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Plant Diversity

Bio100 X6 Katrina Abenojar

There are so many kinds of plants

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There are so many kinds of plants

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There are so many kinds of plants

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There are so many kinds of plants

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There are so many kinds of plants

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Classification! ~Kingdom Plantae

[1]

Non-vascular
plants
Bryophytes
Do not have xylem & phloem

Get water by osmosis


Small plants that live in moist environments anchored by rhizoids

Reproduce via spores

Gametophyte (dominant) & sporophyte generation


3 phyla

Bryophyta (mosses)
Hepatophyta (liverworts)
Anthocerophyta (hornworts)

Phylum
Bryophyta
Mosses

[2]

Phylum
Bryophyta
Mosses
Colonial plants that grow on moist soil, rock, or tree

bark

Use root-like structures: rhizoids


Found as colonies of gametophytes
Gametophyte

Archegonium contains the egg


Antheridium contains the sperm
Sporophyte

Capped with sporangium which release the spores

Phylum
Hepatophyta
Liverworts

[3]

Phylum
Hepatophyta
Liverworts
Have liver shaped leaf-like thalli

From this emerges the archegoniophore or antheridiophore


depending on whether the thalli is female or male.

[3]

Phylum
Anthocerophyta
Hornworts

[4]

Phylum
Anthocerophyta
Hornworts
Less than 100 species
Have a horn-like sporophyte
Can also reproduce by fragmentation

Plant breaks off and grows into a new one

Seedless
vascular
plants
Ferns and others
Contains xylem and phloem
Depend on water for sperm transport
Reproduce via spores

Sporophyte (dominant) and gametophyte generation


Two phyla:

Pteridophyta (ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails)


Lycopodiophyta (club mosses)

Phylum
Pteridophyta
Ferns, Whisk ferns, and Horsetails

[5]

Phylum
Pteridophyta
Ferns, Whisk ferns, and Horsetails
Use megaphylls

Large leaves with multiple vascular strands


Ferns
Large leaves: fronds
Underground stems: rhizomes
Immature fronds: fiddleheads
Whisk ferns
Lack true roots but have photosynthetic vascularized true stems
Have subterranean gametophytes that are symbiotic with mycorrhizal fungi
Horsetails
Terminal cone-like cluster of leaves: strobilus
Stems with whorls of branches make it look like a horses tail

Phylum
Lycopodiophyta
Club mosses

[5]

Phylum
Lycopodiophyta
Club mosses
Use microphylls

Small leaves with a single vascular strand


Club mosses
Small plants with evergreen leaves and true roots
Stems: aerial stems and underground rhizomes
Some have reproductive leaves in the strobilus

Seed-bearing
vascular
plants
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Reproduce and disperse through seeds
Dominant plants on planet Earth

100,000 species of gymnosperms


300,000 species of angiosperms

Gymnosperms
Conifers, Cycads, Gingkos, and Gnetophytes
Have naked seeds on the scales of cones

Uncovered ovules
Four phyla:

Coniferophyta
Cycadophyta
Ginkgophyta
Gnetophyta

Phylum
Coniferophyta
Conifers
Produce seeds inside cones
One of the most important plant groups

(economically and ecologically)


Provide wood and wood products
Support complex ecosystems

Well adapted to dry, hot and cold environments

Reduced lamina & sunken stomata


Mostly evergreen

Phylum
Coniferophyta
Conifers

[20] Conifers in Anawangin Cove, Zambales

Phylum
Cycadophyta
Cycads
Hard, elongated leaves grow straight from the stem
Food source for many organisms

Butterfly larvae and ants eat leaf secretions


Bats eat seeds
Cattle eats the leaves
Humans eat
Leaves and cones for traditional Asian medicine
Trunk for flour production in the 9 th century and for starch, an important part
of indigenous peoples diets

Pollinated by wind and beetles

Produces a smell to attract beetles

Phylum
Cycadophyta
Cycads

[21] Male and Female Cycads (respectively)

Phylum
Gnetophyta
Gnetophytes [24]
Contain vessel elements

Like angiosperms and unlike other gymnosperms

Phylum
Gingkophyta
Gingkos
[22]
Consists of only 1 species
Aka Living Fossil

Oldest living tree in the world


Able to tolerate pollution
Have fan shaped leaves
Used to improve circulation to the limbs and treat asthma
Used to improve blood flow to the brain

Improve memory, concentration, mood


Reduce anxiety, stress, headaches, dizziness

Phylum
Gingkophyta
Gingkos
[23]

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Flowering plants
Seeds are inside a fruit
Double fertilization: seeds surrounded by endosperm
One phyla:

Anthophyta
Two large classes:
Monocotyledones
Eudicotyledones

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Non-reproductive organs:

Roots (mainly for anchorage and absorption)


