Bird Mammal Reptile Amphibian Fossil order
    An experiment in fossil order Bird Mammal Reptile Amphibian Fossil order

    An experiment in fossil order

    Bird Mammal Reptile Amphibian
    Bird Mammal Reptile Amphibian
    Bird Mammal Reptile Amphibian
    Bird Mammal Reptile Amphibian
    Bird Mammal Reptile Amphibian

    Bird

    Mammal

    Reptile

    Amphibian

    Fossil

    order

    Under water landslides  Nov 18, 1929 off the coast of New Foundland, Canada  Deposited
    Under water landslides  Nov 18, 1929 off the coast of New Foundland, Canada  Deposited

    Under water landslides

    • Nov 18, 1929 off the coast of New Foundland, Canada

      • Deposited over 2 feet of sediment over 40,000 square miles in 13 hours

      • Turbidites have common characteristics

        • Coarse on the bottom and finer particles on top

        • Many thin layers

    • About 30% of all sediments are turbidites

     What events could “prove” the Flood really happened?  Geologic evidence  The Bible 
    • What events could “prove” the Flood really

    happened?

    • Geologic evidence

    • The Bible

    • There is no way a big event like the Genesis Flood could occur without leaving evidence

    1. Marine deposits 2. Widespread deposits 3. Turbidity currents 4. Lack of erosion
    1. Marine deposits 2. Widespread deposits 3. Turbidity currents 4. Lack of erosion
    1. Marine deposits 2. Widespread deposits 3. Turbidity currents 4. Lack of erosion
    • 1. Marine deposits

    • 2. Widespread deposits

    • 3. Turbidity currents

    • 4. Lack of erosion

     Marine fossils are found high up on many mountain ranges in the world (Alps, Andes
     Marine fossils are found high up on many mountain ranges in the world (Alps, Andes
     Marine fossils are found high up on many mountain ranges in the world (Alps, Andes
    • Marine fossils are found high up on many mountain ranges in the world (Alps, Andes mountains,…)

      • 1. Some scientists believe the continents sank and came back up

      • 2. Some scientists believe the Genesis Flood is responsible

      • Marine deposits tell us that at some time

    in the past the oceans covered the continents

     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Shells similar to modern clams buried in a formation the
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Shells similar to modern clams buried in a formation the
    • Fossils suggest rapid burial

    • Shells similar to modern clams buried in a formation the size of Utah (Carmel formation 200,000 square miles)

    • Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years

     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Shells similar to modern clams buried in a formation the
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Shells similar to modern clams buried in a formation the
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Shells similar to modern clams buried in a formation the
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Shells similar to modern clams buried in a formation the
     Shinarump Conglomerate  70 miles due east of Grand Canyon  About 90 feet thick
     Shinarump Conglomerate  70 miles due east of Grand Canyon  About 90 feet thick
     Shinarump Conglomerate  70 miles due east of Grand Canyon  About 90 feet thick
    • Shinarump Conglomerate

      • 70 miles due east of Grand Canyon

      • About 90 feet thick (very thin)

      • 100,000 square miles

      • Deposited by water not a river or lake

      • Caused by a catastrophic event

    Shinarump Conglomerate (100,000 Square miles)  Steinaker Lake, Utah  Redclay, Wyoming  Chinle Formation –
    Shinarump Conglomerate (100,000 Square miles)  Steinaker Lake, Utah  Redclay, Wyoming  Chinle Formation –
    Shinarump Conglomerate (100,000 Square miles)  Steinaker Lake, Utah  Redclay, Wyoming  Chinle Formation –

    Shinarump

    Conglomerate

    (100,000 Square miles)

    • Steinaker Lake, Utah

    • Redclay, Wyoming

    • Chinle Formation 175,000 square miles

    • Dakota Formation

    • Morrison Formation 400,000 square miles (characterized by dinosaur fossils)

