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Objectives

To compile a concise glossary of key


terms/composers/works from the medieval
period.
To develop your understanding of the
Renaissance period in terms of the history and
culture
To begin analysing (in pairs) renaissance sacred
and secular vocal music

IB Music
Western Art Music
Renaissance Era 1450 - 1600

Task 1

Your Glossary of medieval terms/composers


and works

Finish this please

Task 2

Bullet Point pages 78-79 (up until Sacred Music


in the Renaissance)
Only pick out the most important points!!

The Arts in the Renaissance

Shift from religious to secular


Italy

Musicians in Renaissance Society


Churches, cities, and courts
Trades of instrument building, printing, and
music publishing
Amateur musicians were emerging
from the middle and upper classes

Renaissance Musical Style

A cappella singing
Polyphony based on continuous imitation
Cantus firmus
Professional singers in church setting

Renaissance Sacred Music


Two main forms were the Motet
and Mass

Task

Listen to Ave Maria.virgo serena


Follow the structure on page 81.
How is it different to a medieval motet?
Although secular motets were written just not as
popular!

Josquin des Prez and the Motet

Called Josquin (c. 14501521)


Franco-Flemish
Italian career
Patrons
Milan, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza
Ferrara, Ercole dEste
Rome, papal choir

Sacred and secular music

Josquin: Ave Maria . . . virgo serena

Renaissance motet
Combinations of voices and textures
Quotation of chant
Rest of work is newly composed
Imitative vs. homorhythmic sections
Final couplet: simple texture, example
of humanistic spirit

Task 3

Deborah and Rachel research and present an


example of a Mass
Audrey and Winston research and present an
example of a Madrigal (secular)
You may use an example from either book!
Use CPDL.org for choral scores
You will present in 20 mins

Homework

Research the Council of Trent


Who were they?
What did they do?
When were they working together?
Who wrote in their style?

The Mass
The Early Renaissance Mass
Mass Ordinary

Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei

Latin vs. vernacular (language of the country)


Early Masses based on Gregorian chant cantus
firmus

The Late Renaissance Mass

Martin Luther (14831546): Reformation


Counter-Reformation (1530s1590s)
Council of Trent were unhappy with;

Corruption of chant by embellishment


Use of certain instruments in religious services
Incorporation of popular music in Masses
Secularism of music
Irreverent attitude of church musicians

Pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the


sacred texts

Du Fay and the Cantus Firmus


Mass

Guillaume Du Fay (c. 1397


1474)
Burgundian composer

Burgundian School
Less complex music than
Ars nova
Use of cantus firmus (chant or
popular song)

Du Fay: L'homme arm Mass,


Kyrie

Popular secular tune is the cantus firmus (found in


the tenor voice)
First part of the Mass Ordinary
Non-imitative polyphonic texture (four voices)
Ternary form

The Late Renaissance Mass

Martin Luther (14831546): Reformation


Counter-Reformation (1530s1590s)
Council of Trent were unhappy with;

Corruption of chant by embellishment


Use of certain instruments in religious services
Incorporation of popular music in Masses
Secularism of music
Irreverent attitude of church musicians

Pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the


sacred texts

Homework

Mini Essay question;


Compare and contrast the sacred music of the
reformation (protestant movement) with that of
the counter reformation (Council of Trent). Use
musical examples not just the ones in Music
an Appreciation.
Probably two sides of A4.
In for Thursday 4th Dec.

