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OMQ000001 GPRS

Principle
ISSUE 2.0
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.

GPRS principle is the basic part of the whole GPRS


system and the succeeding products learning. This slide
will help us to understand the GPRS system networking
and wireless subsystem etc.

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References

GPRS principle

31025698 - M900/M1800 PCU


Technical Manual-(V3.35)

GPRS protocol
0360
0464

GSM protocol
0816
0818

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Upon completion of this


course, you will be able to:
Know the GPRS system structure
Describe the GPRS important
interfaces
Understand the GPRS channel
structures
Master the GPRS relevant numbering

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Chapter 1 GPRS System Structure


Chapter 2 GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols
Chapter 3 GPRS Wireless Subsystem
Chapter 4 GPRS Numbering
Chapter 5 GPRS Mobility Management (GMM)

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GSM Development Evolution

3G
2.5G
2G

115 kbps
57.6 kbps

9.6 kbps

2Mbps
384kbps

IMT-2000

EDGE

GPRS

HSCSD

GSM

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What is GPRS and EDGE?

Abbreviation of General Packet Radio Service.

GPRS is an end-to-end packet switching technology


provided on the basis of GSM technology.

It has much interactive services with the existing GSM


circuit switching system.

GPRS supports wireless access rate of up to 171.2Kbps.

EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution)


EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS)
EGPRS supports wireless access rate of up to 473.6Kbps.

ECSD (Enhanced CSD, Enhanced HSCSD-High Speed Circuit Switched


Data)

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GPRS system structure


SMS-GMSC
SMS-IWMSC

SM-SC
HLR

MSC/VLR

EIR

SS7

Gs

Gd

Gr

Gf
Gn

Gb
MS

BSS

Um

GGSN

ATM/
DDN/
ISDN/
Ethernet, etc

Gb
BSS

Gi

SGSN

FR

Gn

MS

Gc

FR

Um

SGSN

TE

X .25

TE

Gi
GGSN

GPRS
backbone

BG

CG

Gp
Other PLMN

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Internet

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GPRS MS
Class A
The MS is attached to both GPRS and other GSM services
and the MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS and
other GSM services.
Class B
The MS is attached on GPRS network and GSM network
simultaneously but not enabling circuit switching and packet
switching services at the same time.
services are selected automatically.
Class C
The MS is attached to either GPRS or other GSM services.
Alternate use only.
services are selected manually or default selected service.

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Functions of GPRS BSS

Packet wireless resources management


function (RLC/MAC protocol function)
System message broadcast
Packet paging processing
Wireless channel configuration
Wireless resources allocation
Wireless link monitoring
Power control
Channel coding/decoding control
Cell rerouting control
Uplink traffic control (wireless QoS guarantee)

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Functions of GPRS BSS

Gb interface processing function


Data packet relay on wireless interface and Gb interface
Mobility management (cell updating procedure)
Downlink traffic control (wireless QoS guarantee)

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Packet processing functions of BTS


RF processing function
Function of physical layer of wireless interface

Channel coding/decoding and adjustment


Packet logic channel mapping
time advance value self-adaptive adjustment
Uplink measurement
Downlink power control execution
G-Abis interface processing function

Transmission of RLC/MAC control block and data block


Synchronization mechanism with TDMA block of PCU
Uplink measurement report
Transmission check
Other inner-band signaling functions

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Packet processing functions of BSC

Packet wireless resource management function


Packet channel configuration
TBF establishment procedure when PBCCH is not configured in
the cell
Circuit paging coordination

G-Abis interface processing function


G-Ais interface physical layer switching

Pb interface switching function


Similar to the relative functions of PCU

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Functions of PCU
Packet wireless resource management function (RLC/MAC protocol function)

Wireless resource management functions of GPRS BSS


Circuit paging coordination
G-Abis interface processing function

Function related with GPRS BTS

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Functions of PCU
Pb interface processing function

