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AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Pressure Measurements

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Measurable pressures

Absolute pressure
Gage pressure
Differential pressure
Atmospheric/barometric pressure

Static pressure
Total Pressure
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Pressure Measurement
Mechanical Pressure Measurement
Manometer
Mechanical deflection

Pressure Sensitive Paint


Measures the oxygen concentration in a
polymer paint layer

p ~ pO2 ~ c[0 2 ]

Oxygen Henrys Constant x


Partial
oxygen concentration
pressure
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Static
pressure

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Pressure/Vacuum Gauge Ranges

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Manometers

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Manometer Resolution
p2 p1 ( L gh)

1/ 2

Main use for Manometers is calibration


of electronic pressure transducers
1.0 inch of H2O = .036 psi
.001 inch of H2O = .3.6 x 10-5 psi

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauges

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Strain Gauge Pressure Transducer

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Capacitance Pressure Transducer

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Resonant Wire Pressure Transducer

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer


Only for
Unsteady
Measurements

Kulite Transducer
Used in shock tube
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Magnetic Pressure Transducer

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Optical Pressure Transducer

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Dead Weight Calibrator

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Electronic Scanning Valve


Array of inexpensive
transducers (16 32)
Method to calibrate
automated
during test

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Scanning Valve Systems

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Pitot Probe

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Yaw Probes

Kiel Probes
3 Hole
5 Hole
7 Hole

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Kiel Probe

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

3 Hole Probes

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

5 Hole Probes

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

7 hole Probe
Easy to construct

Measures
total pressure
static pressure
3 velocity components
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Seven-Hole Pressure Probe Coordinate System is


Defined By Pitch and Yaw Angles
x

u V cos cos

v V sin

w V cos sin

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Velocity Invariant,
Seven-Hole Probe
AAE Non-Dimensional
520 Experimental Aerodynamics
Pressure Coefficients
Flow Angle Coefficients:

0.035"
3
2

5
7

0.109"

CP CPA

6
1

CP

P4 P1
CPA
P7 P
P3 P6
CPB
P7 P
P2 P5
CPC
P7 P
1 6
P Pi
6 i 1

CPB CPC
2

CPB CPC
3

Total and Static Pressure Coefficients:

CPTotal

P7 PTotal

P7 P

CPStatic

P PStatic

P7 P

2
V P7 P 1 CPStatic CPTotal

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Seven-HoleAAE
Probe
Angular
Sensitivity Must be
520 Experimental
Aerodynamics
Calibrated in a Uniform Flow Field
Probe

5
= -28
= 30

Pitch
Dial

Yaw Pressure Coefficient (Cp )

= 28
= 30

2
1
0

= 5

-1
-2
-3

= 4

-4
-5

Computer Controlled
Rotary Table

-7
-8

Constant Pitch ()

= 28
= -30

-6
-7

-6

-5

-4

= -28
= -30

Constant Yaw ()
-3

-2

-1

Pitch Pressure Coefficient (Cp )


Stepper
Motor
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

30

T o ta l P r e s s u r e C o e ff ic ie n t ( C p T )

10
0
-1 0
-2 0
-3 0
-8
-4

-2
0

-2

-4

-6

-8

-1
-2
-3
-4

-5
30

20
10
0
-1 0
-2 0

30

10
0
-1 0
-2 0
-3 0
6

-2 0

-1 0

10

30

20

Cp

Static

20

Total

S t a t ic P r e s s u r e C o e f f ic ie n t ( C p S )

-6

Y a w A n g le ( )

P itc h A n g le ( )

20

Cp

-2

-4

-6

-8

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 .5
0
-0 .5
-1
-1 .5
-2
30
20
10
0
-1 0
-2 0

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 3 0

-3 0

-2 0

-1 0

10

20

30

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics


Measure Probe
Pressures
(P1, P2, P3, P4,

Interpolate on probe calibration


data to find total and static
pressure coefficients:

P5, P6, P7)