    Shinarump Conglomerate (100,000 Square miles)  Steinaker Lake, Utah  Redclay, Wyoming  Chinle Formation –
    Tapeats Sandstone  Dark flat layer similar to turbidites  Formed by a series of underwater
    Tapeats Sandstone  Dark flat layer similar to turbidites  Formed by a series of underwater
    Tapeats Sandstone  Dark flat layer similar to turbidites  Formed by a series of underwater

    Tapeats Sandstone

    • Dark flat layer similar to

    turbidites

    • Formed by a series of underwater flows of sand

    • Thickness 125 325 feet

    • Lowest level: coarse- grained sandstone and large boulders

    A thin layer called the Tapeats Sandstone (light color) covers most of North America Conclusion It
    A thin layer called the Tapeats Sandstone (light color) covers most of North America Conclusion It
    A thin layer called the Tapeats Sandstone (light color) covers most of North America Conclusion It

    A thin layer called the Tapeats Sandstone (light color) covers most of North America

    Conclusion

    It would take a great underwater event to

    create such a formation

    What might cause widespread deposits? Turbiditiy currents – underwater landslides  Produce many thin layers rapidly
    What might cause widespread deposits? Turbiditiy currents – underwater landslides  Produce many thin layers rapidly
    What might cause widespread deposits? Turbiditiy currents – underwater landslides  Produce many thin layers rapidly

    What might cause widespread deposits?

    What might cause widespread deposits? Turbiditiy currents – underwater landslides  Produce many thin layers rapidly
    What might cause widespread deposits? Turbiditiy currents – underwater landslides  Produce many thin layers rapidly

    Turbiditiy currents underwater landslides

    • Produce many thin layers rapidly

    • Over 30% of all sediments are turbidites

     Shepherds Point, Utah  Ventura Basin, CA  Marathon, TX  Grand Canyon, AZ 
     Shepherds Point, Utah  Ventura Basin, CA  Marathon, TX  Grand Canyon, AZ 
    • Shepherds Point, Utah

    • Ventura Basin, CA

    • Marathon, TX

    • Grand Canyon, AZ

    • Castle Point, New Zealand

    What does this mean?

    Many thin layers are now interpreted to have taken days rather then thousands of years

    Look for clues here Line of separation Cuts and breaks from erosion
    Look for clues here Line of separation Cuts and breaks from erosion
    Look for clues here Line of separation Cuts and breaks from erosion
    Look for clues here Line of separation Cuts and breaks from erosion

    Look for

    Look for clues here Line of separation Cuts and breaks from erosion

    clues here

    Look for clues here Line of separation Cuts and breaks from erosion

    Line of separation

    Cuts and

    breaks from

    erosion

    Toroweap and Kaibab formations Great Unconformity  Dox formation (darker sediments – below) – dated at
    Toroweap and Kaibab formations Great Unconformity  Dox formation (darker sediments – below) – dated at

    Toroweap and Kaibab formations

    Great Unconformity

    • Dox formation (darker sediments below) dated at 1 billion years

    • Tapeats sandstone (lighter sediments top) dated at ½ billion years

    Toroweap and Kaibab formations Great Unconformity  Dox formation (darker sediments – below) – dated at
     Erosion took place more slowly in the past  An entire layer was eroded away
    • Erosion took place more slowly in the past

    • An entire layer was eroded away so new layers came in on top of a flat plane

    We don‟t observe this happening

    today, therefore this is an unobserved

    explanation

    The evidence supports layers were laid

    down rapidly. This means the “long” geologic

    time scale is NOT there.

    “Spilling from the crater, Loowit Falls reshapes the north slope of the volcano. „You‟d expect a
    “Spilling from the crater, Loowit Falls reshapes the north slope of the volcano. „You‟d expect a

    “Spilling from the crater, Loowit Falls reshapes the

    north slope of the volcano. „You‟d expect a hardrock

    canyon to be thousands, even hundreds of thousands of

    years old,‟ says Peter Frenzen, monument scientist, „but

    this was cut in less than a decade.‟”

    National Geographic, May 2000, p. 121.