LAPD link between BSC and PCU


Layer-3 signaling between BSC and PCU
Gb interface processing function

Data packet relay on wireless interface and Gb interface


Mobility management (cell updating procedure)
Downlink traffic control (wireless QoS guarantee)

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Position of PCU
Um
CCU

BSC

BTS

GSN
Gb
A

PCU
CCU
Abis
CCU

BTS

PCU

CCU

CCU

BTS

GSN

BSC
Gb

GSN

BSC

PCU

CCU

Gb

CCU=Channel Codec Unit


PCU= Packet Control Unit
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Position of Huawei PCU

CCU

BSC

BTS
CCU

SGSN

PCU

CCU

BTS

Gb

BSC
Pb

CCU
Abis

Um

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GSM(BSS side) upgrade to GPRS

Upgrade BTS software

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Upgrade BSC software

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Add PCU

Page 18

GPRS(BSS side) upgrade to EDGE

EDGE
TRX

Upgrade BTS software and


hardware - new EDGE TRX

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Upgrade BSC software

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Upgrade PCU software

Page 19

Functions of SGSN

Network access control (MS side)


Authentication
Billing information collection
IMEI check

Logic link management


SGSN-MS logic link management
Supporting acknowledged/unacknowledged
transmission

Route management
SGSN-BSS data transmission route management
Mobility management and session management

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Functions of SGSN

Route and tunnel transmission


Compression and decompression
Encryption and decryption
Storage and transfer of subscriber data
Routing: executed with PDP context
Address translation and mapping: including DNS and
GGSN address induced from APN
Encapsulation and tunnel transmission

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Functions of GGSN

Network access control (external PDN side)


Message filtering
Billing information collection

Mobility management and session


management

Routing and transfer


Storage and transfer
Routing
Address translation and mapping
Encapsulation and tunnel transmission

Dynamic allocation of IP addresses

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Functions of CG

Real-time collection of GPRS bills

Temporary storage and buffering of GPRS bills

Pre-processing of GPRS bills

Sending GPRS bills to the billing center

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Functions of BG

BG enables the following protocols necessary for


interworking between operators
Security protocol: IPSec and firewall are recommended
Routing protocol: BGP is recommended
Billing protocol: determined by the operators with negotiation;
BG might be needed in collecting billing information

It is normally based on routers

It can be configured in combination with GGSN

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Functions of MSC/VLR
When Gs interface is installed, MSC/VLR can support
Establishment and maintenance of the association between SGSN and MSC/VLR.
GPRS combined mobility management procedure.

Combined IMSI/GPRS attachment/detachment.


Combined location area/routing area updating.
Circuit paging coordination function.

The wireless resource usage can be greatly improved.

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Functions of HLR/AUC

Saving and updating GPRS subscriber subscription data

User authentication

Providing location/routing information and processing


needed in mobility management and routing, for
example:
Saving and updating user service SGSN number and address
GPRS user location deletion indication
Whether MS is reachable.

Subscriber tracing (optional)

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Functions of SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC

After Gd interface is installed, short messages can be sent via GPRS, which reduces the

occupation on SDCCH and cuts down the influence on voice services by SMS services.

The operator can select to send SMS via MSC or SGSN.

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Chapter 1 GPRS System Structure


Chapter 2 GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols
Chapter 3 GPRS Wireless Subsystem
Chapter 4 GPRS Numbering
Chapter 5 GPRS Mobility Management (GMM)

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Network interface types

SGSN
SGSN

GPRS
backbone network

GGSN
GGSN

Gn

IP interface

Gi

SGSN
SGSN

PDP network
(IP/X.25)

SS7 interface
Gc

Gd

Gb
Gr
MT

TE

Gs

Um

BSS

MSC

HLR

MS

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SMSGMSC

Data transmission plane


Application

IP/X.25

IP/X.25
relay

SNDCP
LLC
RLC

UDP/TCP

UDP/TCP

IP

IP

L2

L2

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer

MAC

MAC

Network
Service

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer

MS

relay

LLC
BSSGP
Service
Network

RLC

Um

BSSGP

BSS

MAC: Media Access Control


RLC: Radio Link Control
LLC: Logical Link Control

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Gb

GTP

GTP

SNDCP

SGSN

IP/X.25

Gn

L2 (MAC)

