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NC, CNC & DNC

PATIL S B
Assistant Professor-Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering, Pune-411 005
sbp.mech@coep.ac.in

History

1949
US Air Force asks MIT to develop a "numerically controlled"
machine.
1952
Prototype NC machine demonstrated (punched tape input)

1980CNC machines (computer used to link directly to controller)


1990DNC: external computer drip feeds control programmer
to machine tool controller
NC, CNC AND DNC

NC
Numerical Control (NC) - A control system
which primarily processes numeric input
(numbers, letters and symbols). Limited
programming capability at the machine
tool. Limited logic beyond direct input.
These types of systems are referred to as
hardwire controls and were popular from
the 1950s to 1970s.
NC, CNC AND DNC

Introduction
According to Electronic Industries Association (EIA):

Numerical Control is a system in which actions are controlled by


direct insertion of numerical data at some point. The system must
automatically interpret at least some portion of this data.
The part program is a set of statements that a machine control system
can interpret and converted them into signals that move the
spindles and drive the machine tool
Today the part program can be generated directly from the CAD
database by NC software and then can be the input for a NC
machine tool

NC, CNC AND DNC

Basic components of NC system


1.

Program of instructions- Detailed step by step set of


direction which tell the machine tool what to do.
- Manual Data Input (MDI)
- Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
2. Controller Unit- Interpret the program and convert into
mechanical actions.
- tape reader, a data buffer, signal output channel,
feedback channels from machine tool and sequence
controls to coordinate the overall operations.
3. M/c Tool/ Controlled process- Work table, fixtures, tooling and other auxiliary
equipment
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The NC Procedure
1. Process planning
2. Part programming
- Manual Part programming
- Computer assisted part programming
3. Tape preparation
4. Tape verification
5. Production
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Conventional milling machines

Vertical milling machine

NC, CNC AND DNC

Conventional milling machines


Vertical Milling machine architecture

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Conventional milling machines


Horizontal Milling machine architecture

How does the table move along X- Y- and Z- axes ?


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NC Coordinate System
1. Fixed zero- Fixed origin
2. Floating zero- Programmer defines the
position of the origin
1. Absolute programming- tool locations are
always defined in relation to zero point.
2. Incremental programming- next tool
location must be defined with reference
to previous tool location.
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10

NC Motion Control System


1. Point-to-point ( PTP)/ Positioning System- tool
movement from one point to another point,
simple system
- drilling, tapping, reaming or similar operations.
2. Straight cut NC- Tool movement along straight
line.
- Milling or similar operations.
3. Countering/ Continuous path NC- Intricate and
complex shapes, complex and costly system
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11

Three Basic Categories of


Motion Systems

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12

Applications of NC-1
- Machining operations such as milling, drilling,
turning, broaching, grinding, etc.
- Other applications-Assembly, testing, welding,
inspection, any repetitive job.

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13

Applications of NC-2

Parts with following general features

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Part geometry is complex


Parts involving many operation
Much material is required to be removed
Parts to be produced frequently and small lot sizes
Engineering design changes frequently
Close tolerances are required
Expensive in case of rework
Parts requiring 100% inspection
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14

Advantages of NC
Advantages
Reduced set up time

Reduced fixturing

Reduced manufacturing lead time

Greater manufacturing flexibility

Improved quality control

Reduced inventory

Reduced floor space requirements


Disadvantages
Higher investment costs

Higher maintenance cost

Programming/ training
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15

Conventional Vs NC machines
Aspect

Conventional Machine

NC machine

Rate of production

Normal

Comparatively high

Machine hour rate

Normal

Comparatively high

Initial and Maintenance


cost

Less

Comparatively very high

Additional requirement

Not specific

Usually required

Skill

Normal skilled worker

High programming skills

Type of tooling

Normal

Special type of toolings

Sophistication

No

High degree
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16

Problems with NC system


1.
2.
3.
4.

