You are on page 1of 12

Foreign Policy Of Pakistan

T h e Fo re ig n Po licy o f Pa kista n strive s fo r th e p ro m o tio n o f p e a ce a n d


se cu rity a t th e re g io n a l a n d g lo b a l le ve ls. It a lso a im s a t a cce le ra tin g
th e co u n try's so cio -e co n o m ic p ro g re ss.

In ke e p in g w ith its in te rn a tio n a l o b lig a tio n s a n d in co n fo rm ity w ith th e


U n ite d N a tio n s C h a rte r, Pa kista n co n siste n tly se e ks frie n d sh ip a n d
co o p e ra tio n in its fo re ig n re la tio n s o n th e b a sis o f so ve re ig n e q u a lity ,
m u tu a lre sp e ct a n d b e n e fit, n o n -in te rfe re n ce a n d p e a ce fu lse ttle m e n t
o f d isp u te s.

Pa kista n 's fo re ig n p o licy is g u id e d b y its h isto ry , g e o g ra p h ica llo ca tio n


a n d th e a sp ira tio n o f its p e o p le . It is a lso re sp o n sive to re g io n a la n d
in te rn a tio n a l im p e ra tive s. G ive n th e p e rsiste n t ch a lle n g e s, Pa kista n
h a s o p te d fo r a p ro a ctive fo re ig n p o licy. W h ile th e re a re e le m e n ts o f
co n tin u ity in th e fo re ig n p o licy , a s th e y sh o u ld b e , th e re is a lso a
ch a n g e o f e m p h a sis a n d n u a n ce .
th e ke y o b je ctive s o f Pa kista n 's Fo re ig n Po licy a re to :

( a ) Develop friendly relations with allcountries particularlythe


M u slim w o rld , m a jo r p o w e rs a n d im m e d ia te n e ig h b o u rs;

( b ) Safeguard vitalsecurity and geo -strategic interests of Pakistan ;

( c ) Resolve the core issue of Jammu and Kashmir in accordance with


th e re so lu tio n s o f th e U N S e cu rity C o u n cil a n d w ish e s o f th e
K a sh m irip e o p le ;

( d ) Promote the image of Pakistan as a strong , dynamic ,


p ro g re ssive , m o d e ra te a n d d e m o cra tic Isla m ic co u n try ;

( e ) Augment economic and commercial interests abroad ; and

( f) Protect the interests of Pakistan 's expatriate community abroad .


WORLD MAP
RELATION OF PAKISTAN
WITH:
China
• Pakistan's desire for maximum balance and diversification
in its external relations has also led to close relations
with China--a valuable geopolitical connection. In 1950
Pakistan recognized the new People's Republic of China,
the third noncommunist state and the first Muslim
country to do so. The deterioration in Sino-Indian
relations that culminated in the 1962 border war
provided new opportunities for Pakistan's relations with
China. The two countries reached agreement on the
border between them, and a road was built linking
China's Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region with the
Northern Areas of Pakistan. China supported Pakistan
diplomatically in both its 1965 and 1971 wars with India
and provided Pakistan with economic and military
assistance. Pakistan's China connection enabled it to
facilitate the 1971 visit of United States secretary of
state Henry Kissinger to that country, and in the 1980s
China and the United States supplied military and
economic assistance through Pakistan to the
India
• A major focus in Pakistan's foreign policy is the continuing quest
for security against India, its large, more powerful, and generally
hostile neighbor. Pakistan was created despite the opposition of
the most powerful political party in prepartition India, the Hindu-
dominated Indian National Congress, and the suspicion remains
among Pakistanis that India has never reconciled itself to the
existence of an independent Pakistan. Several events further
soured the relationship. One of these was the massive transfer
of population between the two countries at partition, with its
attendant bloodshed as Muslims left India and Hindus and Sikhs
left Pakistan. There was also bitterness over the distribution of
financial assets left by the British, with India initially blocking
payments to Pakistan from the joint sterling account. An even
more complex issue was the sovereignty of Kashmir, a concern
arising from the accession of the princely states to India or
Pakistan at partition. Although almost all of these states made
the choice quickly, based on geographic location and the
religious majority of their population, several delayed. One of
these was Hyderabad, with a predominantly Hindu population
 Relations between the two countries reached a new low
in 1971, when India intervened militarily in support of
secessionist forces in East Pakistan, thus playing an
instrumental role in the creation of independent
Bangladesh. Although the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
was fought over East Pakistan, heavy fighting also
occurred along the Kashmir cease-fire line.
Consequently, under the Simla Agreement of 1972
following the end of that war, the cease-fire line in
Kashmir was redefined (it is now usually referred to as
the Line of Control), and India and Pakistan agreed not
to use force in Kashmir. The agreement also improved
relations sufficiently for India to release some 90,000
prisoners of war taken when Pakistan's army had
surrendered in East Pakistan.

