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English Lexicology

(II)
Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary
nothing can be conveyed.

Contents

5. Word-Formation I: the Major Processes


6. Word-Formation II: the Minor Processes
7. Motivation

To be
continued
English Lexicology(II

Chapter 5 Word-Formation I:
The Major Processes
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

General Remarks
Prefixation
Suffixation
Conversion
Compounding

5.1 General Remarks

The three major processes

affixation or derivation (17.5%)

Prefixation
suffixation

conversion (10.5%)
composition or compounding (27%)

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5.2 Prefixation

The definition of prefixation

Prefixation is the formation of new words by adding


prefixes to stems. Prefixes do not generally change the
word-class of the stem but only modify its meaning.
However, there is an insignificant number of classchanging prefixes

Non-class-changing prefixes: natural-unnatural, like-dislike, fairunfair


Class-changing prefixes: force-enforce, danger-endanger, formdeform, little-belittle, war-postwar, college-intercollege

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5.2 Prefixation

The classification of prefixes

In some reference books, prefixes (and suffixes)


are classified according to their source, but this
does not seem to help from a practical point of
view. It seems more helpful to classify the most
important productive prefixes by their meaning
into the following ten categories:

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5.2 Prefixation

1) Negative prefixes

a-/an- amoral, asexual, atheism, anacid, anarchy,


dis-

dishonest, discontent, discover, disobey, disagree

in-

Incomplete, inconsistent, incorrect, invulnerable,


illogical, illegal, impolite, immoral, imbalance,
irrational, irregular

non-

nonviolent, non-cooperation, nonautomatic,


nonadjustable, nonalcoholic

un-

uninformative, unexpected, unease, unrest

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5.2 Prefixation

Order
Literate
Symmetry
Governmental
Relevant
Productive
Believable
Vulnerable
Sane
Related
Aligned
Mature

Disorder
Illiterate
Asymmetry
Nongovernmental
Irrelevant
Unproductive
Unbelievable
Invulnerable
Insane
Unrelated
Nonaligned
Immature

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5.2 Prefixation

2) Reversative or privative
de-

defrost, deregulation, degeneration, deformed,


denationalize

un-

undo, unpack, untie, unwrap, unmask

dis- disconnect, dishearten, disinterested

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5.2 Prefixation

Centralize
Plane
Infect
Zip
Regulate
Possess
Pollute

Decentralize
Deplane
Disinfect
Unzip
Deregulate
Dispossess
Depollute

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5.2 Prefixation

3) Pejorative prefixes
mis-

misguide, misapplication, misbehavior, mischoice,


misgiving

mal-

maladjustment, maldigestion, malfunction,


maldevelopment

pseudo- pseudonym, pseudoscience, pseudoclassic,


pseudo-friend

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5.2 Prefixation

4) Prefixes of degree or size

hyper- hyperactive, hypercritical, hyperaggressive, hypercautious


ultra-

ultramodern, ultrasecret, ultraclean, ultrasonic, ultraconservative

mini-

minibus, minicamera, miniskirt

out-

outdo, outgrown, outlive

over-

overwork, overestimate, overemphasize, overabundance, overburden

under- underdeveloped, underpopulation, undergraduate


super- supermarket, superpower, superstar
sub-

subadult, subtitle, subbreed, subatom

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5.2 Prefixation

Computer
Critical
Conscious
Natural
Sensitive
Simple
Number
Statement
culture

Minicomputer
Ultracritic /hypercritic
Subconscious
Supernatural
Hypersensitive/ultrasensitive
Oversimple
Outnumber
Understatement
Subculture