Dicots: Tap root
Monocots: Fibrous/Adventitious roots
Modifications:
Aerial roots (Propagative, parasitic, pneumatophores, strangler roots, prop
roots, photosynthetic roots)
Food storage
Support (Contractile, buttress,
Symbiotic (root nodules with nitrogen fixing bacteria, mycorrhizae fungus
roots)

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Non-reproductive organs:

Stem
For support, transport, storage, and growth
Types: Herbaceous, woody, and suffrutescent
Specialized stems:

Bulbs (storage)
Climbing (support)
Corm (underground stem for storage & propagation)
Rhizome (underground stem for storage & propagation)
Stolons/Runners (above ground propagation)
Cladode (photosynthesis & storage)
Tuber (storage)
Prickles (epidermal) & Thorns (connected to deeper tissues)

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Non-reproductive organs:

Leaves
For photosynthesis
Parts: midrib, blade, stipule, stalk/petiole
Monocots: parallel venation
Base to tip, Side to side, and Dichotomous

Dicots: netted venation

Simple (pinnate & palmate)


Compound (pinnate & palmate)
Peltate
Perfoliate

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Phyllotaxy: Opposite, Alternate, Whorled, & Basal

[6]

Specialized leaves:

Tendrils
Needles & Spines
Storage leaves (succulent leaves of aloe vera or onion leaves)
Insect trapping leaf
Bracts (like ponsettia)
Vegetative/reproduction

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Reproductive organs:

Flowers

[7]

Pollinated by insects/animals/wind
How? Insects: bright petals, fragrant aroma, rich in nectar; Hummingbird: bright/red
petals, no aroma; Wind: numerous, small & inconspicuous

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Classification of flowers
Incomplete one or more floral parts are missing
Complete both male and female parts are present
Parts of complete flowers:
Floral stalk (receptacle & peduncle)
Floral envelope (sepals & petals)
Stamen (anther & filament)
Pistil (stigma, style, ovary, ovule)
Regular sympetalous
Irregular polypetalous (one or more modifications)
Papilionaceous (ex. Peas)
Bilabiate (ex. Mint)
Caesalpinaceous (ex. Caballero)
Orchidaceous (ex. Orchids)

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Flower variations
Color & odor
Sexuality
Perfect have both stamens and pistils
Imperfect only have either stamen (staminate) or pistil (pistillate)
Floral Distribution
Polygamous Same plant has both perfect & imperfect flowers
Monoecious Same plant has both staminate & pistillate flowers
Dioecious Plants have either all staminate or pistillate flowers
Symmetry (Radial actinomorphic & Bilateral zygomorphic)
Fusion (connation & adnation)
Number of floral parts (Dicots by 4s or 5s & Monocots by 3s)
Type of Peduncle (Peduncle & Pedicel)

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Infloresence arrangement of flowers

[8]

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Pollen germination

[9]

[10]

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Reproductive organs:

Fruits
Seed bearing structure from one or more ripened ovaries

[11]

Zygote Embryo & flower structures differentiate into fruit


Exception: Parthenocarpic fruits lack seeds and develop without fertilization

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Protects seeds and aid dispersal
Dispersion methods:

By animals (seeds have protective layer/thorns)


By wind (dry, light, feathery structures)
By water (float)
Fruits that shoot seeds

Number of ovaries
Simple (1)
Aggregate (several ovaries of 1 flower, etaerio)
Multiple (several ovaries of several flowers, collective fruit)

[12]

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Parts:
Locules cavity containing the seeds
Placentae tissue where the seeds are attached to
Fruit wall matured ovary walls, pericarp
Exocarp (outermost layer, fruit skin)
Mesocarp (middle layer, in fleshy fruits: flesh or pulp)
Endocarp (innermost layer)
Seeds contains the plant embryo
Seed coat (outermost tissue cover)
Hilum scar where seed stalk was attached
Caruncle fleshy outgrowth near hilum in some seeds
Micropyle small hole on top of hilum where pollen entered)
Endosperm (tissue surrounding embryo, source of hydrocarbons)
Embryo (developed zygote with cotyledons, plumule & radicle)

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
Placentation (arrangement of placentae on locules)

[13]

Angiosperms
Monocots and Dicots
FRUITS

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Angiosperms
Monocots VS Dicots

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PLANTS ARE SO DIVERSE!


Lettake a look at plants in the
Philippines...

Statistics
Wow!

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Endemic Angiosperm:
Kamagong and its delectable fruit!

Mabolo Velvet Apple


[15]

Diospyros blacoi

Endemic Angiosperm:

[17] Spoon-leaved Sundew


Drosera spatulata

Endemic Angiosperm:
[16] Sibuyan Nephenthes
Nephenthes sibuyanensis

Endemic Angiosperm:

[27] Mindanao Gum Tree now cultivated in many parts of the world
Eucalyptus deglupta

Endemic Gymnosperm:

[18] Almaciga
Agathis philippinensis

Endemic Gymnosperm:

[26,19] Pitogo
Cycas wadei

Endemic Gymnosperm:

[25] Mindoro Pine


Pinus merkusii

Not from the PH, but its cool!