CPtotal = ( , )
CPstatic = ( , )
[Figures 3.5 & 3.6]

Compute:
CP = (Pi)i=1,7
CP = (Pi)i=1,7

P = mean Pi i1,7

Compute total and static pressure:


PTotal P7 P7 P CPtotal
PStatic P P7 P CPstatic

[section 3.1.2]
Compute magnitude of flow velocity:

2
V P7 P 1 CPStatic CPTotal

Interpolate on probe
calibration data to
find flow angles:
= (CP , CP)
= (CP , CP)
[Figures 3.7 & 3.8]

Compute velocity components:

u V cos cos

v V sin

w V cos sin

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Integral Conservation
Equation Analysis
y

A Y+

A X-

Mass Conservation:

V n dA 0

A ZA STRUT

A Z+

Momentum Conservation:

z
A Yx

V n VdA F
S

A X+

Allows determination of lift and drag breakdown


from flow field data
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Total Drag Analysis:


1
CD
q A S

AX

p TIN p TOUT

2
2

2
uIN uOUT v OUT w 2OUT dA
2
2

Profile Drag

Induced Drag

Drag Breakdown Analysis:


Viscous Drag:
CD Viscous

A STRUT

pT
V

p TOUT dA +

2
u * OUT

2
- u OUT

AX

Inviscid Drag:
CD Inviscid

1
A STRUT

AX

2
- u * OUT + vOUT
w 2OUT dA

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

dA

Constant Area Duct Vertical Axis


AAE
520 Experimental Aerodynamics
(6' x 4')

Wind Tunnel
Contraction

Horizontal Axis

Upstream
Measurement
Station
()

(c=48)
V

Probe Arm

Y
Z

Inflow Plane
x/c = -0.71
Plane 1
7-Hole
Domain for x/c = 1.25
Plane
2
Pressure
Heat Transfer
x/c
=
2.25
Probe
Measurements

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

520 Experimental
Aerodynamics
Total PressureAAE
Loss
and Crossflow
Velocity in Vortex
Flow Regions

PTOTAL (psi)

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Pressure System Response Time


Flush Mounted Transducer
Maximum performance

Diaphragm

Tubing
Cavity

Time response depends on


Volume Change
Friction in Tube
Acceleration of
fluid and diaphragm
Compressibility of fluid

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

pi suddenly increases
The pressure differential will cause the fluid to flow into the cavity
Consider steady laminar Incompressible flow
Characteristic
of transducer t pressure change C in 3 / psi
Change in Volume/uni
Qp

Diaphragm
L

pi

Tubing -dt
32 LV
pi pm
d t2

pm
V average velocity
in tube

d t4 ( pi pm )
dp
dQ d t2

V
CQp m
dt
4
128L
dt
dp
m pm pi
dt
128University
LCQp - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Purdue

d t4

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP)


and
Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP)

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

E x c ita tio n
U V L am p
L aser
F la s h L a m p

D e te c to r

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics


C C D

O p t ic a l
F ilt e r

PM T
PD
C a lib r a te O u tp u t
fo r T e m p e r a tu r e
or P ressu re

E m is s io n

L u m in e s c e n t M o le c u le

B in d e r
P o ly m e r
P o r o u s S o lid

TSP -Temperature Sensitive Paint


PSP - Pressure Sensitive Paint

Photo-physical process:
-absorb a photon
-transition to excited state
-Oxygen quenching (PSP)
or thermal quenching (TSP)
=> Pressure and/or temperature
dependent luminescent intensity
and luminescent lifetime

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Temperature Sensitive Paint


High temperature causes non-radiative decay
thermal quenching
Obeys Arrhenius relation:
For limited temp. range

I(T)

I
(
T
)
ref ref

ln

Rg

1
1

T
T

ref

Similar molecules to
PSP, but in oxygen
impermeable binder
I 1 to 5%
~ 0
T
C
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Pressure Sensitive
Paint
p
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