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5.2 Prefixation

5) Prefixes of orientation and attitude

co-

Co-author, co-star, co-prosperity, cooperation

counter- Counterexample, counterclaim, counteractive,


counterattack, counterculture, countermeasure
anti-

anti-abortion, anti-art, antiwar, antibacterial,


antisocial, anticancer, antibody

pro-

pro-American, pro-revolutionary, pro-Fascism , prostudent, proslavery

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5.2 Prefixation

6) Locative prefixes

fore-

forearm, foreleg, forename, foreword

inter- international, intergovernmental, intertwine,


interdisciplinary, intercollege
trans- transatlantic, transoceanic, transform, transplant
tele-

telephone, telegram, telecommunication

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5.2 Prefixation

View
Conference
Continental
Ground
Cast
Specific
Racial
Shore

Interview
teleconference
Intercontinental
Foreground
Telecast
Transpacific
Transracial
Foreshore

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5.2 Prefixation

7) Prefixes of time and order

ex-

ex-husband, ex-president, ex-colony, ex-convict

fore- foresee, foretell, forefather, forewarn


pre-

premature, prewar, prehistoric, prepay, premarital

post- post-election, postwar, postgraduate, postdoctoral

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5.2 Prefixation

8) Number prefixes

uni-/mono-

unilateral, unicell, unicircuit, unicolor, unicycle,


unidimensional, uniform, unipolar, monoxide,
monocrystal, monogamy, monologue

bi-/di-

bicycle, bilingual, bimonthly, dioxide, dialogue, dichotomy,


disyllable

tri-

triangular, triatomic, trimonthly, trilateral, trilingual

multi-/poly-

multipurpose, multipolar, multiangular, multilingual,


polyatomic, polycrystal, polygamy

semi-

semicircle, semiliterate, semivowel, semiannual,


semicolony, semiautomatic

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5.2 Prefixation

Lingual
Lateral
Polar
Dimensional

Unilingual, bilingual,
trilingual, multilingual
Unilateral, bilateral,
trilateral, multilateral
Unipolar, bipolar, tripolar,
multipolar
Unidimensional,
bidimensional,
tridimensional (threedimensional),
multidimensional

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5.2 Prefixation

9) Conversion prefixes

a-

aloud, asleep, aglow, awash

be-

belittle, bestir, befriend, bewitch

en-

endanger, enforce, enable, embody, embitter, empower

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5.2 Prefixation

10) Miscellaneous prefixes

Extra- Extralinguistic, extraordinary, extraterrestrial


Neo-

Neo-classicism,neo-colonialism, neo-fascism,
Neolithic

Pan-

Pan-Pacific, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Africanism

..

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5.3 Suffixation

The definition of suffixation

Suffixation is the formation of new words by


adding suffixes to stems. Unlike prefixes which
primarily change the meaning of the stem,
suffixes have only a small semantic role, their
primary function being to change the
grammatical function of stems. In other words,
they mainly change the word class. However,
they may also add attached meaning to the stem.

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5.3 Suffixation

The classification of suffixes

Since suffixes mainly change the word class, we


shall group suffixes on a grammatical basis into

1) noun suffixes
2) adjective suffixes
3) adverb suffixes
4) verb suffixes

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5.3 Suffixation

1) Noun suffixes

Noun suffixes may be subdivided into the


following five kinds.

Denominal nouns (concrete or abstract)


Deverbal nouns
De-adjectival nouns
Noun and adjective suffixes

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5.3 Suffixation

1) Noun suffixes
Denominal nouns (concrete)

-eer auctioneer, engineer, mountaineer, pamphleteer,


profiteer, racketeer
-er

Londoner, teenager, villager

-ess actress, waitress, stewardess, hostess, lioness


-let

booklet, leaflet, piglet, starlet

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5.3 Suffixation

1) Noun suffixes
Denominal nouns (abstract)