T h e circu m sta n ce s su rro u n d in g th e co n flict o ve r K a sh m ir ch a n g e d
co n sid e ra b ly o ve r th e ye a rs, a s h a ve th e le ve ls o f U N in vo lve m e n t in th e
d isp u te . T h e m ilita ry b a la n ce b e tw e e n In d ia a n d Pa kista n a fte r th e
la tte r's d e fe a t in th e 1 9 7 1 w a r h e a vily fa vo re d In d ia . A n o th e r ch a n g e d
circu m sta n ce is th a t b e g in n in g in 1 9 8 9 , In d ia h a s h a d to fa ce a virtu a l
" Kashmiri intifada" in itsrepressive effortsto keep a sullen and
p re d o m in a n tly M u slim K a sh m iri p o p u la ce u n d e r co n tro l. T h is
in su rre ctio n , In d ia cla im e d , w a s su p p o rte d b y th e " h id d e n h a n d " o f
Pa kista n . Fu rth e rm o re , th e situ a tio n b e ca m e e ve n m o re co m p lex w ith a
g ro w in g m o ve m e n t a m o n g ce rta in fa ctio n s o f K a sh m irim ilita n ts fo r a n
in d e p e n d e n t K a sh m iri sta te , p re clu d in g a cce ssio n to e ith e r In d ia o r
Pa kista n . T h e vo la tile a n d p o te n tia lly exp lo sive situ a tio n in K a sh m ir
co n tin u e d to b e m o n ito re d in 1 9 9 4 b y a te a m o f U N o b se rve rs, w h o
o p e ra te d u n d e r sig n ifica n t co n stra in ts. T h e K a sh m ir d isp u te co n tin u e s
to b e th e m a jo r d e te rre n t to im p ro ve d re la tio n s b e tw e e n th e tw o
co u n trie s.
Pa kista n 's su sp icio n s o f In d ia n in te n tio n s w e re fu rth e r a ro u se d b y In d ia 's
e n try in to th e n u cle a r a re n a . In d ia 's exp lo sio n o f a n u cle a r d e vice in
1 9 7 4 p e rsu a d e d Pa kista n to in itia te its o w n n u cle a r p ro g ra m . T h e issu e
h a s su b se q u e n tly in flu e n ce d th e d ire ctio n o f Pa kista n 's re la tio n s w ith
th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d C h in a . U n ite d S ta te s-Pa kista n re la tio n s o ve r th e
n u cle a r issu e a re p a rticu la rly p rickly. Pa kista n 's re la tio n s w ith C h in a o n
th is issu e , h o w e ve r, h a ve b e e n in flu e n ce d b y b o th co u n trie s'su sp icio n s
A n a d d e d so u rce o f te n sio n in In d o -Pa kista n i re la tio n s
co n ce rn e d th e S o vie t U n io n 's in va sio n o f A fg h a n ista n in
D e ce m b e r 1 9 7 9 . In d ia re fu se d to co n d e m n th e S o vie t a ctio n ,
w h ile Pa kista n p ro vid e d sa n ctu a ry fo r A fg h a n re fu g e e s a n d w a s
a co n d u it fo r su p p lyin g a rm s fro m th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d o th e rs
to th e A fg h a n  mujahidin. During the Soviet Union's military
intervention in Afghanistan, therefore, Pakistan felt an
increased threat on both its eastern and northwestern borders.
The rise of militant Hinduism in India, and the accompanying
violence against Muslims there, was a further source of
uneasiness between the two countries.