[O 2]

polymer

Oxygen Quenches Luminescence


Stern-Volmer Equation
I0
0
1 Ksv [O2 ]
I

Using Henrys Law

[O2 ] polymer ~ ( pO2 ) above polymer ~ p


Rewrite

I ref

p
A B
I
pref

Iref -reference -accounts for


I 1 to 5% 1 to 5%
nonuniformities in thickness,
~
~
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics
and
Astronautics
p
psi
.1 bar
lighting and concentration

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Jablonski Diagram
Sn

kic

S2

vibration
kisc

kic

S1

intersystem crossing (ISC)

T1

(singlet state)
h
excitation

(triplet state)
kic

kisc
fluorescence

p
phosphorescence

S0
(ground state)

internal conversion (IC)

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Measurement Systems
CCD based
Temperature or pressure
PC with
digitizing
ratio wind off/wind on images
board

TV
Monitor

painted wind tunnel model


long-pass filter
CCD camera
lamp SS or Flash
short-pass filter
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Measurement Systems
Laser Scanning System

excitation

PC with Intensity or phase


A/D based measurements
board

intensity

emission

time

long-pass filter
laser

painted wind tunnel model

PMT
computer controlled
scanning mirror
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Measurement Systems
Fluorescent Lifetime Imaging System (FLIM) system
Temperature or pressure ratio in phase/out of phase images
Modulated
camera

Long pass Model coated with


paint
filter

Light
source
time

Control
box

In phase
Camera

time

Out of phase

PC

Modulated
light source

time

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Current State of the Art of


PSP/TSP
Temperature Sensitive Paint
T= -196 C to 200 C M=.01 to 10
Accuracy 1 Degree Centigrade Resolution <. 01 C
Time Response 1 sec Typical (<1 ms demonstrated)

Pressure Sensitive Paint


P=.001 to 2 atm M=.05 to 5
Accuracy 1.0 mbar Resolution .5 mbar
Time response .5 sec Typical
( 1 microsec demonstrated)
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Applications
Temperature Sensitive Paint
(TSP)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Transition Detection
Low Speed
Cryogenic Wind Tunnel

Quantitative Heat Transfer


Camera Based M=10
Scanning System Laser Spot Heating
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Transition Detection
Low Speed
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

TSP EuTTA in dope


Wing heated with
photographic spot lamps
to ~20 C above ambient
8 bit Camera

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Results
Low Speed Transition
Raw Image
(false color)

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Transition
Cryogenic Wind Tunnel
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

0.1m Transonic Cryogenic Wind Tunnel at NAL

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Wind Tunnel Set-Up


TSP Ru(trp) in GP197
Ru(trp) in clear coat
Surface Roughness
.1 micron rms

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

M=0.40, Tt=150K ,=-20

M=0.40, Tt=90K ,=-20

M=0.81, Tt=120K ,=+20

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Transition Image and Shadow of the Shock Wave


NACA64A012
M=.81
Tt=120 K
Pt=110 kPa
=+20

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Chordwise Luminescent Intensity Profiles

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Transition on a HSNLF in the NASA .3 meter


cryogenic wind tunnel
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Quantitative Heat Transfer


M=10

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Tunnel #9
M=10
Run time ~1.0 sec
1.5 meter Diameter

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

TSP - EuTTA in dope


Metal model
Insulating Layer mylar film (model airplane monokote)
50 microns thick
Raw Image

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Application Oblique Jet


nozzle

impingement
surface
paint coating

p o /pa
H/D

2.71
3.8
10 o

CCD Intensity, FLIM ,Laser Scanning

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Experimental setup
0.5 cm
Diameter
Nozzle

Impingement
Plate

Plenum

100<po<400kPa
2.5<H<10cm
5<<90o
Easy control of
surface temperature
and pressure

p0
(kPa)
340

Experimental conditions:

T0
(K)
300

pexit
(kPa)
179.5

Texit
(K)
250

Mexit
1

patm
(kPa)
100

Tatm
(K)
300

with =10o and H=5cm


Difficult case: large temperature
gradients, pressure variations
due to shock waves