Part programming mistakes


Non-optimal speeds and feeds
Punched tape
Controller- Hard wired so difficult to
change easily
5. Management information

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17

NC machines
Motion control is done by: servo-controlled motors

Table
Leadscrew
A/C Motor

Encoder

Servo Controller
Counter

Comparator

Input (converted from analog to digital value)

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18

Hardware Configuration of an
NC Machine Tool
A typical NC machine tool contains the Machine
Control Unit (MCU) and the machine tool itself.

The MCU includes


the Data Processing Unit (DPU)
and
the Control Loop Unit (CLU)

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19

Hardware Configuration of an
NC Machine Tool

DPU reads the part program, decodes it, processes the information
and passes it to the CLU

CLU convert the information to control signals and drives the


mechanism, receives feedback (about position and velocity) and
instructs DPU to read new instructions

Axis of a machine tool is defined as a path along which relative motion


between the cutting tool and the workpiece occurs and a machine
can have more than one axis.

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20

Computer Numerical Control (CNC)


CNC is a system that utilizes a dedicated,
stored program computer to perform some
or all basic functions of NC functions.
Most of the CNC systems are
microcomputer based controller units.

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21

CNC System-General configuration

Tape
Reader
for initial
program
entry

Minicomputer or
microcomputer
(Software function and
NC part program storage)

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Computer
Hardware
interface
and
Servo system

Machine
tool

22

Functions of CNC
1. Machine tool control
2. In process compensation
3. Improved programming and operating
features
4. Diagnostics

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23

1. Machine tool control- CNC


1. Hybrid CNC

Motion
feed back

Motion
Interpolators
And
Sensor system
Tape
reader

Minicomputer/
Interface logic
Microcomputer
(Hard wired)
(soft wired)

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Machine
tool

24

Machine tool control- CNC


2. Straight CNC

Tape
reader

Motion
feed back

Minicomputer/ Servo and


Microcomputer Interface logic
(soft wired)
(Hard wired)

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Machine
tool

25

2. In process compensation-CNC
- Recommendation of axis position when
inspection probe is used to locate a datum
reference on a work part
- Offset adjustment for tool radius and length
- Adaptive control for processing parameters
- Computation of predicted tool life and selection
of alternative tooling when indicated
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26

3. Improved Programming & operating features-

- Graphic display of the tool path to verify


the tape
- Various types of interpolation- circular,
parabolic, cubic etc
- Use of specially written sub routines
- Manual data input
- Local storage of more than one part
program
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27

4. Diagnostics
- The system would be able to identify the
reason for down time occurrence, so the
maintenance can be carried out quickly
- Alter to signs that indicate the imminent
failure of a certain component.

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Advantages of CNC Machine


Tools

Ease of part duplication


Flexibility
Repeatability
Quality control through process control

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Advantages of CNC Machine


Tools
CNC machine tools are more rigid than
conventional machine tools
Climb milling requires about 10 - 15 % less
horsepower vs. conventional cutting, but requires
a rigid machine tool with no backlash
Increased Rpms and feeds

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30

CNC terminology

BLU: basic length unit


smallest programmable move of each axis.

Controller: (Machine Control Unit, MCU)


Electronic and computerized interface between operator and m/c
Controller components:
1. Data Processing Unit (DPU)
2. Control-Loops Unit (CLU)

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31

Controller components

Data Processing Unit:


Input device [RS-232 port/ Tape Reader/ Punched Tape Reader]
Data Reading Circuits and Parity Checking Circuits

Decoders to distribute data to the axes controllers.

Control Loops Unit:


Interpolator to supply machine-motion commands between data points

Position control loop hardware for each axis of motion

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Types of CNC machines


Based on Motion Type:
Point-to-Point

or

Continuous path

or

Closed loop

or

Hydraulic

Based on Control Loops:


Open loop

Based on Power Supply:


Electric

or

Pneumatic

Based on Positioning System


Incremental

or

Absolute

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33

Open Loop vs. Closed Loop controls

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34

Open loop control of a Point-to-Point NC drilling machine


NOTE: this machine uses stepper motor control

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35

Components of Servo-motor controlled CNC


Motor

lead screw rotation

table moves

Motor speed control

feedback

position sensed by encoder

Two types ofNC,


encoder
configurations
CNC AND
DNC

36

Motion Control and feedback

Encoder outputs: electrical pulses (e.g. 500 pulses per revolution)