[42] Dancing Plant


Dismodium gyrans

CLICK HERE
FOR A
VIDEO!

YAY PLANTS!
The end

Dear Mr. Howell Ho,


Thank you for this wonderful semester!
You are a great teacheryou really know your stuff

and can make us interested in them too.


I really got to appreciate plants more this semester and
am amazed at all the plant species there are.
Its great to know a bit of how these plants work and it
makes me more conscious of the plants around me.
I hope you liked this presentation!
Sincerely,
God bless you, Sir!
Katrina Abenojar

References
[1] http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/plantrelat.gif
[2]
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/951/flashcards/754951/png/moss_life_cycle132077789
1720.png
[3] http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/647/flashcards/4111647/jpg/liverwort_life_cycle141E2E2ABE62DDAFDD3.jpg
[4] http://
ferrebeekeeper.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/538px-hornwort_life_cicle_svg_diagram-svg.png
[5] http://
sharon-taxonomy2009-p2.wikispaces.com/file/view/I10-22a-ferns.jpg/99311585/I10-22a-ferns.jpg
[6] http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/img/leaf_arrange_chart.gif
[7] http://webneel.com/wallpaper/sites/default/files/images/01-2014/12-flower-wallpaper.jpg
[8] http://www.ext.colostate.edu/mg/gardennotes/images/135-3.jpg
[9] https://flowerpowerlab.wikispaces.com/file/view/germination%20of
%20pollen.jpg.gif/373723758/germination%20of%20pollen.jpg.gif
[10] http://leelasbiopage.com/reprod3.JPG

References
[11] http://www-plb.ucdavis.edu/labs/rost/tomato/Reproductive/stages2aa.gif
[12] http://
classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/294/flashcards/2158294/jpg/picture1-144721E3A586E9AB5BE.
jpg
[13] http://web3.dnp.go.th/botany/BFC/image/flower/placentation_type.jpg
[14]
http://pawb.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=724&I
temid=156

[15] http://www.balinghasai-farms.info/tag/kamagong/
[16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepenthes_sibuyanensis
[17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosera_spatulata
[18] http://131.230.176.4/imgs/pso/r/Araucariaceae_Agathis_philippinensis_9495.html
[19] http://jongnonoletters.blogspot.com/2009/06/help-preserve-cycas-wadei-culion-pitogo.html
[20]
http://www.thepoortraveler.net/2014/04/nagsasa-cove-resort-rates-san-antonio-zambales-philippi
nes
/
[21] http://www.moplants.com/cycads-for-hot-zone-gardens/
[22] http://www.ehow.com/about_5402781_ginkgo-tree.html

References
[24] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Welwitchia.jpg
[25] http://s1.hubimg.com/u/7660652_f520.jpg
[26] http://culion.weebly.com/uploads/2/7/8/7/2787354/9289383_orig.jpg
[27]
https://www.facebook.com/tourismphilippines/photos/a.10150470984399064.361628.8699657906
3/10152193471459064/?
type=1
[28] http://
cdn3-www.webecoist.momtastic.com/assets/uploads/2011/06/7-wonders-flowers-main.jpg
[29] http://
www.cadblocksfree.com/images/CAD%20Blocks_trees_elevation_moonlight_collection1.png
[30] http://image.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/399871/399871,1311603400,1/stockphoto-fruit-and-vegetables-for-all-tastes-81598384.jpg
[31] http://
media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/25/e2/23/25e2231412393cb099f2534e3d201c3b.jpg
[32] http://thumb9.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/329485/329485,1273571955,2/stockphoto-beautiful-colorful-flowers-in-flower-shop-52827508.jpg

References
[33] http://2.bp.blogspot.com/bjvL6jLiuhM/UVJLEaDgOiI/AAAAAAAAG9g/peAk6JVtUr4/s320/DSCN0308.JPG
[34] http://carinderia.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/pako100.jpg
[35] http://www.daintreerainforest.net.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Angiopteris.jpg
[36] http://
w2science.swiiit.com/wbn/slot/u1797/LivingClassroom/images/resctr/fern_tree.jpg.pagespeed.ce
.3oEiwrdG5R.jpg
[37] https://c1.staticflickr.com/1/2/2130122_3c20da75be.jpg
[38] http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/fleshyfruit.jpg
[39] http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/botany/images/p23-2large.gif
[40] http://
plantsstructureandreproduction77.wikispaces.com/file/view/dim6s9_2.jpg/30508388/dim6s9_2.jpg
[41] http://coolclass58.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/monocot-dicot-roots-chompoo.jpg
[42]

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