Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

REAL & REACTIVE

POWER CONCEPTS and


GENERATOR CAPABILITY
CURVE

- K. Arputharaju,
Assistant Executive Engineer /
Operation,
Basin Bridge Gas Turbine Power Station,
TANGEDCO, TNEB Ltd., Chennai 600
012.
1

REQUIREMENTS OF POWER
SYSTEM
It must supply energy practically everywhere the customer demands.
The load demands vary with time. The system must able to supply this
ever changing demand.
The delivered energy must meet certain minimum requirements in
regard to quality. The following factors determine the quality:
a) The system frequency must be kept around 50Hz with
a variation of 0.05Hz.
b) The magnitude of the bus voltages are maintained within
prescribed limit around the normal value. Generally the
voltage variation should be limited to 5%.
The energy must be available with high reliability.
The energy must be delivered without overloading any element in the
power system.
The energy must be delivered at minimum cost.

REAL POWER (P): The real power, P is


defined as the average value of P and
therefore, physically, means the useful
power being transmitted. Its magnitude
depends very strongly on the power
factor cos.
REACTIVE POWER (Q): The reactive
power, Q is by definition equal to the
peak value of that power component
that travels back & forth on the line,
resulting in zero average, and therefore
capable of no useful work.
3

TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD

PHASOR

PHASE
ANGLE

POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD


P
Q

I
V

R
I

= 0

P>0

Q=0

= +90

P=0

Q>0

= - 90

P=0

Q<0

0<<+90

P>0

Q>0

V
L

L
4

TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD

PHASOR

PHASE
ANGLE

POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD


P
Q

I
R
C

-90<<0

P>0

Q<0

P=0

Q=0

Tuned to
Resonance
IL = Ic

I
V

C
Ic

IL

PL = Pc
Energy travels

-90<=<=+90

Back & forth


Between C&L
5

TYPE OF LOADS

Inductive load absorbs positive Q. i.e., an


inductor consumes
reactive power.

Capacitive load absorbs negative Q. i.e., a


capacitor generates reactive power.

Sign change in Q simply means a 180 phase shift.

Resistive load consumes real power.

Inductive load consumes positive reactive power

Capacitive load consumes negative reactive power.

Combination of R & L load consumes real &


positive reactive power.

Combination of R & C load consumes real &


negative reactive power.

Reactive power is bi-directional power. It travels from


source to load as well as load to source.
6

FREQUENCY IS RELATED TO REAL POWER ( P f )


SMALL DROP IN SYSTEM LOAD.
VALVE SETTINGS ARE IGNORANT OF THE LOAD CHANGE.
INPUT TORQUE TO EACH MACHINE REMAINS UNALTERED.
DECREASE IN CURRENT SUPPLIED BY EACH ALTERNATOR.
DECREASE IN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TORQUE BY EACH ALTERNATOR.
EACH ALTERNATOR EXPERIENCES SURPLES ACCELERATING TORQUE.
SLIGHT INCREASE IN SPEED AND FREQUENCY.

EFFECT ON OTHER LOADS:


AT HIGHER FREQUENCY, THE REMAINING LOAD ROTATES AT HIGHER
SPEED AND TAKES MORE CURRENT.
HENCE THE LOAD DEMAND INCREASES.
POWER GENERATION AT HIGHER FREQUENCY EQUALS THE LOAD
DEMAND POWER.
TO DECREASE THE FREQUENCY, THE VALVE MUST BE CLOSED
SLIGHTLY.
EXAMPLE:
PUMP SET (INDUCTION MOTOR)
At high frequency, the speed of IM increases.
Ns = 120f / P
Nr = Ns ( 1 - s )
The current taken by the IM will be more. Hence the demand on the system
increases.
ADJUSTING
INPUT VALVES

CONTROLS
FREQUENCY

CONTROLS
REAL POWER

VOLTAGE IS RELATED TO REACTIVE POWER ( Q V )


G1

V1

V2
jX

P jQ

1.
2.
3.

Bus Voltage V1 is kept at constant magnitude.


Transmission line has reactance only i.e. jX.
Power flow is P jQ.

Take V1 as reference.
V2=V1-jXI -----------------------------------(1)
V1 * I = P jQ
I = (P-jQ) / V1 ------------------------------(2)
Substitute (2) in (1)
V2 = V1 jX [(P/V1) j(Q/V1)]
V2 = [V1 (X/V1)Q] j(X/V1)P]

VECTOR DIAGRAMS:
V2 = V1- X Q - j X P
V1
V1
BOTH DROPS EQUAL

DOUBLE P

V1

V1

X Q
V1

V2

DOUBLE Q

X
V1

X P
V1

V1
Q

V2
V2

XP
V1

2X Q
V1

2X P
V1

DOUBLE P : VOLTAGE ANGLE WILL CHANGE. NO CHANGE IN MAGNITUDE.


DOUBLE Q : VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE IS VERY MUCH RELATED TO REACTIVE
POWER.
MORE Q FLOW WILL AFFECT THE VOLTAGE
EXCITATION MORE

LAGGING MVAR

GEN. VOLTAGE

EXCITATION LESS

LAGGING MVAR

GEN. VOLTAGE 10

REACTIVE POWER INJECTION AT LOAD SIDE BY USING SHUNT


CAPACITORS, IMPROVES THE VOLTAGE.
UNDER LIGHT LOAD CONDITIONS, RECEIVING END VOLTAGE >
SENDING END VOLTAGE (FERRANTI EFFECT) DUE TO CAPACITIVE
LOAD. CONNECT SHUNT REACTORS TO CONTROL VOLTAGE.
PEAK LOAD
CONDITION

CONNECT
CAPACITORS

LIGHT LOAD
CONDITION

CONNECT
REACTORS

TO CONTROL
VOLTAGE

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER IS USED TO ABSORB or TO DELIVER


THE REACTIVE POWER.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR UNDER NO-LOAD CONDITION IS
SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER.
11

SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO ( SCR ):


SCR =

FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO PRODUCE RATED VOLTAGE ON O.C.

FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO CIRCULATE RATED CURRENT ON S.C.

S.C.C.

PER UNIT VOLTAGE

PER UNIT CURRENT

O.C.C.
a

1.0

C
E
c

o
SCR = o Fo
o Fs

c Fo
b Fs

Fo
c Fo
a Fo

Fs

1
a Fo / c Fo

AD

AE

DE

AB

AC

BC

FIELD CURRENT
1
Per unit voltage on open circuit
Corresponding per unit current on short circuit

= RECIPROCAL OF SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE

1
Xd

12

TYPICAL S.C.R. VALUES:


For 500 MW T.G., SCR= 0.48
For 210 MW T.G., SCR= 0.49
For 110 MW T.G., SCR= 0.50
For 60 MW T.G., SCR= 0.59
The SCR value may have to be raised to 1.0 to 1.5, if the loading is likely to be
capacitive i.e. leading MVAR supply.
For modern Turbo-alternator, the SCR is normally between 0.48 to 0.7

EFFECT OF S.C.R. ON MACHINE PERFORMANCE:


Higher value of SCR has higher stability limit.
Better voltage regulation for high SCR.
High value of SCR has a long air gap which means that the mmf required by
field is large. Hence machine with higher SCR is costlier to build.

SCR

AIR GAP

WEIGHT

SIZE

TRANSPORTATION
PROBLEM

Present trend is to build low value of SCR since fast acting excitation
system available.
13

POWER DIAGRAM (CAPABILITY DIAGRAM):

ASSUMPTION: I.R. drop is negligible.

In ABC, BC=E Sin


In BCD, BC=IXd

B
E
IX
d

Cos

CASE-I:

MW

E Sin = IXd Cos

Multiply
both sides
by
V
D V
C
Xd I
MVAR
EV Sin = VI Cos = REAL
Xd
POWER
At =90, We get the maximum power i.e. the theoritical stability line.

CASE-I I:
In ABC, CD=AC AD;
In BCD, CD=IXd Sin
In ABC, AC=E Cos & AD = V
IXd Sin = E Cos - V ; Multiply both sides by V , We get
Xd
EV Cos V2 = VI Sin = REACTIVE POWER
Xd
Xd
14

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR

I) COLLECT THE INFORMATIONS FROM T.G. NAME PLATE / MANUAL:


1. Terminal Voltage
:
11,000 V
2. Rated MVA
:
137.5
3. Rated p.f. (cos )
:
0.8 Lagging
4. Rated Armature Current :
7220 A
5. Rated Field Current
:
1500 A
6. Short Circuit Ratio
:
0.5
II) CALCULATED VALUES:
1. MW = MVA X p.f. = 137.5 X 0.8 = 110 MW
2. MVAR = MVA X SCR = 137.5 X 0.5 = 68.75 MVAR (Max. permissible zero
p.f. leading MVAR)
3. = cos-1(0.8) = 36.87
4. To ensure operational safety, there should be a margin of at least 12.5 %
(given by the manufacturer) of the power rating of the generator
between
the working point & the theoretical stability (load angle ) limit line. The
operational limit of a generator rated at 0.8 p.f. lagging can be tabulated
below:
p.u. MW
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
p.u. MW + Margin

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0
15

16

17

III) COMPARISON

E.T.P.S. *** UNIT-5

Actual MW=50 (i.e. 50/137.5=0.364p.u.)

Actual MVAR=6 (i.e. 6/137.5=0.044p.u.)

Arm. Current = 0.36p.u. X 7220A=2599A

Field Current=0.475p.u. X 1500A=712.5A

MW = 50

p.f.=cos(6.5)=0.994 lag

MVAR = 6

Load Angle =33.4

Armature Current = 2600A

V=(MVA X 106)/(3 X

Field Current = 710A

p.f.= 0.98 lag

= -- (No measurement)

V = 11.2 KV

Iarm.)

=((MW +MVAR ) X 10 )/(3 X


2

Iarm.)

=((502+62) X 106)/(3 X 2599) = 11.12KV

Actual Readings taken from


Meters:
DATE:
09.08.2004
TIME:
11:00 Hrs.

18

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

CAPABILITY CURVE

Rotor current limit


Class of insulation (to take care of rotor insulation)
Stator current limit
Class of insulation for stator.
MW load limit
Turbine limit (steam power generation capability)
Turbine is designed for MW load only .
Minimum load angle limit
Leading p.f. operation
Stability limit of generation
Stator end heating limit
Stressing stator winding & heating of stator
10 to 20 MVAR (leading p.f.) is safe
Rotor is relieved from stress
Stator end winding heated due to capacitive effect
Remove capacitor banks in load centres
In NCTPS 210 MW unit, running the generator at -64 MVAR load
for an hour. Not able to reduce the load.
19

USEFULNESS OF CAPABILITY DIAGRAM FOR


EXCITATION CONTROL
The information given by the capability diagram
regarding full load rotor current (excitation),
maximum rotor angle during steady state
leading p.f. zone operation (<75) etc., are
essential for proper setting of the various limiters
in the excitation control system.
Capability diagram give the basic information
regarding the limiting zones of the operation so
that limiters can be set / commissioned suitably
for safe operation of the units.
20