    Rapidly formed strata on the North Fork of the Toutle River

    Rapidly formed strata on the

    North Fork of the Toutle River

    Rapidly formed strata on the North Fork of the Toutle River
    Rapidly formed strata on the North Fork of the Toutle River
    Palouse Falls Gorge, WA

    Palouse Falls Gorge, WA

    Palouse Falls Gorge, WA
    Palouse Falls Gorge, WA
    “The Scablands look like a gigantic braided stream, a channel pattern that indicates rapid inundation by

    “The Scablands look like a gigantic braided

    stream, a channel pattern that indicates rapid

    inundation by water followed by rapid retreat.”

    “In the end, the „truth‟ of catastrophism did win,

    but it took more than 50 years to see the project through. And this was despite
    but it took more than 50 years to see the project
    through. And this was despite the fact that the
    event in question was relatively easy to document
    through field observations.”

    E. K. Peters, No Stone Unturned: Reasoning About Rocks and Fossils, 1991, pp. 78 and 84.

    Berlingame Canyon (150 feet deep) eroded in less than two days

    Berlingame Canyon (150 feet deep) eroded

    in less than two days

    Berlingame Canyon (150 feet deep) eroded in less than two days
    Polystrate fossils
    Polystrate fossils
    Polystrate fossils
    Polystrate fossils
    Upright floating logs
    Upright floating logs

    Upright floating logs

    Upright floating logs
    Upright Fossil Logs at Yellowstone National Park
    Upright Fossil Logs at Yellowstone National Park

    Upright Fossil Logs at Yellowstone National Park

    Upright Fossil Logs at Yellowstone National Park
    Across the valley rise the slopes of Specimen Ridge, but the forest you see there today
    Across the valley rise the slopes of Specimen Ridge, but the forest you see there today

    Across the valley rise the slopes of Specimen Ridge,

    but the forest you see there today is only the latest

    chapter in a remarkable story. Buried within the volcanic rocks that compose the mountain are

    twenty-seven distinct layers of fossil forests that

    flourished 50 million years ago.

    Sign at

    Yellowstone

    Across the valley rise the slopes of Specimen Ridge, but the forest you see there today
    “Experiments by Dr. George R. Hill and Dr. Don C. Adams at the University of Utah
    “Experiments by Dr. George R. Hill and Dr. Don C. Adams at the University of Utah

    “Experiments by Dr. George R. Hill and Dr. Don

    C. Adams at the University of Utah have shown that plant matter can be turned into coal in a

    matter of hours.”

    George R. Hill, “Some Aspects of Coal Research,” Chemical Technology, May 1972, p. 296.

    “Experiments by the U.S. Bureau of mines showed that petroleum (oil) can be produced from organic
    “Experiments by the U.S. Bureau of mines showed that petroleum (oil) can be produced from organic

    “Experiments by the U.S. Bureau of mines

    showed that petroleum (oil) can be produced

    from organic material in only 20 minutes.”

    Hayden R. Appell, Y.C. Fu, Sam Friedman, et al, “Converting Organic Wastes to Oil,” RL-7560 (Washington, D.C., United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, 1971.)

    “A mineralized sodium silicate solution for the application to wood has a composition causing it to
    “A mineralized sodium silicate solution for the application to wood has a composition causing it to

    “A mineralized sodium silicate solution for the

    application to wood has a composition causing it to penetrate the wood and jell within the wood so as

    to give the wood the non-burning characteristics of

    petrified wood.”

    US Patent & Trademark Office, Patent No. 4,612,050

     The geologic column is a model, and not found in its entirety anywhere (layers and
    • The geologic column is a model, and not found in its entirety anywhere (layers and thickness)

    • Large canyons can form rapidly (Grand Canyon, Eastern Washington)

    • Many thin layers of sedimentation do not require long ages (turbidites, liquefaction, Mount Saint Helens)

    • Coal, oil, and petrified wood can occur rapidly

    Where is the need for long ages?

    1. Evolution: myth or local flood 2. Theistic evolution: local flood  Day-age theory  Gap
    1. Evolution: myth or local flood 2. Theistic evolution: local flood  Day-age theory  Gap
    • 1. Evolution: myth or local flood

    • 2. Theistic evolution: local flood

      • Day-age theory

      • Gap theory

      • Progressive creationism

  • 3. Creation: worldwide flood

  • If there is no scientific requirement for

    long ages, then what can be said about

    theistic evolution?

