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Jose Rizal was born on June

19, 1861 in the lakeshore of
Calamba, Laguna. He was the
son of Francisco Mercado and
Teodora Alonso Realonda. He
was baptized on June 22,
1861 by Father Rufino

Domingo Lam-Co (a full-blooded Chinese from Amoy, China) - - Ines
de la Rosa (Chinese half-breed)
Francisco Mercado - - Cirila Bernacha (21 children)
Juan Mercado - - Cirila Alejandra (14 children)
Francisco Mercado Rizal


Eugenio Ursua Benigna (family name unknown)

Regina Ursua/Ochoa Manuel de Quintos (2 children)
Brigida de Quintos - - Lorenzo Alberto (7 children)
Teodora Alonso Realonda

Mother and Father



- born in Sta. Cruz, Manila

- Studied Latin &

Philosophy at the College of
San Jose (Manila)
- described by Rizal as model of
- A successful farmer

- talented and
remarkable woman
- Joses first teacher
- inculcated the value of
knowledge and education
to the young Rizal

Sisters and Brothers

Saturnina- she was the oldest among them

Paciano- older brother of Jose
Narcisa- school teacher of Morong
Olimpia- third girl among the children
Lucia- married Mariano Herbosa
Maria- married Daniel Faustino Cruz
Concepcion- she died when she was only 3 years old
Josefa- died an old maid at age of 80
Trinidad- never married and died at age of 83
Soledad- she was the youngest among the 11 children

Early Influences
His mother- encouraged him to express his ideas and sentiments in
The Story of the Moth about the mother moth warning its offspring
of the danger of fluttering to close to flame. The little moth did not
heed the advice, thus it was burned by the flame.
The story gave him the moral lesson that if one must succeed, he
must take risks and prepare for the worst consequences. Without
courage, there will be no glory.

Early Childhood

1864 - learned the alphabet from his mother

1865 - his sister, Concha, died at the age of three because of sickness
1865 1867 - his mother taught him how to read and write
School of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz first school of Rizal
First Tutor: Maestro Celestino
Leon Monroy - taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin
1869 At eight, Rizal was able to write his first poem entitled: Sa Aking
Mga Kababata.

Early Childhood
1870 - His brother,Paciano, brought Rizal to Bian, Laguna.
Juancho Carrera taught him the art of painting

17 December 1870 - Rizal returned to Calamba after he finished his

studies in Bian
1871 - His mother was imprisoned in Sta. Cruz, Laguna for allegedly
poisoning the wife of Jose Alberto
1872 - Cavite Mutiny on January 20, 1872

Formal Education
In Ateneo de Municipal:

got excellent grades

studied bachelor of arts in 1877
graduated as one of sobresaliente
first professor was Fr. Jose Bech
The pride of Jesuits- gained in Ateneo

Formal Education
In University of Sto. Tomas:

got low grades

April 1877 enrolled in UST taking up Philosophy and Letters
study medicine (ophthalmology) - did not complete
had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students
were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors

May 3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the
Universidad Central de Madrid. On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was
conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19,1885, at the age
of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of
Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22
languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German,
Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian,
Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A versatile genius, he
was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist,
ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician,
mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon, poet,
propagandist, psychologist, scientist, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian.

2 Novels of RizaL
El Filibusterimo
Noli Me Tangere
- his first novel
- dedicated to the Gomburza
- came out of press by the help priests
of Dr. Viola
- He moved to Ghent to print his
- exposing the arrogance and
despotism of the Spanish

In 1896, the execution in Manila of Filipino patriot Jos Rizal, convicted by a

Spanish military court of sedition, facilitated a revolt against Spain. The
Spanish, meanwhile, had become enmeshed in an unsuccessful war in their
Cuban colony and were eager to end the fighting in the Philippines. They
offered revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo amnesty and an indemnity
payment if he would go into exile. Aguinaldo agreed and left the Philippines at
the end of 1897.
November 3, 1986- to the date of his execution, he was again committed to Fort
December 17, 1896 his trial
December 28 Gen. Polavieja approved the sentence of Rizal

Rizals Last Moments

December 29
Fr. Saderra and Viza visited Rizal
- He wrote two letters, one for his brother and the other for his family
- At 7 PM, his family visited him for the last time
- He gave the cooking lamp to Trinidad saying that there was something inside,
which is his farewell poem, Mi Ultimo Adios
December 30
In the cold morning of that day, Rizal, a man whose 35 years of life had been
packed with varied activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to
equal if not excel even those who treat him as a slave, was shot at
Bagumbayan Field.