Rotation of the motor linear motion of the table: by the leadscrew
The pitch of the leadscrew: horizontal distance between successive threads
One thread in a screw single start screw: Dist moved in 1 rev = pitch
Two threads in screw double start screw: Dist moved in 1 rev = 2* pitch

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37

Control Systems
Open-Loop Control
Stepper motor system
Current pulses sent from control unit to motor
Each pulse results in a finite amount of
revolution of the motor 0.01 is possible

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38

Control Systems
Open-Loop Limitations
Control unit assumes desired position is
achieved
No positioning compensation
Typically, a lower torque motor

Open-Loop Advantages
Less complex, Less costly, and lower
maintenance costs
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39

Control Systems
Closed-Loop Control
Variable DC motors - Servos
Positioning sensors -Resolvers
Feedback to control unit
Position information compared to target location
Location errors corrected

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40

Control Systems
Closed-Loop Advantages
DC motors have the ability to reverse
instantly to adjust for position error
Error compensation allows for greater
positional accuracy (.0001)
DC motors have higher torque ranges vs..
stepper motors

Closed-loop limitations
Cost
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41

Direct numerical control


Number of machines are controlled by a computer

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42

DNC

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43

Components of DNC
1.
2.
3.
4.

Central Computer
Bulk memory, which stores the programs
Telecommunication lines and
Machine tools

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44

Types of DNC
1. Behind the tape reader (BTR) system
DNC
Computer
Two
Storage
buffer

Bulk memory
NC
programs

NC
controller

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Machine
tool

45

Types of DNC
2. Special machine control unit (MCU)
DNC
Computer

Special
MCU

Bulk memory
NC
programs

Machine
tool

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46

Functions of DNC
1.
2.
3.
4.

NC without punched tape


NC part program storage
Data collection, processing and reporting
communication

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47

Advantages of DNC
- Elimination of punched tape and tape
readers.
- Greater computational capability and
flexibility
- Convent storage of NC part programs in
computer files.
- Reporting shop performance.
- Establishes the frame work for future
computer automated factory.
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48

Machining Centers
A machining center can be defined as a
machine tool capable of:
Multiple operation and processes in a single
set-up utilizing multiple axis
Typically has an automatic mechanism to
change tools

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49

Machining Centers
Machine motion is programmable
Servo motors drive feed mechanisms for tool
axiss
Positioning feedback is provided by resolvers
to the control system

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50

Machining Centers
Example - A turning center capable of OD
turning, external threading, cross-hole
drilling, engraving, and milling. All in
machining is accomplished in one set-up.
Machine may have multiple spindles.

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51

Machining Centers

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52

Basic Concepts for Part


Programming
Part programming contains geometric information about the
part and motion information to move the cutting tool with
respect to the workpiece
The first thing to be defined is the
Coordinate System and then some-one can continue
with the Syntax of Part Programming

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53

Coordinate System
Main 3 Axes forming a right-hand coordinate system, by
convention z axis moves the cutting tool away from the
workpiece, in details:
The z axis, parallel to the spindle for rotating workpiece,
and parallel to the machine tool axis for rotating tool, as
a milling, drilling, or boring machine
The x axis, in the direction of the tool movement for the
first case, and points to the right when some-one is
facing the machine.

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54

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55

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56

Coordinate System
There can be more axes because of secondary slide motions in
addition to the primary x, y and z directions, and the rotary motions
around axes parallel to x, y and z axes.
These axes can be labeled u, v and w (for the first case) and a, b and c
(for the second).
The machine tools can be classified according to the number of axes
they provide to control position and orientation. For example, there
are 2-axis, 3-axis and 5-axis milling machines.