-age

baggage, luggage, mileage, percentage

-dom

freedom, kingdom, stardom, officialdom

-ery/-ry drudgery, slavery, nunnery, nursery, machinery


-ism

idealism, optimism, individualism, consumerism

-ship

dictatorship, scholarship, friendship, sportsmanship

-ocrasy aristocracy, democracy, meritocracy


-hood

boyhood, brotherhood, neighborhood, adulthood

-ful

handful, mouthful, plateful, tubful


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5.3 Suffixation

1) Noun suffixes
Deverbal nouns

-ant

contestant, inhabitant, assistant, informant

-ee

interviewee, addressee, appointee, nominee, employee

-er/-or

driver, employer, interviewer, computer, silencer, accelerator,


supervisor, actor, window-shopper

-ation

foundation, exploration, nomination, starvation

-ing

building, dwelling, earnings, savings, clothing, stuffing

-al

refusal, revival, survival, arrival, dismissal

-ment

amazement, arrangement, movement, government

-age

breakage, coverage, shrinkage, drainage

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5.3 Suffixation

1) Noun suffixes
De-adjectival nouns

-ity

diversity, equality, rapidity, verbosity, responsibility,


actuality, regularity, popularity, respectability

-ness

accurateness, falseness, kindness, selfishness,


happiness, largeness, frankness, unexpectedness,
thickness, goodness

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5.3 Suffixation

1) Noun suffixes
Nouns and adjective suffixes

-ese

Burmese, Chinese, Cantonese, officialese, journalese

-(i)an Darwinian, republican, Elizabethan, Shakespearean,


Indonesian, Russian
-ist

communist, pianist, specialist, socialist

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5.3 Suffixation

2) Adjective Suffixes
Denominal suffixes

-ed

dogged, rugged, pointed, chocolate-flavored

-ful

delightful, successful, faithful, meaningful

-ish

childish, foolish, snobbish, Irish, Turkish

-less

homeless, hopeless, merciless, harmless

-like

childlike, ladylike, statesmanlike

-ly

friendly, cowardly, motherly, daily, weekly

-y

milky, sandy, hairy, meaty

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5.3 Suffixation

2) Adjective Suffixes
Denominal suffixes

-ic (-atic)

ethnic, economic, historic, problematic

-ous (-ious,
-eous)

ambitious, desirous, marvelous, courageous,


erroneous, courteous

-al (-ial, -ical) accidental, professional, residential, musical,


philosophical

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5.3 Suffixation

2) Adjective Suffixes
Deverbal suffixes

-able (-ible,
-uble)

debatable, drinkable, changeable, perishable,


permissible, visible, dissoluble, soluble

-ive (-ative,
-sive)

attractive, reflective, productive, negative,


decorative, talkative, affirmative, expansive,
explosive, decisive

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5.3 Suffixation

3) Adverb Suffixes

-ly

smoothly, personally, extremely, publicly, naturally

-ward(s) downward, eastward, homeward, forward


-wise

clockwise, lengthwise, weatherwise, educationwise,


taxwise, moneywise

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5.3 Suffixation

4) Verb suffixes

-ate

Originate, hyphenate

-en

Deepen, harden, strengthen, hasten

-ify

Solidify, modify, beautify, classify, identify

-ize(-ise) Symbolize, computerize, legalize, publicize,


specialize

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5.3 Suffixation

False
Sterile
Intense
Fat
Horror
Memory
Apology

Falsify
Sterilize
Intensify
Fatten
Horrify
Memorize
Apologize

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5.4 Conversion

The definition of conversion

Conversion is a word-formation whereby a word


of a certain word-class is shifted into a word of
another without the addition of an affix. It is also
called zero derivation( ).

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5.4 Conversion

Major types of conversion

Noun-verb conversion
Verb-noun conversion
Adjective-noun conversion

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5.4 Conversion

Noun-verb conversion

He elbowed his way through the crowd.


Problems snowballed by the hour.
The newspaper headlined his long record of
accomplishments.
Kissinger got the plans and helicoptered to
Camp David.

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5.4 Conversion
Changes of pronunciation and
spelling
Abuse
Abuse

Advice
House
Use
Belief
Grief
Shelf
mouth

Advise
House
Use
Believe
Grieve
Shelve
Mouth

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5.4 Conversion

Verb-noun conversion

He was admitted to the university after a threeyear wait.