    And God said to Noah, the end of all flesh is come before me; for the
    And God said to Noah, the end of all flesh is come before me; for the

    And God said to Noah, the end of all flesh is come

    before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and behold, I will destroy them

    with the earth.

    Genesis 6:13

    And behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the

    breath of life, from under heaven; and every

    thing that is in the earth shall die.

    Genesis 6:17

     The fountains of the deep broke open  The windows of heaven were opened (40
     The fountains of the deep broke open  The windows of heaven were opened (40
    • The fountains of the deep broke open

    • The windows of heaven were opened (40 days and 40 nights)

    • The waters prevailed and increased greatly (7:18)

    • The waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth

    (7:19)

    • The waters lifted the Ark (450 feet long)

    • The waters covered the highest hills by 20 feet (15 cubits)

     All flesh died that moved upon the earth (7:21)  All in whose nostrils was
     All flesh died that moved upon the earth (7:21)  All in whose nostrils was
    • All flesh died that moved upon the earth (7:21)

    • All in whose nostrils was the breath of life died

    (7:22)

    • Every living substance was destroyed (7:23)

    • Only Noah and his family survived

    • The waters prevailed upon the earth 150 days

    (7:24)

    • The flood lasted 1 year and 11 days (7:11, 8:14)

     God caused a wind to pass and the waters subsided (8:1)  And the waters
     God caused a wind to pass and the waters subsided (8:1)  And the waters
    • God caused a wind to pass and the waters subsided (8:1)

    • And the waters receded from off the earth continually (8:3)

    • 5 months after the start of the flood, the Ark came to a rest upon Ararat (8:4)

    • God made a covenant with Noah and all creatures on the Ark (every beast of the earth) all flesh (9:9-

    11)

     God caused a wind to pass and the waters subsided (8:1)  And the waters

    “neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters

    of a flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to

    destroy the earth.” (9:11)

     The Bible and science: water and gravity  The Flood and logic 20 Feet
     The Bible and science: water and gravity  The Flood and logic 20 Feet
     The Bible and science: water and gravity  The Flood and logic 20 Feet
    • The Bible and science: water and gravity

    • The Flood and logic

     The Bible and science: water and gravity  The Flood and logic 20 Feet
     The Bible and science: water and gravity  The Flood and logic 20 Feet
     The Bible and science: water and gravity  The Flood and logic 20 Feet

    20 Feet

     God's covenant  Genesis 9:8-11, 15 Isaiah 54:9  Peter described the flood as global
     God's covenant  Genesis 9:8-11, 15 Isaiah 54:9  Peter described the flood as global
    • God's covenant

      • Genesis 9:8-11, 15

    Isaiah 54:9

    • Peter described the flood as global

      • 2 Peter 2:5, 3:3-6

    • Jesus confirmed the flood

      • Matthew 24:37-39

    Luke 17: 26-27

    • The words used for the flood

      • Genesis:

      • Matthew:

    Mabbuwl

    Kataklusmos

     Kurt Wise  Steven A. Austin  John Morris  Elaine Kennedy  Donald B.
     Kurt Wise  Steven A. Austin  John Morris  Elaine Kennedy  Donald B.
    • Kurt Wise

    • Steven A. Austin

    • John Morris

    • Elaine Kennedy

    • Donald B. DeYoung

    • Russell Humphreys

    • Keith Wanser

    • John Baumgardner

    • Danny R. Faulkner

    • Duane T. Gish

    • Jay Wile

    • Lane P. Lester

    • Linda K. Walkup

    • Ray Bohlin

    • Gary E. Parker

    • Raul Lopez

    • Larry Vardiman

    • Charles Taylor

    • Robert Cole

    • Steven Boyd

    Ph.D. Paleontology

    Ph.D. Geology

    Ph.D. Geology Ph.D. Geology Ph.D. Physics Ph.D. Physics Ph.D. Physics Ph.D. Geophysics Ph.D. Astronomy Ph.D. Biochemistry Ph.D. Nuclear Chemistry Ph.D. Genetics

    Ph.D. Molecular Genetics

    Ph.D. Molecular Biology

    Ph.D. Biology Ph.D. Atmospheric Science Ph.D. Atmospheric Science

    Ph.D. Linguistics (O.T.)

