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Guidance and Special Education

by
BERNADETTE M. VIRAY

What is Special
Education?
is

a specialized kind of
education
system
that
caters to the academic
and learning needs of
special children.

is education of students with


special needs in a way that
addresses
the
students
individual
differences
and
needs.

What are the different


categories of Special Education
or the Disability categories?
When is a child special?

1. Learning Disabilities
The

term specific learning


disability means a disorder in
one or more of the basic
psychological processes involved
in understanding or in using
language, spoken or written,
which may manifest itself in an
imperfect ability to listen, think,
speak, read, write, spell, or do
mathematical calculations.

Learning Disabilities
Such

term includes
such conditions as
perceptual
disabilities, brain
injury, minimal
brain dysfunction,
dyslexia, and
developmental
aphasia

Does

not include a
learning problem that
is primarily the result
of visual, hearing, or
motor disabilities, of
mental retardation, of
emotional
disturbance, or of
environmental,
cultural, or economic
disadvantage

2. Speech or Language
Impairments

Speech impairments include disorders of


articulation, fluency, and/or voice.
Articulation disorders often result from
neuromuscular abnormalities resulting in
omission, substitution, or distortion of
speech sounds
Fluency refers to being able to produce
smooth speech flow. Disorders of voice
include such characteristics as abnormal
pitch, loudness, or resonance.
Phonology govern how speech sounds
are sequenced

3. Mental Retardation
A

disability characterized by
significant limitations both in
intellectual functioning and in
adaptive behaviour as expressed
in conceptual, social, and
practical adaptive skills

4. Emotional Disturbance
The features of emotional
disturbance:
Behaviour that goes to an
extreme that is not just lightly
different from the usual
A problem that is chronic one
that does not quickly disappear
Behaviour that is unacceptable
because of social or cultural
expectations

5. Other Health
Impairments
Medical

conditions such as asthma,


diabetes, epilepsy, sickle cell
anemia, which impair to such a
degree that they adversely affect a
students educational performance
The condition must interfere with
the performance of the student in
his studies

6. Multiple Disabilities
Consists

of students who have two


or
more
disabilities,
the
combination of which causes such
severe educational problems that
they can not be accommodated in
special education programs solely
for one of the impairments

7. Autism
Many

authorities consider autism to


be one of several similar conditions
that fall on a spectrum, hence the
term autism spectrum disorders
The conditions on the spectrum
share impairments in three areas
a. Communication skills
b. Social interactions
c. Repetitive and stereotyped
patterns of behaviour

Most common autistic conditions


Classic

autism

severe deficit in
communication
skills

Social
interactions
Repetitive and
stereotyped
patterns of
behaviour

Asperger

syndrome
- Less severe
deficits in all three
areas
- Major problem in
the area of social
interactions
- Some have high
intelligence

8. Orthopedic Impairments
Include

physical disabilities of the


muscles and/or bones that
negatively affect school learning
Muscular dystrophy ( a hereditary
condition resulting in muscle fiber
degeneration) and juvenile
rheumatoid arthritis are two
examples

9. Hearing Impairments
Students

with hearing impairments


fall into two categories:
a. Those who are deaf
b. Those who are hard of hearing
How one differentiates between
the two depends on whether one
adopts a physiological or an
educational orientation

-A physiologically based definition relies on the


measurable degree of hearing loss, with those
having an impairment of 90 decibels or greater
being deaf (0 dB is the level at which the average
person can hear the faintest sound)

-An educationally based definition focuses on the


ability to process linguistic information, with
deafness indicating that the person cannot process
linguistic information through audition even with an
hearing aid

10. Developmental Delay


For

many infants and preschoolers, it is


often difficult to determine whether they
have true difficulty or have a temporary
delay in maturation
It is sometimes difficult to determine the
exact nature of very young childrens
difficulty
For these reasons, professionals are often
reluctant to make a clinical diagnosis and,
instead, refer to them as having a
developmental delay

11. Visual Impairments


Visual

impairments are divided


into two groups based on severity

The

groups are defined differently


according to whether one uses a
physiological or educational
approach

-A physiological orientation relies


on measurement of vision acuity
and field of vision
-The educational definition
focuses on mode of reading, with
those needing to use Braille being
considered blind, and those who can
read print, even with magnifying
devices or large print books

a. Visual acuity of 20/200 (normal


acuity is 20/20, being able to see 20
feet, what a person with normal vision
sees at 20 feet) or less in the better
eye, even with correction (e.g.,
eyeglasses), or visual field of less than
20 degrees qualifies an individual as
legally blind
b. Those having visual acuity between
20/70 and 20/200 are referred to as
having low vision or being partially
sighted

12. Traumatic Brain Injury


Refers

to trauma to the brain


caused by an external force that
results in behavioral dysfunction
Such injuries can be open head
injuries (penetrating head wounds)
or closed head injuries (damage
caused by internal compression or
shearing motion inside the head)

13. Deaf-Blindness
Students

with deaf-blindness meet


the educational definitions of both
deafness and blindness
The vast majority of students with
deaf-blindness also have one or
more other disabilities, such as
mental retardation

Deaf-blindness can result from


a. Prenatal causes such as
rubella
b. Post natal causes such as
meningitis
c. Genetic/chromosomal
syndrome

What are the legal basis


of Special Education in
the Philippines?

1987 Constitution of the


Philippines
Article

XIV, Section 1

The State shall protect and


promote the right of all citizens to
quality education at all levels and
shall take appropriate steps to
make such education accessible
to all.

1987 Constitution of the Philippines

The State shall provide


adult citizens, the disabled
and out of school youth
with training in civics,
vocational efficiency and
other skills.