This little restaurant is quite a find.
It is a good buy.
He took a close look at the machine.
doubt, smell, desire, want, attempt, hit, reply,
divide

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5.4 Conversion

Verb-noun conversion

Phrasal verb-noun conversion


Right branching

Left branching

Break down

Breakdown

Break out

Outbreak

Pick up

Pick-up

Spill over

Overspill

Take over

Take-over

Start up

Upstart

Get together

Get-together

Put in

Input

Keep up

upkeep

Break through Breakthrough

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5.4 Conversion
Shift of stress
Conflict
Abstract
Contrast
Decrease
Discount
Export
Rebel

Permit
Progress
Protest
Transfer
Transplant
Survey
Torment

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5.4 Conversion

Adjective-noun conversion

Partial conversion
Complete conversion

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5.4 Conversion

Adjective-noun conversion

Partial conversion

Denoting a quality or a state common to a group of person: the


deaf, the blind, the poor, the wounded
Denoting peoples of a nation (ending in sh, -se, -ch): the
English, the Chinese, the Danish, the Scotch
Denoting a quality in the abstract: a strong dislike for the
sentimental, to distinguish the false and the true, from the
sublime to the ridiculous
Denoting a single person (converted from participles): the
accused, the deceased, the deserted, the condemned

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5.4 Conversion

Adjective-noun conversion

Complete conversion

A native, two natives, a returned native


He is a natural for the job.
Tom is one of our regulars, he comes in for a drink
about this time every night.
To them she is not a brusque crazy, but appropriately
passionate.
They are the creatives in the advertising department.

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5.5 Compounding

The definition of compounding

Composition or compounding is a wordformation process consisting of joining two or


more bases to form a new unit, a compound
word. It is a common device which has been
productive at every period of the English
language. Today the largest number of new
words are formed by compounding.

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5.5 Compounding

Forms of compounds

Solid: bedtime, honeymoon


Hyphenated: above-mentioned, town-planning
Open: reading material, hot line

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5.5 Compounding

Types of compounds

Noun compounds
Adjective compounds
Verb compounds

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5.5 Compounding

Noun compounds

Headache, housekeeping, hot line, swimming


pool, raindrop, breakdown, biological clock,
identity crisis

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5.5 Compounding

Adjective compounds

Weather-beaten rocks, peaceloving people,


everlasting friendship, a difficult-to-operate
machine, a made-up story, an on the spot
inspection, taxfree products, fire-proof dress

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5.5 Compounding

Verb compounds

Formed by back-formation

house-keep from housekeeper


windowshop from window-shopping
mass produce from mass production
hen-peck from hen-pecked
spoon-feed from spoon-fed.

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5.5 Compounding

Verb compounds

Formed by conversion

to blue-print, to cold-shoulder, to outline, to


honeymoon, to snowball, to chain-smoke, to sweettalk, to job-hop.

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Chapter 6 Word-Formation II:


The Minor Processes
6.1 Blending
6.2
Backformation
6.3 Shortening
6.4 Analogy

6.1 Blending

The definition of blending

Blending is a process of wordformation in which a new word is formed by


combining parts of two words. The result of such
a process is called a blend or telescopic word or
portmanteau word. Blending is thus a process of
both compounding and abbreviation. Structurally
blends may be divided into four types (see page
45-46).

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6.1 Blending

Examples

newscast (news broadcast)


brunch (breakfast lunch)
smog (smoke fog)
talkathon (talk marathon)
slimnastics (slim gymnastics)
videophone ( video telephone)

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6.1 Blending

sci-fi
hi-fi
workaholic
stagflation
Unicom
sitcom
motel
dawk

science fiction
high fidelity
work alcoholic
stagnation inflation
United Communications
situation comedy
motor hotel
dove hawk

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6.2 Backformation

The definition of backformation

Back-formation is a process of word-formation


by which a word is created by the deletion of a
supposed suffix. It is also known as a reverse
derivation.