    Ph.D. Semitic Languages Ph.D Hebraic and Cognitive Studies

    The Bible confirms that the account of the Flood in Genesis was a worldwide flood, and
    The Bible confirms that the account of the Flood in Genesis was a worldwide flood, and

    The Bible confirms that the account of

    the Flood in Genesis was a worldwide

    flood, and not a local or regional flood.

    • The geological evidence can be interpreted to support a young earth

      • Liquefaction

      • Turbidites

      • Long ages are not necessary

    What does this mean?

    “Over the years these theories have flourished.

    However linguist Charles Taylor ably demonstrates

    that their basis isn‟t in the word of God but in the

    attempts of people to make Genesis fit within the

    current majority view of origins….

    The writers have bent the words of Genesis making

    fallible sinful men the arbiters of Bible truth, when

    Psalm 118:8 says „It is better to trust in the Lord

    than to put confidence in man.‟”

    Warwick Armstrong, The First 100 Words, 1996, p. vi. Charles Taylor, Ph.D. Linguistics with a specialty in the

    Old Testament

    Liquefaction occurs in saturated soils, that is, soils in which the space between individual particles is

    Liquefaction occurs in saturated soils, that is, soils in which the space between individual particles is completely filled with water. This water exerts a pressure on the soil particles that influences how tightly the particles themselves are pressed together. Prior to an earthquake, the

    water pressure is relatively low. However, earthquake shaking can cause

    the water pressure to increase to the point where the soil particles can

    readily move with respect to each other.

    Schematic behavior of sand grains in a soil deposit during liquefaction. The blue column represents the pore water pressure.

    The 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake (M=6.9), commonly

    The 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake (M=6.9), commonly referred to as the Kobe earthquake, was one of

    referred to as the Kobe earthquake,

    was one of the most

    devastating earthquakes ever to hit Japan; more than 5,500 were killed and over 26,000 injured. The economic

    loss has been estimated at about $US 200 billion.

    The strong ground motions that led to collapse of the Hanshin Express way also caused severe liquefaction damage to port and wharf facilities

    The 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake (M=6.9), commonly referred to as the Kobe earthquake, was one of
    The 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake (M=6.9), commonly referred to as the Kobe earthquake, was one of
    • MATERIALS:

    BACKGROUND:

    Liquefaction accounts for considerable damage to property. It is like having your foot sunk into a spot of extremely muddy ground.

    • Newspapers to cover work surface

     MATERIALS: BACKGROUND: Liquefaction accounts for considerable damage to property. It is like having your foot
    • 1 1/4 cups clean sand

    • 1/3 to 1/2 cup of water

    • 1 lb. size plastic tub

    • Measuring cup

    PROCEDURE:

    • 1. Place 3/4 of the sand in the bottom of your bowl. Form a flat, even surface.

    • 2. SLOWLY sprinkle 1/2 the water over the surface of the sand. This represents precipitation.

    • 3. Wait about one minute. Carefully add more sand if there is standing water. The surface should be firm.

    • 4. Sprinkle dry sand over the top to form a dry layer. Press gently to test firmness. Add sand if necessary.

    • 5. Slide the bottom of the bowl rapidly back and forth on the desk top until water appears on the surface. Now press your fingers into the sand.

    What happened? What would happen to structures on the top of liquefied soil? Sands vary in absorbency.

    Experiment with these.