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57

Syntax of Part Programming

Various formats and well defined syntax with variations


due to differences between machines

Use of a sequence of blocks containing commands to


set machine parameters as speed etc

Each command has an identifying letter followed by an


associated number

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58

Syntax of Part Programming


Some identifying letters for the commands:
Sequence number (N code)
Preparatory command (G code)
Dimension words (X, Y, Z, A and B words)
Feed commands (F code)
Speed commands (S code)
Tool selection (T code)
Miscellaneous (M code)

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Syntax of Part Programming


Formats for the commands arranged to form a block:

Fixed sequential format


Block address format
Tab sequential format
Word address format

For example: N040 G00 X0 Y0 Z300 T01 M06

N: identifier number, G: preparatory commands,


X,Y and Z: coordinates along the x, y and z axis
T: the tool number and M: miscellaneous commands

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Manual Part Programming


Part program manuscript

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61

Part programming example-1

p2
p3
100

p1

75
50
25

25

50

75
100

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62

Part program Ex. 1


N01 G92 X0Y0F0 EOB
N02 G71 G90 G94 EOB
N03 M03 F120 S1200 EOB
N04 G00 X25000 Y2500 Z-4000 EOB
N05 G01 Z-65000 EOB
N06 G00 Z-73000 EOB
N07 G00 X50000 Y50000 EOB
N08 G01 Z-65000 EOB
N09 G00 Z-37000 EOB
N10 G00 X75000 Y50000 EOB
N11 G01 Z65000 EOB
N12 G00 Z37000 EOB
N14 G00 X0Y0Z0 EOB
N15 M02
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Part program Ex.-2

28

24

20
40
20

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Part program Ex. 2


N01 G90 G71 G94 M03 S640 EOB
N02 G01 X20000 Z0000 F200 EOB
N03 G00 Z100 EOB
N04 G00 X0000 EOB
N05 G01 Z6000 EOB
N06 G00 X100 Z100 EOB
N07 G00 X-200 EOB
N08 G01 Z-600 EOB
N09 G00 X100 Z100 EOB
N10 G00 X4000 Z4000 EOB
N11 G01 Z400 EOB
N12 M02
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Manual Part Programming Example- 3

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66

Part Program Ex. 3


N001
N002
N003
N004
N005
N006
N007
N008
N009
N010
N011
N012

G91
G71
G00
G01
G01
G01
G01
G01
G02
G01
G01
G01

EOB
EOB
X0.0 Y0.0 Z40.0 T0.1 M06 EOB
X65.0 Y0.0 Z-40.0 F950 S717 M03 EOB
X10.0 F350 M08 EOB
X110.0 EOB
Y70.0 EOB
X-40.86 EOB
X-28.28 Y0.0 I14.14 J5.0 EOB
X-40.86 EOB
Y-70.0 EOB
X-75.0 Y0.0 Z40.0 F950 M30
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Manual Part Programming Example 4


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

45
(4, 4)
p1

Tool size = 0.25 inch,


Feed rate = 6 inch per minute,
Cutting speed = 300 rpm,
Tool start position: 2.0, 2.0
Programming in inches

Motion of tool:
p0 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p1 p0

p0 (2, 2)
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1. Set up the programming parameters


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

Programming in inches
5

Use absolute coordinates


Feed in ipm
45

N010 G70 G90 G94 G97 M04


(4, 4)
p1

Spindle speed in rpm

p0 (2, 2)

Spindle CCW
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69

2. Set up the machining conditions


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

Machine moves in XY-plane


Use full-circle interpolation
5

Feed rate
Spindle speed
45

N020 G17 G75 F6.0 S300 T1001 M08


(4, 4)
p1

Tool no.

p0 (2, 2)

Flood coolant ON
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70

3. Move tool from p0 to p1 in straight line


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

Linear interpolation

target coordinates

N030 G01 X3.875 Y3.698

45
(4, 4)
p1
p0 (2, 2)
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4. Cut profile from p1 to p2


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

Linear interpolation
5

target coordinates

N040 G01 X3.875 Y9.125


45

or
(4, 4)
p1

N040 G01 Y9.125

p0 (2, 2)

X-coordinate
does
it
NC, CNC
AND not
DNCchange no need to program72

5. Cut profile from p2 to p3


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

Linear interpolation

p5

target coordinates

N050 G01 X5.634 Y9.125


5
y = 9 + 0.125 = 9.125
(6.5 - x)2 + 0.1252 = (1 - 0.125)2
x = 5.634

45

p3
(x, y)