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6.2 Backformation

Examples

edit from editor


automate from automation
enthuse from enthusiasm
gloom from gloomy
donate from donation
brainwash from brainwashing
sleep-walk from sleep-walking

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6.3 Shortening

Types of shortening or abbreviation

1) clipped words: those created by clipping part


of the word (usually a noun), leaving only a piece
of the old word. The clipped form is normally
regarded as informal.

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6.3 Shortening

Types of shortening or abbreviation

2) initialisms: a type of shortening, using the


first letters of words to form a proper name, a
technical term, or a phrase; an initialism is
pronounced letter by letter.

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6.3 Shortening

Types of shortening or abbreviation

3) acronyms: words formed from the initial


letters of words and pronounced as words.
Acronyms differ from initialisms in that they are
pronounced as words rather than as sequences
of letters.

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6.3 Shortening

1) Clipped words

ad=advertisement
expo=exposition
phone=telephone
pro=professional
memo=memorandum
tec=detective
heli or copter=helicopter
comfy=comfortable

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6.3 Shortening
Give clippings for the
following words

gymnasium
dormitory
handkerchief
gasoline
kilogram
influenza
business
parachute
refrigerator
taxicab

gym
dorm
hanky
Gas
kilo
flu
biz
chute
fridge
taxi or cab

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6.3 Shortening

2) Initialisms

IOC=International Olympic Committee


BBC=British Broadcasting Corporation
ISBN=International Standard Book Number
CAD=computer assisted design
cm=centimeter
TB=tuberculosis

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6.3 Shortening
Write out in full the following

CPU
central processing unit
initialisms

DIY
CEO
IT
AI
SOS
IDD
GMT
VIP
P.S.
a.m.
p.m.

Do it yourself
Chief Executive Officer
Information technology
artificial intelligence
Save our ship
international direct dial
Greenwich Mean Time
very important person
postscript
ante meridiem
post meridiem

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6.3 Shortening

3) Acronyms

Basic=Beginners All-purpose Symbolic


Instruction
TEFL=teaching English as a foreign language
UNESCO=the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization
Sars=Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

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6.3 Shortening
Write out in full the following acronyms

Tofel
ROM
NATO
FIFA
Aids
radar

Test of English as a foreign language


read only memory
The North Atlantic Treaty organization
Federation Internationale de Football
Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome
Radio detecting and ranging

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6.4 Analogy

The definition of analogy

The process by which words or phrases are


created or re-formed according to the existing
patterns in the language

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6.4 Analogy

Examples

Marathon-----telethon, talkathon
blue-collar workers-----white-collar workers, gray-collar
workers, pink-collar workers, gold-collar workers
environmental pollution-----visual or eye pollution, noise
pollution, cultural pollution, graffiti pollution
First Family-----First Lady, First Dog
Landscape-----moonscape, marscape
Birds eye------fish-eye, worms-eye, cats-eye

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Chapter 7 Motivation
7.1 Conventionality and
Motivation
7.2 Onomatopoeic
motivation
7.3 Morphological
motivation
7.4 Semantic motivation
7.5 Logical motivation

7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

Triangle of significance
Meaning
(Concept)
Word

Form. Referent

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7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

The debate over the connection


between sound and meaning

The naturalists maintain there is a


natural/intrinsic connection between sound and
meaning.
The Conventionalists, on the other hand, hold
that the relations between sound and meaning
are conventional and arbitrary. The meaning of a
word is a kind of linguistic social contract.

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7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

Conventionality

Whats in a name? That we call a rose


By any other name would smell as sweet.
-----Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet
Words have no meaning, people have meaning
for them.
------ Eric Partridge

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7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

Conventionality

---Chinese
---Japanese
arbre---French
baun---Germany

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7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

Motivation

Motivation deals with the connection between


name (word-symbol) and its sense (meaning). It
is the relationship between the word structure
and its meaning.

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7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

Non-motivated and motivated

From the point of view of motivation, the great


majority of English words are nonmotivated,
since they are conventional, arbitrary symbols.
However, there is a small group of words that
can be described as motivated, that is, a direct or
somewhat connection between the symbol and
its sense can be readily observed.