     Figure 76: Liquefaction Demonstration. When the wooden blocks at the top of the horizontal beam
    • Figure 76: Liquefaction Demonstration. When the wooden blocks at the top of the horizontal beam are removed, the beam can rock like a teeter-totter. When the beam is tipped up, water flows from the far tank down through the pipe and up into a container at the left, holding a mixture of sediments. Once liquefaction begins, plants and dead animals buried in the sediment container will float up through the sediments. Sedimentary particles fall or rise relative to each other and begin to sort themselves out into layers of like particles. The same

    would happen to plants and animals buried in the flood sediments.

    Their sorting and later fossilization might give the mistaken impression that fossils at a higher elevation were organisms that evolved millions of years after lower organisms. Walt Brown and Bradley W. Anderson

    Figure 75: Global Liquefaction. The liquefaction cycle begins at the

    left with water being forced down into the sea floor at high tide. During

    Figure 75: Global Liquefaction. The liquefaction cycle begins at the left with water being forced down

    the next 6 hours, as low tide approaches, that stored water is released. As it flows up through the sea floor, the sediments are lifted, beginning at the top of the sedimentary column. Once liquefaction begins, lighter particles are free to move up and denser particles to move down. This sorting occurred for many hours each day and for

    many days. Not only were sedimentary particles sorted into vast, thin layers, but also sorted were dead organisms buried in the sediments. In one experiment by Dr. Leonard R. Brand, a bird, a mammal, a reptile, and an amphibian were buried in thick, muddy water. Their natural settling order was as shown above. This happens to be "the evolutionary order," but, of course, evolution did not cause it. Bradley W. Anderson

    Figure 75: Global Liquefaction. The liquefaction cycle begins at the left with water being forced down
     Sedimentary Rocks  Contain most of the world‟s fossils  Most of the world‟s mountain
    • Sedimentary Rocks

      • Contain most of the world‟s fossils

      • Most of the world‟s mountain chains

      • Shale particles of clay cemented together, fine sediments associated with water

      • Sandstone sand grains cemented together

    Evidence of catastrophism 1. Oceans covered the continents 2. Rapid burial 3. Widespread strata 4. Short

    Evidence of catastrophism

    • 1. Oceans covered the continents

    • 2. Rapid burial

    • 3. Widespread strata

    • 4. Short time between strata

     South rim is 7,000 feet above sea level  We find fossils of sponges, brachiopods,
     South rim is 7,000 feet above sea level  We find fossils of sponges, brachiopods,
     South rim is 7,000 feet above sea level  We find fossils of sponges, brachiopods,
    • South rim is 7,000 feet above sea level

    • We find fossils of sponges, brachiopods, and coral in rocks at the south rim

    • North rim fossil ferns and marine fossils

     South rim is 7,000 feet above sea level  We find fossils of sponges, brachiopods,
     South rim is 7,000 feet above sea level  We find fossils of sponges, brachiopods,
     South rim is 7,000 feet above sea level  We find fossils of sponges, brachiopods,

    Marine fossils

     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years
    • Fossils suggest rapid burial

    • Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years

    • Nautiloids oriented in the same direction

     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years
     Fossils suggest rapid burial  Nautiloid Canyon: traditional view is thousands or millions of years

    Aligned in the same direction

     Long, thin horizontal layers of strata  No river channel features  No delta
     Long, thin horizontal layers of strata  No river channel features  No delta
     Long, thin horizontal layers of strata  No river channel features  No delta
    • Long, thin horizontal layers of strata

    • No river channel features

    • No delta

     Long, thin horizontal layers of strata  No river channel features  No delta
     Long, thin horizontal layers of strata  No river channel features  No delta
    Toroweap and Kaibab formations Great Unconformity  Dox formation (darker sediments – below) – dated at
    Toroweap and Kaibab formations Great Unconformity  Dox formation (darker sediments – below) – dated at
    Toroweap and Kaibab formations Great Unconformity  Dox formation (darker sediments – below) – dated at

    Toroweap and Kaibab formations

    Great Unconformity

    • Dox formation (darker sediments below) dated at 1 billion years

    • Tapeats sandstone (lighter sediments top) dated at ½ billion years

    Toroweap and Kaibab formations Great Unconformity  Dox formation (darker sediments – below) – dated at