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FST 307 BASIC

NUTRITION
CHAPTER 5
MICRONUTRIENTS

FST 307
CHAPTER 5
WATER

CHAPTER OUTCOMES
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:a) Explain briefly about types and function of water
b) Describe recommeded intake and related diseases for water

INTRODUCTION

INTERNAL SEA
The human body is 60% water by weight.
There is no way for the body to store excess

water.
Water loss must be balanced by water intake.
Failure to maintain water balance results in

dehydration.

WATER IN 70KG MAN

TYPES OF WATER

TYPES OF WATER
1) intracellular fluid: within a

cell
a) Blood cells, bone cells,
muscle cells, fat cells
2) extracellular

fluid
/
Intercellular : outside cells
a) include intravascular and
interstitial fluid

FUNCTION OF
WATER

1. Water is a solvent
a) Water molecules are polar, which means

they attract and dissociate the charged


ions of electrolytes such as sodium and
chloride

2. Water is a transporter
a) Carries nutrients and waste product

3. Water is a protector
a) Synovial fluid lubricates around joints,

tears lubricate the eyes, saliva lubricates


the mouth, amniotic fluid as protective
cushion for fetus

4. Water is a fasilitator to chemical reaction

5. Water is a regulator to acid base balance

WATER LOSS FROM


BODY

WATER LOSS FROM BODY


a) Urination: 1-2 liters/day
b) Defecation: 100-200 ml/day
c) Evaporation from the lining of the lungs and

from the skin, which is called insensible


loss: 1 liter/day
d) Sweat: variable, up to 4 liters/hr during

strenuous exercise in hot conditions

WATER CONCENTRATION
DECREASE
Kidneys reabsorb more water when water

concentration decreases

RECOMMENDED
INTAKE AND FOOD
SOURCE

RECOMMENDED INTAKE
OF WATER
Physically inactive people need 2 cups (500ml)

of water for every 500 calories consumed.

People consuming 2000 calories daily need 8

cups (2 liter), those consuming 3000 calories


need 12 cups (3 liter).

Built-in thirst mechanisms protect people from

too much or too little

People working in hot, humid weather need 50%

more water intake

Amount varies, often a 50% increse

PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS


OF WATER
People thet need extra water intake are:
a) Prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, and fever
b) High-protein,

high-fiber

and

alcohol

intake
i. high
protein consumption causes
losses of water, people on highprotein diets drink extra water
remove uric acid from blood
ii. fiber increases water loss in stools
fibre absorb water
iii. increased loss of water with alcohol
intake body think dehydration

SOURCE OF WATER
Most foods contain some water:
a) Milk (1 cup): 220 ml
b) Cooked white rice (1 cup): 140 ml
c) Apple: 120 ml
d) Broccoli (1 cup): 140 ml
e) White bread (2 slices): 25 ml

WATER RELATED
DISEASE

WATER DEFICIENCY
Deficiency of water leads to dehydration
Dehydrated symptom:
a) nauseated
b) fast heart rate
c) increased body temperature
d) feel dizzy
e) find it hard to move

Fluids produce quick recovery


Dehydration can lead to kidney failure and

death

Dehydration can quickly


lead to adverse effects
and, ultimately, to death.

WATER TOXICITY
People can overdose on water
High intake leads to:
hyponatremia

low sodium level in blood

serum
excessive water accumulation in the brain and
lungs
Symptoms: consequences of confusion, severe
headache, nausea, vomiting, seizure, coma,
and death
Water intoxication occurred in:

marathon runners who consumed too much

water during an event


infants given too much water or over-diluted
formula
psychotic patients taking medications that
produce cravings for water

To maintain water
balance, intake must
equal output.

PAUSE TO PONDER
a) Please explain the types and function of
water
b) Can you describe the recommended
intake and source of water

END OF CHAPTER 5
WATER