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KRITIKAN TEORI

ORGANISASI
TRADISIONAL
KULIAH II

Taylor and
Scientific Management
Scientific

management: the systematic


study of relationships between people
and tasks for the purpose of redesigning
the work process to increase efficiency
The amount of an effort each employee
expends to produce a unit of output can
be reduced by increasing specialization
and the division of labor

Four Principles of
Scientific Management
1. Study the way employees perform their
tasks, gather informal job knowledge that
employees possess, and experiment with
ways of improving the way tasks are
performed
2. Codify the new methods of performing
tasks into written rules and standard
operating procedures

Four Principles of
Scientific Management
3.Carefully select employees so that they
possess skills and abilities that match the
needs of the task, and train them to
perform the task according to the
established rules and procedures
4.Establish
an
acceptable
level
of
performance for a task, and then develop
a pay system that provides a reward for
performance above the acceptable level

Mary Parker Follett


Management

must consider the human

side
Employees should be involved in job
analysis
Person with the knowledge should be in
control of the work process regardless of
position
Cross-functioning
teams
used
to
accomplish projects

Mary Parker Follett


Workplace

democracy
and
nonhierarchical networks of self-governing
groups.
Democratic ideal power should be
power with not power over people.

Henri Fayol
Administrative

Principles;
The
span-of-control
(the
maximum
number of subordinates that can be
overseen by one manager)
Exceptions to routine (subordinates should
handle routine matters, leaving managers
free to handle exceptions to rules and
standard operating procedures)

Henri Fayol
Departmentalization

(departments
formed around the grouping of similar
activities)
Unity-of-command (each subordinates
should report to only one boss)
Hierarchy (the scalar principle links all
organizational members into a control
structure resembling a pyramid)

Henri Fayol
Importance

of esprit de corps
The unity of sentiment and harmony
contribute to the smooth functioning of
an organization.

Luther H. Gulick
POSDCoRB

Planning
Organizing
Staffing
Directing
Coordinating
Reporting
Budgeting

Chester Barnard
Cooperative

social systems focusing on


the integration of work efforts through
communication of goals and attention to
worker motivation.
Informal

Douglas McGregor:
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X
Average employee is
lazy, dislikes work, and will
try to do as little as
possible
Managers task is to
supervise closely and
control employees
through reward and
punishment

Theory Y
Employees will do what is
good for the organization
when committed
Managers task is create
a work setting that
encourages commitment
to organizational goals
and provides
opportunities for
employees to be exercise
initiative

Theory Z

Japanese consensus management


style based on the assumptions that
(1) employees want to build cooperative relat
ionships with their employers, peers, and other
employees in the firm; for this they
(2) require high degree of support in
the form of secure employment and facilities
for development of
multiple skills through training and job rotation,

Theory Z
(3)

they value family life, culture and


traditions, and socialinstitutions as much
as material success,
(4) they have well-developed sense
of dedication, moral obligations, and selfdiscipline, and
(5) they can make
collective decisions through consensus.
Introduced by the author William Ouchi
(born 1943) in his book 'Theory Z.'