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7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

Examples of motivation

The pigeon coos.


airmail, miniskirt, hopeless
a coat of paint
He has a stony heart.
The question was like the Sphinxs riddle to
them.

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7.1 Conventionality and Motivation

Types of motivation

Onomatopoeic motivation
Morphological motivation
Semantic motivation
Logical motivation
Motivation and Culture

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7.2 Onomatopoeic motivation

Onomatopoeic motivation
means defining the principle of motivation by
sound. Words motivated phonetically are called
onomatopoeic words, whose pronunciation
suggests the meaning. They show a close
connection between sound and sense.

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7.2 Onomatopoeic motivation

Primary onomatopoeia

Primary onomatopoeia means the imitation of


sound by sound. Here the sound is truly an
echo to the sense.

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7.2 Onomatopoeic motivation

Primary onomatopoeia
cats

mew, purr

lions

roar

eagles

scream

mice

squeak

frogs

croak

Snakes

hiss

hens

cluck

wolves

howl

(For more examples, see page 60-61)

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7.2 Onomatopoeic motivation

Secondary onomatopoeia

Secondary onomatopoeia means that certain


sounds and sound-sequences are associated
with certain senses. In other words, certain
sounds evoke symbolic connotations,
suggesting particular senses.

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7.2 Onomatopoeic motivation

Secondary onomatopoeia

-are suggests big light or noise

-ump suggests protuberance

Plump, chump, rump, hump, stump, dump, mump

sk- suggests touching or moving on the surface

Blare, flare, glare, stare

Skate, skim, skin, ski, sketch, skid

h- suggests moving with great speed, force, or violence

Heavy, haste, hurry, hit, hurl, hammer, hinder

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7.2 Onomatopoeic motivation

But it has to be pointed out that onomatopoeic


words constitute only a small part of the
vocabulary; some onomatopoeic words are not
completely motivated phonetically and are
conventional to quite a large extent. If you throw
a stone into water, the sound you hear is by no
means the same as when you say splash. Flies
do not exactly make the sound of buzz.

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7.3 Morphological motivation

We say the word is morphologically motivated,


for a direct connection can be observed between
the morphemic structure of the word and its
meaning. This is called morphological
motivation(

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7.3 Morphological motivation

Derivational words are morphologically motivated. If one


knows the meaning of the affix and the base, then one can
immediately tell the meaning of the word.
Compounds words may be morphologically motivated too.
The meanings of words like good-looking, spaceman,
moonscape, daydream and many others derive from the
combined meaning of the component parts.
One thing worth pointing out is that the morphemes, the
component parts of these words are themselves
conventional.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Semantic motivation refers to


the mental association suggested by the
conceptual meaning of a word. It explains the
connection between the literal sense and
figurative sense of the word. Here it is the
figurative usage that provides the semantic
motivation.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Examples:

When we speak of a stony heart we are


comparing the heart with a stone.
when we say the leg of a table, we are comparing
the tables leg with one of the lower limbs of a
human being.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Types of semantic motivation

Metaphor
Metonymy
Synecdoche
Analogy

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Metaphor

Metaphor is a figure of speech


containing an implied comparison, in which a
word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used of
one thing is applied to another. It is a simile
without like or as.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Metaphor

The world is a stage.


A sea of troubles; a tide of popular applause.
The city is a jungle where no body is safe after
the dark.
Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed,
and some few to be chewed and digested.

----- Bacon Of Studies

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Metonymy

Metonymy is the device in which we


name something by one of its attributes. The
substitution of the name of one thing for that of
another with which it is closely associated.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Metonymy

Metonymy usually includes several classes:


container for its content, a thing closely
associated for another, tool for the doer or deed,
writer for his works, the concrete for the abstract
and so on.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Metonymy

He is too fond of bottles.