(4, 4)
p1

(6.5, 9)
.125

p0 (2, 2)
NC, 1
CNC AND DNC

73

6. Cut along circle from p3 to p4


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

circular interpolation, CCW motion


5

target coordinates

45

N060 G03 X7.366 Y9.125 I6.5 J9.0

(4, 4)

coordinates of center of circle

p1
p0 (2, 2)
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74

7. Cut from p4 to p5
5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

Linear interpolation
45
(4, 4)

target coordinates (Y is unchanged)

N070 G01 X9.302

p1
p0 (2, 2)
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75

8. Cut from p5 to p1
5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

Linear interpolation
target coordinates (see step 3)
45

N080 G01 X3.875 Y3.698


(4, 4)
p1
p0 (2, 2)
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76

9. Return to home position, stop program


5
2.5
p3

p2

p4

p5

Linear interpolation
target coordinates (see step 3)

N090 G01 X2.0 Y2.0 M30


45
(4, 4)
p1

end of data

N100 M00
program stop

p0 (2, 2)
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77

Computer Assisted Part


Programming
The alternative to manual part programming is the use of
high-level programming language, which:

Defines the geometry part in terms of basic geometry


elements (points, lines )

Instructs the machine about the cutting tool

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78

Computer Assisted Part


Programming
So the following procedures must be used to obtain the G-code:

The programmer identifies the part geometry, cutter motions, feeds,


speeds and cutter parameters
The programmer codes the part geometry, cutter motion, feed etc
and this is the source using a programming language
The source is then compiled to produce the machine independent
list of cutter movements and other machine control information (the
cutter location control data file or CL data file)
The CL data are processed by post-processor to generate machine
control data for the particular machine

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79

APT Language
The most comprehensive and widely used language is Automatically
Programmed Tool (APT) the first prototype of the APT system
was developed at MIT in 1956.
The APT statements belong to one of the five types:

Identification statements
Geometry statements
Motion statements
Post-processor statements
Auxiliary statements

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80

APT Language
Geometry statements, the general form of geometry
statement is:
Symbol = geometry_word/descriptive data
In the case of points:
P1 = POINT/X, Y, Z
P2 = POINT/L1, L2
P3 = POINT/CENTER, C1
P4= POINT/YLARGE, INTOF,
P5= POINT/XLARGE, INTOF,
P6= POINT/XLARGE, INTOF,
P7= POINT/YLARGE, INTOF,

L1,
L1,
C1,
C1,

NC, CNC AND DNC

C1
C1
C1
C1

81

APT Language

In the case of lines:


L1 = LINE/X1, Y1, Z1, X2, Y2, Z2
L2 = LINE/P1, P2
L3 = LINE/P1, PARLEL, P2
L4 = LINE/P1, PERPTO, L0
L5 = LINE/P1, LEFT, TANTO, C1
L6 = LINE/P1, RIGHT, TANTO, C1
L7 = LINE/LEFT, TANTO, C1, LEFT, TANTO, C2
L8 = LINE/LEFT, TANTO, C1, RIGHT, TANTO, C2
L9 = LINE/RIGHT, TANTO, C1, LEFT, TANTO, C2
L10 = LINE/RIGHT, TANTO, C1, RIGHT, TANTO, C2
L11 = LINE/P1, ATANGL, L0

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82

APT Language

In the case of circles:

C1 = CIRCLE/X, Y, Z, R
C2 = CIRCLE/CENTER, P1, RADIOUS, R
C3 = CIRCLE/CENTER, P1, TANTO, L0
C4 = CIRCLE/P1, P2, P3
C5 = CIRCLE/XSMALL, L1, XSMALL, L2, RADIOUS, R
And the same with XLARGE, YLARGE or YSMALL

In the case of planes:

PL1 = PLANE/P1, P2, P3


PL2 = PLANE/PARLEL, PL0, XLARGE, D
And the same with XLARGE, YLARGE, YSMALL, ZLARGE or ZSMALL