Palestrina and the Pope Marcellus


Mass

Giovanni Pierluigi da
Palestrina (c. 15251594)
Called Palestrina
Italian composer, organist,
and choirmaster
Sistine Chapel Choir (Pope
Julius III)
Wrote mostly sacred music

Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass,


Gloria

Satisfies the new strict demands of the Council of Trent


Probably performed a cappella
Written for six voice parts

Soprano (sung by boys or male falsettists)


Alto (sung by male altos or countertenors (tenors with high
voices)
Tenor I
Tenor II
Bass I
Bass II

Opens with a monophonic intonation


Choral sections are polyphonic
Text is clear and audible

Renaissance Secular Music


Music in Court and City Life

Professional musicians: courts and civic functions

Merchant class amateurs: played and sang at home

Lute, keyboard instrument

Women and music

Chanson and madrigal

Francesco Petrarch (13041373)

Pierre de Ronsard (15241585)

The Chanson

Burgundy and France in


the 15th century
3 or 4 voices
Courtly love verses
Freer poetic structures
Johannes Ockeghem,
Gilles Binchois,
Guillaume Du Fay, and
Josquin des Prez

Josquin: Mille regretz (A thousand

regrets)

Last year of composers life


Four-voice texture
Language of courtly love
Pain and suffering of leaving ones beloved
Church mode
Homorhythm, imitation
Expressive text setting

Task 1

Look at the score and words of Mille Regretz


Find musical examples of expressive text setting.

The Italian Madrigal

Chief form of Renaissance secular


music
Italian courts
Text: short poem of lyric or
reflective nature

Includes loaded words: weeping,


sighing, trembling, dying, etc.

Music: sets text expressively


Instruments double or substitute for
the voices
Three phases of the madrigal

First phase (c. 15251550)


Second phase (c. 15501580)
Third phase (c. 15801620)

Monteverdi and the Madrigal

Claudio Monteverdi (15671643)


Italian
Renaissance and Baroque Eras
Eight books of madrigals

Monteverdi: Ecco mormorar

l'onde

Courtly poem by Torquato Tasso


Exaggerated contrasts of delight and despair

Expressed musically with word painting

Images include waves, rustling leaves, birds' song,


etc.
Five-voice texture
Style inspired by the famous ensemble of
professional women singers

Concerto delle donne (Ensemble of the Ladies)


Contrast between high and low voices foreshadows
Baroque techniques

Task 2

Listen to Ecco mormorar l'onde


Listen out for the features explained on the
following slide. Do you like it?

The English Madrigal

English further developed the Italian madrigal


Thomas Morley, John Wilbye, Thomas
Weelkes, John Farmer

Musica transalpina 1588

Simpler and lighter in style


Refrain syllables (fa la la)

John Farmer (c. 15701601)

Active in 1590s in Dublin


Organist and master of choirboys at Christ
Church

Farmer: Fair Phyllis

Cheerful mood
Sectional repetitions
Contrapuntal imitation
Contrasting texture
(homorhythmic, polyphonic)
Word painting

Instrumental Dance Music

Period of growth
Published music
Publishing centers: Venice, Paris, Antwerp
Instrumentation was unspecified
Indoor/outdoor

Popular dance types:

Pavane
Saltarello
Galliard
Allemande
Ronde

Susato: Three Dances

Set of three rondes from the 1551


Danserye collection

Performed by a loud wind band

Instrumental dances published by


Tielman Susato (c. 1515c. 1571)
Loud instruments included: shawm,
sackbut, cornetto, tabor,
tambourine

Binary form (A-A-B-B)

Repeated sections with added


improvised embellishments

Transition I:

From Renaissance to
Baroque
Polychoral Music in Venice

Relationship to the East


St. Marks Basilica
Choirmasters and organists
Byzantine architecture

Polychoral music
Antiphonal performance

Giovanni Gabrieli and the Polychoral


Motet

Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 15571612)


Venetian composer
Polychoral music
Dynamics indicated

Sonata pian e forte

O quam suavis (O how sweet)

Sacrae Symphoniae (Sacred Symphonies)


Two SATB choirs and instruments
Office (Vespers) for Corpus Christi
Chromaticism
Antiphonal performance

Task

Create 2 information sheets.


One on Medieval music and one on Renaissance
Music.
Use the slides and help sheets in the IB Folder
to help you!
They should be concise.

What we have now covered!

Medieval Music (vocal and instrumental)


Renaissance Music (vocal and instrumental)
Started our ML Investigation
Japanese
Salsa
Irish Folk
Gamelan
How to analyse music the IB way.