The hall applauded.
I have never read Li Bai.
The pen is mightier than the sword.
He succeeded to the crown.
Uncle Sam; the Pentagon; Hollywood; the White
House;Beijing

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Synecdoche

Synecdoche means using a part for a


whole, an individual for a class, a material for a
thing, or vice versa, the whole for a part.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Synecdoche

There are about 500 hands working in this


factory.
This newspaperand probably the countrywill
wait its time and see how the new faces perform
before judging them.
The birds sing to welcome the smiling year.
To earn ones bread
He is a clever creature .

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Analogy

Analogy is a process whereby words


or phrases are created in imitation of existing
patterns in the language. The motivation is that
the meaning or sense of the created word shares
similarity with the existing language pattern.

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Analogy

Color: black list---white list, gray list; blue-color


workers---white-collar workers, gray-collar workers, pinkcollar workers, and gold-collar workers
Number: the First World---the Second World, the Third
world, the Fourth World
Place and space: landscape---moonscape, marscape;
sunrise---earthrise; spaceman---earthman, moonman

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7.4 Semantic motivation

Analogy

Similarity: missile gap---generation gap,


development gap, income gap, credibility gap
Antonym: hot line---cold line; baby boom---baby
bust; nightmare---daymare; cold-war---hot war;
high-rise---low-rise

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7.5 Logical motivation

Logical motivation deals with


the problem of defining a concept by means of
logic. It means, first, identify the concept of a
genus , second, to identify the
attributes distinguishing one species
from other similar species in the same genus.

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7.5 Logical motivation

Compounds combining species


and genus

Crisis---economical crisis, financial crisis,


spiritual crisis, ecological crisis, credit crisis,
military crisis, identity crisis
Relations---international relations, business
relations, diplomatic relations, bilateral relations

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7.5 Logical motivation

Clipped compounds by
shortening species or genus

drug from narcotic or hallucinogenic drug

He is addicted to drugs

pill from birth control pill


The Hill from the Capitol Hill
Nobel from Nobel Prize

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

Relation

Motivation is closely related to culture and


history. In English, some words are endowed
with rich cultural connotations. Words that
epitomize cultural history are call culturallybound words or allusive words. These words
originated from religion, mythology, history and
literature.

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

forbidden fruit: sth. alluring but prohibited


because of terrible consequences
Odyssey: a long, adventurous journey
the last straw: the last thing that leads one to a
final loss of patience, temper, trust, or hope
Waterloo: a final, crushing defeat,eg. meet one's
Waterloo
Uncle Tom: a person who compromises and
conforms

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

Prometheus unbound:an overwhelming power


Solomon: a wise man
Sphinx: A puzzling or mysterious person or
thing. Eg. a Sphinxs riddle: a puzzling,
mysterious question, problem.

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

Judas: One who betrays another under the guise of


friendship. Judas kiss: a malicious intention under
the guise of intimacy and friendship
pound of flesh: legal but unreasonable demand or
claim
white elephant: A rare, expensive possession that is
a financial burden to maintain, no longer wanted

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

The naked truth was fully revealed through a newspaper.


-----He told us about his adventures last night. Its a pity
you were not there.
-----Arabian Nights only. Dont believe him.
Like an Apollo, he comes and arrests everyones
attention in the hall.
No cross, no crown
To quest for full citizenship is really an Odyssey for
Afro-Americans.

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

A non-native learner should have


relevant background knowledge
about the target languages history,
geography, customs, habits,
knowledge about the Bible and
Christianity.

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

National psychology

To take French leave


Double Dutch; Dutch bargain; Dutch courage;
Dutch comfort; Dutch treat; to go Dutch; to talk
Dutch; Im a Dutchman if .

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

Religious Philosophy

As poor as a church-mouse
As patient as Job
As wise as Solomon

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7.6 Motivation and Culture

as strong as a horse
as dump as an oyster;as
silent as the grave; as close
as wax
spring up like a mushroom
like a cat on hot bricks
Its no use crying over spilt
milk.
As timid as a rabbit

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