The Child and Youth Welfare Code


(PD 603)
Article

3 Rights of the

Child
the
emotionally
disturbed or socially
maladjusted child be
entitled to treatment
and competent care;
and the physically or
mentally handicapped
child shall be given the
education
and
care
required
by
his
particular condition.

Article

74 Creation of
Special Classes
Where needs warrant,
there shall be at least
one special class in
every province, and if
possible one special
class... The private
sector shall be given
all the necessary
inducement and
encouragement

Education Act of 1982 BP 232

The State shall promote the right of


every individual to relevant quality
education regardless of ... Physical
and mental condition...The State shall
therefore promote and maintain
equality of access to education as
well as enjoyment of the benefits of
education by all its citizens.

Republic Act of 7277


Magna Carta for Disabled Persons

An act providing for the


rehabilitation,
self
development and self reliance
of disabled persons and their
integration
into
the
mainstream of society and for
other purposes

Special Education in the Philippines

The
Special Education Division
under
DepEd's
Bureau of Elementary Education strives to provide
basic education to Filipino children with special needs
that will help them:
fully realize their own potentials for development and
productivity
become capable of self-expression and knowledgeable
of their rights
become God-loving and proud of being Filipinos.
The division believes that every child with special
needs has a right to an educational program that is
suitable to his needs. It also shares the basic
responsibilities of the educational system, similar to
the basic regular educational system, to fulfill the right
of the child to develop his/her potentials.
The Department of Education also has issued a
memorandum that mandates the organization of a
SpEd unit in each region, which can ultimately help

Characteristics of special education


Combined

with the principles of psychology


(educational psychology, study of behavior, and
principles of learning), SpEd is effective in providing
adequate academic and psychological support to
students with special needs as well as their parents.
SpEd curricula are based on process trainingthey
involve ways to improve the children's academic
performance by teaching them cognitive or motor
processes, such as visual memory, auditory memory,
perceptual skills, and/or auditory-vocal processing.
Basically, the focus is on:
the childs creative, critical, and analytical thinking
the development of perceptual and motor skills
orientation and mobility skills
the development of the different modes of
communication, and
the improvement of occupational and vocational skills.

What are the range of


programs and services for
special needs in the
Philippines?

Special Classes
The

most common type of SpEd program


Established within a regular school
CENTEX sponsored by Ayala ( a pilot
school which provide an excellent
education to poor children who qualify
for a place after taking specialized tests)
Interest groups
Therapy class
Slow Learner and Fast Learner

Residential Schools
Students

are provided services and


programs 24/7
National High School for the Arts
Montessori Integrated School of
Antipolo
The School for Chosen Children
Hospicio de San Jose

Special Ed Centers
This

type of program operates


within-a-school concept
Rosario Elementary School, Cavite
Silahis Centers
Batino Elementary School, QC
Jose Rizal Memorial School, Laguna

Itenerant Teaching
Programs
Traveling

Programs
Central School Teachers go from
one barrio to another

Resource Room Program


Student

is enrolled in either the


regular class or special but
reports to the resource room on
schedule to avail of the services
of a specialist

Inclusive Education
Integration
Mainstreaming
Inclusion
Inclusive

education is all about


NORMALIZATION for children with
special needs.

What is the Special


Education process in the
Philippines?

3 Phases of the Process


Sensing the special needs
2. Assessment
3. Intervention
1.

In all phases of the process,


OPEN COMMUNICATION
between the PARENTS and the
PROFESSIONAL will be needed.

Phase I: Sensing the Special


Needs
Involved

Child
Parents
Family/Siblings
Caregiver
Teacher
Family Doctor
Pediatrician

Impression
Comparison
Reports

and
Complaints
Initial
Assessment
School
Performance

Phase II: Assessment


Involved

Medical
Specialist
Psych
Specialist
Area Specialist

Diagnosis
Identifying

special needs
Referral to a
multidisciplinary
team
Consolidating
diagnosis

Medical Specialists
Developmental

Pediatrician
Child Neurologist
Ophthalmologist
Otologist (ear and its diseases)
Physiatrist (physical medicine
and rehabilitation

Psych Specialist
Psychologist
Neuropsychologist
Clinical

Psychologist
Psycho-Educational Specialist
School Psychologist

Area Specialist
Occupational

Therapist
Speech Therapist
Physical Therapist
Reading Specialist
Music Therapist
Educational Therapist
Play therapist

Phase III: Intervention


Involved

Case Consultant
Area Specialist
School
Administrator
Parents
Caregivers
Psychologist
School Teacher
Physiatrist

Formulation

of
Individualized
Intervention
Program (IIP)

Phase III: Intervention


Involved

Case Consultant
Area Specialist
School
Administrator
Parents
Caregivers
Psychologist
School Teacher
Physiatrist

Implementation

of Individualized
Intervention
Program (IIP)
Monitoring
Reformulation of
IIP

What are the current


trends and issues in
Special Education in the
Philippines?

Teacher Education
Qualified

Caring Effective

Teachers
- Overseas Work
- Teacher Training
- University Education for
Teachers
- Overwhelming Presence of
Special
Needs
- Collaboration between
Professionals

Special educators teach those students


who
have
physical,
cognitive,
language, learning, sensory, and/or
emotional abilities that deviate from
those of the general population. They
provide instruction specifically tailored
to meet each child 's individual needs.

Student Education
Assessment

Scheduling
High Cost of Private Education
NGO Support
Access and Awareness of
Programs and Projects for SpEd
Over -populated Classrooms

Education Policy

Implementation
Administration
Governance
SpEd

Funding and Distribution