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Intensity based/FLIM systems


(TSP)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

300
-5

298
297

s/D

296
295

294
293

10
-5

0
b/D

intensity based

292

T(K)

299

-5

298
297

s/D

299

300

296
295

294
293

10
-5

0
b/D

FLIM

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

292

T(K)

Intensity based/FLIM systems


(PSP)
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

0.1

-5

0.08
0.06

s/D

0.04

0.12

-5

0.1
0.08

0.06

s/D

0.12

0.04

0.02

0.02

10

-0.02

-0.02

10
-5

0
b/D

intensity based

Cp

-5

0
b/D

FLIM
po /pa
H/D

2.71
3.8
10 o

Schlieren flow-visualization

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Cp

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Application
Oscillating Jet

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Unsteady Flow Field


fluidic oscillator
Air Supply

Generates an oscillating jet


when supplied with a fluid
Jet oscillation frequency
varies with supply pressure
Oscillation frequency
ranges from 0 to 6.5kHz
(Raghu, Bowles Fluidics)

cm

Jet Exit
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Fluidic Oscillator Flow Field


The fluidic oscillator jet exhibits a saw-tooth flow pattern.
Schlieren Images

0 Phase

180 Phase

Hot film probe


Schlieren Images recorded with R-134a
refrigerant as the supply fluid

Power Spectrum calculated from hot


film data acquired through LabVIEW
DAQ system (250kHz sampling rate)

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Fluidic Oscillator Setup


AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Nitrogen Supply
Fluidic Oscillator
Triggering Microphone
PSP Sample
(TLC shown)
Excitation source:
Blue LED array
Long Pass Filter
12 Bit CCD Camera

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Fluidic Oscillator Setup


AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

N2

triggered pulse
microphone signal

fluidic
oscillator
microphone
use N2 to obtain high
intensity change

LED
porous PSP
pulsed illumination
pulsed excitation source is
synchronized with fluidic oscillation

PC

CCD

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Experiment Parameters
Porous PSP: AA-PSP, TLC-PSP, PC-PSP
Jet Oscillation frequency: 5kHz (with ~1psi N2
supply pressure)

12s light pulse width (square wave)


6% of oscillation period
Excitation source triggered by microphone
signal with triggering delays
Camera exposure time on the order of 10s
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Full Field TLC-PSP Results


AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Jet position within the cycle is resolvable with TLC-PSP


Paint Sample:
TLC-PSP with
Ru(dpp)
Oscillation
Frequency:
5kHz
(animation)
successive time steps are obtained by adjusting
the delay on the pulse generator that drives the
excitation light source
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Successive Images obtained by


Porous PSP
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

scale normalized from air to pure nitrogen

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

AA-PSP

TLC-PSP

= 81.8s (12.2kHz)
11s camera exposure
(55k pulses)

= 87.7s (11.4kHz)
10s camera exposure
(50k pulses)

PC-PSP
= 243s (3.95kHz)
100ms camera exposure
(0.5k pulses)

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

TLC-PSP

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

AA-PSP

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

PC-PSP

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Application
Rotating Machinery

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue Research Axial Fan Facility


TSPC - Mechanical Engineering

Plan View
Flow Meter
Screens and Honeycomb

400 HPMotor Magnetic


Clutch

Torque Meter
Gearbox

Test Section

Side View

Purdue
University
- School
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics
Purdue
University
- School
of of
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Compressor configuration
single stage
2/3 hub-tip ratio
18 variable inlet guide vanes
19 rotor blades
Ri=4, Ro=6
chord=2
t/c=10%(hub), 6%(tip)
NACA 65 series airfoil
measured data:
mass flow:
3.45 kg/s @ 10,000 rpm
5.35 kg/s @ 16,000 rpm
total pressure ratio:
1.06 @ 10,000 rpm
1.15 @ 16,000 rpm

Variable inlet GuideVanes


Compressor Rotor

Flow

IGV

Purdue
University
- School
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics
Purdue
University
- School
of of
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics

Rotor blade

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue Research Axial Fan Facility


PSP and TSP coated blades

PurdueUniversity
University--School
School of
of Aeronautics
Purdue
Aeronauticsand
andAstronautics
Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Laser scanning system setup


Computer Controlled
Scanning Mirror

Variable inlet GuideVanes


Compressor Rotor

Po=Patm

Long Pass Filter


Photomultiplier Tube

Argon-ion Laser
(488 nm)
Inlet Contraction

air cooled argon ion laser


10mw@488nm
low noise photomultiplier tube
100 ensemble averages

1 mm spot size
600nm long pass optical filter
12 bit 500 kHz A/D board
21 radial locations

Purdue
University
- School
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics
Purdue
University
- School
of of
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Pressure and temperature distributions at 17,800 rpm

temperature
paint

rotation

shock
wave

pressure
paint

Purdue
University
- School
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics
Purdue
University
- School
of of
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics

Pressure, psia

Temperature, oC

strong
radial
temp
variation

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue
University
- School
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics
Purdue
University
- School
of of
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics

x/c

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Comparison of PSP based pressure and CFD

PurdueUniversity
University--School
School of
of Aeronautics
Purdue
Aeronauticsand
andAstronautics
Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Allied Signal F109 Turbofan Engine


Two spool, contrarotating concentric shaft
Bypass ratio = 5, Tdesign=1330 lbs.
18 diam fan section, 30 compressor blades

Purdue
University
- School
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics
Purdue
University
- School
of of
Aeronautics
and
Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Application
Flight Test

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Raytheon Beechjet 400A


AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

532nm Nd: Yag laser


scanning from cabin window
Mylar strips coated
with PSP and TSP
31
=0.

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics


Lab View Run
Data Acquisition System

Wing Section with PSP


coated Mylar Tape

532nm Diode Laser

Pan & Tilt


Rotary
Positioning
Stages

P.M.T.

EO Modulator
EO Modulator
Driver
Lock in Amp
Rotary Stage
Controller
Laptop
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Hardware Installation
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Scanning Grid
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

PSP: 70 chordwise points (approx. 1pt/in.)


31% from x/c 0.05 to x/c 0.78 : LIMITED VIEWING AREA
55% from x/c 0.05 to x/c 0.97
85% from x/c 0.05 to x/c 0.96

Scanning Head

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Test #1 (Purdue) : Paint


Location
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Test #1 (Purdue): Flight


Envelope
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

s
De

nd

nd

21,000ft
21,00 ft.

ce

Cli
m

M= 0.69
Tstatic = -14C
Pstatic=6. 76psi

ce

31,000 ft.

es
D

M= 0.75
Tstatic = -35C
Pstatic=4.36psi

Lafayette

Lafayette
Lafayette

17 min.

18 min.

5 min.

13 min.

Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

14 min.

Temperature Distribution
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

Raw Phase from TSP


-10
31kft
21kft
= 0.31

-12
-14

Fuel Cell

Phase Shift (arb)

-16
-18

Forward and Aft


Spars

-20
-22
-24
-26

Spars

-28
-30
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

x/c

Temperature distribution inaccurate & noisy


Strong chordwise temperature variation
Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Cp Distribution @ 21kft
AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

-1.4
PSP T=-5C
MHI Flight
Test Data

-1.2
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
Cp

-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2 0.0
0.4

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

x/c

0.6
0.8
Purdue
University
- School
Aeronautics
and Astronautics
Difference
between
fuel
and of
OAT
significantly
less than @ 31kft

=31% 31kft. M=0.75


AAE 520 Experimental Aerodynamics

-1.4
-1.2

PSP T=-8 C
MHI F-test Data
MHI CFD

-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
Cp

-0.4

Pre-Flight

-0.2
0.0
0.2 0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

x/c

0.4
0.6
0.8

31%

Tape profile in-flight


Purdue University - School of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Post-Flight