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83

APT Language
Motion statements, with regard to point-to-point operation
there are three motion statements for positioning the
tool at a desired point:
FROM/point_location
GOTO/point_location
GODLTA/x, y, z

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84

APT Language Example 1:

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85

APT Language
Answer:
P0 = POINT/0.0, 3.0, 0.1
P1 = POINT/1.0, 1.0, 0.1
P2 = POINT/2.0, 1.0, 0.1
FROM/P0
GOTO/P1
GODLTA/0, 0, -0.7
GODLTA/0, 0, 0.7
GOTO/P2
GODLTA/0, 0, -0.7
GODLTA/0, 0, 0.7
GOTO/P0
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86

APT Language
Other Motion statements:

GO/{TO}, Drive surface, {TO} Part surface, {TO},


Check surface

Or
GO/{TO}, Drive surface, {TO} Part surface, {TANTO},
Check surface
And the same with PAST or ON instead of TO
GOLFT/
GORGT/
GOUP/
GODOWN/
GOFWD/
GOBACK/
For example:
GO/TO, L1, TO, PS, TANTO, C1
GO/PAST, L1, TO, PS, TANTO, C1
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87

APT Language Example 2

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88

APT Language
Answer:
FROM/SP
GO/TO, L1, TO, PS, ON, L4
GORGT/L1, PAST, L2
GOLFT/L2, PAST, L3
GOLFT/L3, PAST, C1
GOLFT/C1, PAST, L3
GOLFT/L3, PAST, L4
GOLFT/L4, PAST, L1
GOTO/SP

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89

APT Language
Example 3:

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90

APT Language
Answer:
FROM/SP
GO/TO, L1, TO, PS, ON, L6
GORGT/L1, PAST, L2
GORGT/L2, TANTO, C1
GOFWD/C1, TANTO, L3
GOFWD/L3, PAST, L4
GOLFT/L4, PAST, L5
GOLFT/L5, PAST, L6
GOLFT/L6, PAST, L1
GOTO/SP

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91

APT Language
Additional statements:
MACHIN/DRILL, 2
COOLNT/
For example: COOLNT/MIST COOLNT/FLOOD COOLNT/OF
FEDRAT/
SPINDL/
For example: SPINDL/ON SPINDL/1250, CCLW
TOOLNO/
TURRET/
END

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92

APT Language
Other capabilities of APT, the macro facility, with use variable argument as in a
FORTRAN subroutine, for example:

P0 = POINT/0.0, 0.3, 0.1


FROM/P0
CALL/DRILL, X=1.0, Y=1.0, Z=0.1, DEPTH=0.7
CALL/DRILL, X=2.0, Y=1.0, Z=0.1, DEPTH=0.7
GOTO/P0
when the definition of the macro DRILL is:

DRILL = MACRO/X, Y, Z, DEPTH


GOTO/X,Y,Z
GODLTA/0,0, -DEPTH
GODLTA/0,0, DEPTH
TARMAC
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APT Language Example 4 (1/2):

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94

APT Language
Example 4 (2/2):

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95

APT Language
Answer (1/4):
PARTNO PART11
MACHIN/MILL, 3
;machine selection
CLPRINT
;prints out CL data file
OUTTOL/0.002
SP =POINT/5,0,1
P1 =POINT/1,2,0.5
P2 =POINT/4,2,0.5
P3 =POINT/6,4,0.5
P4 =POINT/8,5,0.5
P5 =POINT/9,7,0.5
P6 =POINT/2,7,0.5
PL1 = PLANE/P1, P2, P3
PS = PLANE/PARALEL, PL1, ZSMALL, 0.5
;define part surface to be z = 0
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APT Language
Answer (2/4):
C1 = CIRCLE/CENTER, P4, RADIOUS, 1.0
L1 = LINE/P2, P3
L2 = LINE/P3, RIGHT, TANTO, C1
L3 = LINE/P5, LEFT, TANTO, C1
L4 = LINE/P5, P6
L5 = LINE/P6, P1
L4 = LINE/P1, P2
MILL = MACRO/CUT, SPIN, FEED, CLNT
CUTTER/CUT
FEDRAT/FEED
SPINDL/SPIN
COOLNT/CLNT
FROM/SP
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97

APT Language
Answer (3/4):
FROM/SP
GO/TO, L1, TO, PS, ON, L6
GORGT/L1, TO, L2
GORGT/L2, TANTO, C1
GOFWD/C1, TANTO, L3
GOFWD/L3, PAST, L4
GOLFT/L4, PAST, L5
GOLFT/L5, PAST, L6
GOLFT/L6, PAST, L1
GOTO/SP
TERMMAC
TURRET/4
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98

APT Language
Answer (4/4):
TURRET/4
CALL/MILL, CUT=0.52, SPIN=600, FEED=3.0, CLNT=ON
TURRET/6
CALL/MILL, CUT=0.5, SPIN=900, FEED=2.0, CLNT=ON
SPINDL/0
COOLNT/OFF
END
FINI

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Other Part Programming


Languages

ADAPT (ADaptation APT) was the first attempt to adapt APT


programming system for smaller computers
AUTOSPOT (AUTOmatic Sytem for POsitioning Tools) was
developed by IBM and first introduced in 1962
EXAPT (EXtended subset of APT) was developed jointly in
German in about 1964 by several universities to adapt APT for
European use. It is compatible with APT and thus can use the
same processor as APT
COMPACT was developed by Manufacturing Data Systems,
Inc. (MDSI)
SPLIT (Sundstrand Processing Language Internally
Translated) was developed by Sundstrand Corporation,
intended for its own machine tools
MAPT (Micro-APT) is a subset of APT, to be run on the
microcomputers
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100

Automatic Part Programming


Software programs can automatic generation of CNC data

Define Tool

CNC data

Make 3D model
Simulate
cutting
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101

Automatic part programming and DNC


Very complex part shapes very large NC program
NC controller memory may not handle HUGE part program

computer feeds few blocks of


NC program to controller

When almost all blocks executed,


controller requests more blocks

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102

Programming Methods
Automatically Programmed Tools (APT)
A text based system in which a programmer
defines a series of lines, arcs, and points
which define the overall part geometry
locations. These features are then used to
generate a cutter location (CL) file.

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103

Programming Methods-APT
Developed as a joint effort between the
aerospace industry, MIT, and the US Airforce
Still used today and accounts for about 5 10% of all programming in the defense and
aerospace industries

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104

Programming Methods-APT
Requires excellent 3D visualization skills
Capable of generating machine code for
complicated part programs
5 axis machine tools

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105

Programming Methods-APT
Part definition
P1=Point/12,20,0
C1=Circle/Center,P1,Radius,3
LN1=Line/C1. ATANGL,90

Cutter Commands
TLRT,GORT/LN1.TANTO,C1
GOFWD/C1,TANTO,L5

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106

Programming Methods-CAM
Computer Aided Machining (CAM)
Systems
Graphic representation of the part
PC based
Integrated CAD/CAM functionality
Some built-in expertise
Speed & feed data based on material and tool specifications

NC, CNC AND DNC

107

Programming Methods-CAM
Tool & material libraries
Tool path simulation
Tool path editing
Tool path optimization
Cut time calculations for cost estimating

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108

Programming Methods-CAM
Import / export capabilities to other systems
Examples:
Drawing Exchange Format (DXF)
Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES)

NC, CNC AND DNC

109

The Process CAD to NC File


Start with graphic representation of part
Direct input
Import from external system
Example DXF / IGES

2D or 3D scan
Model or Blueprint

(At this point you have a graphics file of your


geometry)

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110

The Process CAD to NC File


Define cutter path by selecting
geometry
Contours
Pockets
Hole patterns
Surfaces
Volume to be removed
(At this point the system knows what you
want to cut)
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111

The Process CAD to NC File


Define cut parameters
Tool information
Type, Rpm, Feed

Cut method
Example - Pocket mill zig-zag, spiral, inside-out
Rough and finish parameters

(At this point the system knows how you want to


cut the part)

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112

The Process CAD to NC File


Execute cutter simulation
Visual representation of cutter motion

Modify / delete cutter sequences


(At this point the system has a generic cutter
location (CL) file of the cut paths)

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113

The Process CAD to NC File


Post Processing
CL file to machine specific NC code

Filters CL information and formats it into


NC code based on machine specific
parameters
Work envelope
Limits - feed rates, tool changer, rpms, etc.
G & M function capabilities
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114

Output: NC Code
Numerical Control (NC) Language
A series of commands which direct the
cutter motion and support systems of the
machine tool.

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115

Output: NC Code

G-Codes (G00, G1, G02, G81)


Coordinate data (X,Y,Z)
Feed Function (F)
Miscellaneous functions (M13)
N - Program sequence number
T - Tool call
S - Spindle command

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116

Output: NC Code
NC Program Example

N01G90 G80
N03 GOO T12 M06
N05 GOO X0 Y0 Z.1 F10 S2500 M13
N07 G1Z-.5
N09 G02 X-10. I0J0F20
N13 X0Y10
N17 X10Y0
N19 X0Y-10
N21 X-10Y0
N23 M2

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117

Example of CNC
Programming
What What Must Be Done To Drill A Hole
On A CNC Vertical Milling Machine

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118

Tool Home

Top
View

1.) X & Y Rapid To Hole Position

Front
View
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119

Top
View

2.) Z Axis Rapid Move


Just Above Hole

3.) Turn On Coolant


4.) Turn On Spindle
.100

Front
View
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120

Top
View
5.) Z Axis Feed Move to
Drill Hole

Front
View
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121

Top
View

6.) Rapid Z Axis Move


Out Of Hole

Front
View
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122

Top
View

7.) Turn Off Spindle


8.) Turn Off Coolant

Front
View

9.) X&Y Axis Rapid


Move Home

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123

Heres The CNC Program!

Top
View

Front
View

Tool At Home

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08
N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5
N025 G00 Z.1 M09
N030 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0
N035 M30
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124

Tool At Home

Top
View

O0001
O0001
Number Assigned to this program

Front
View
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125

Tool At Home

Top
View

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N005
G54
G90
S600
M03

Sequence Number
Fixture Offset
Absolute Programming Mode
Spindle Speed set to 600 RPM
Spindle on in a Clockwise Direction

Front
View
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126

Top
View

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
G00
X1.0
Y1.0

Rapid Motion
X Coordinate 1.0 in. from Zero
Y Coordinate 1.0 in. from Zero

Front
View
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127

Top
View

Front
View

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08
G43
H01
Z.1
M08

Tool Length Compensation


Specifies Tool length compensation
Z Coordinate .1 in. from Zero
Flood Coolant On

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128

Top
View

Front
View

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08
N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5
G01
Z-.75
F3.5

Straight Line Cutting Motion


Z Coordinate -.75 in. from Zero
Feed Rate set to 3.5 in./min.

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129

Top
View

Front
View

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08
N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5
N025 G00 Z.1 M09
G00
Z.1
M09

Rapid Motion
Z Coordinate .1 in. from Zero
Coolant Off

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130

Top
View

Front
View

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08
N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5
N025 G00 Z.1 M09
N030 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0
G91
Incremental Programming Mode
G28
Zero Return Command
X0, Y0, Z0
X,Y,& Z Coordinates at Zero

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131

Top
View

Front
View

O0001
N005 G54 G90 S600 M03
N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0
N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08
N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5
N025 G00 Z.1 M09
N030 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0
N035 M30
M30

NC, CNC AND DNC

End of Program

132

Output: NC Code - Canned


Cycles

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133

CAD to NC Code
Import
File

Post Process

NC Code
N1 G80 G90
N3 G0 T01 M06
N5 G0 X0 Y0

Geometry
Direct input

DXF
IGES

CL
File

Tool Path Generation


What you want to cut
How you want to cut
Tool Type
Rpms Feeds
Method
Canned cycles
Cut direction

OEM
Custom
Language

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134

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135