Physical
Layer
GGSN

BSSGP: BSS GPRS Protocol

SNDCP: Sub-Network Dependency Convergence Protocol

GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol

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Gi

MS-SGSN signaling plane

GMM/SM

GMM/SM

LLC

LLC
relay
Relay

RLC

RLC

BSSGP

BSSGP

MAC

MAC

Network
Service

Network
Service

GSM RF

GSM RF

L1bis

L1bis

MS

Um

BSS

GMM: GPRS Mobility Management

SM: Session Management

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Gb

Page 31

SGSN

Functions of physical layer

Physical layer consists of RF sub-layer and physical


link sub-layer
RF sub-layer
modulation and demodulation.

Physical sub-layer
error check, interleaving.
Radio channel measurement, including receiving signal level and

quality measurement, TA measurement, physical link layer


congestion measurement.
Radio management function, including cell selection and

reselection procedures, power control procedure of transmitter,


battery power management procedure, such as DRX.

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Functions of RLC/MAC

RLC/MAC layer service


The RLC/MAC function supports two modes of operation
Unacknowledged operation
Acknowledged operation

RLC/MAC layer functions


The RLC function defines the procedures for segmentation and
reassemble of LLCPDUs into RLC/MAC blocks and, in RLC
acknowledged mode of operation, for the Backward Error Correction
(BEC) procedures enabling the selective retransmission of
unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks.
The MAC function defines the procedures that enable multiple mobile stations
to share a common transmission medium, which may consist of several
physical channels. The function may allow a mobile station to use several
physical channels in parallel, i.e. use several timeslots within the TDMA frame.

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NS layer definition
The Network Service performs the transport of NS

SDUs(Service Data Unit ) between the SGSN and BSS.


The Network Service entity is composed of the Sub-

Network Service and the Network Service Control.

Network Service
Network Service Control /
Network Service Control Protocol
Sub-Network Service /
Sub-Network Service Protocol

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NS layer composition
The Network Service Control
the peer-to-peer communication between remote NS user entities
is performed over BSSGP Virtual Connections (BVCs).
A BVC is a virtual communication path between Network Service
user peer entities.

The Sub-Network Service


The Network Service Control peer entities use the Sub-Network
Service for communication with each other.
The peer-to-peer communication across the Gb interface between
remote Network Service Control entities is performed over
Network Service Virtual Connections (NS-VCs).
An NS-VC is a virtual communication path between Network
Service Control peer entities.

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Functions of NS

NS is responsible for

NS SDU transmission
The NS SDUs shall be transmitted on the NS-VCs. The NS SDUs are
encapsulated into Network Service Control PDUs which in turn are
encapsulated into Sub-Network Service PDUs.
Load sharing
The load sharing function distributes the NS SDU traffic amongst
the available (i.e. unblocked) NS-VCs.
NS-VC management
A blocking procedure is used when an NS-VC becomes unavailable
for NS user traffic.
An unblocking procedure is used for the reverse operation.
Network congestion indication
Congestion reporting mechanisms available in the Sub-Network
Service implementation shall be used by the Network Service to
report congestion.

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Functions of BSSGP

The primary function of BSSGP is to provide the


radio-related, QoS, and routeing information that
is required to transmit user data between a BSS
and an SGSN.
In the BSS, it acts as an interface between LLC frames and
RLC/MAC blocks.
In the SGSN, it forms an interface between RLC/MAC-derived
information and LLC frames.

A secondary function is to enable two physically


distinct nodes, the SGSN and BSS, to operate
node management control functions.

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Functions of LLC

Logical Link Control (LLC): This layer provides a


highly reliable ciphered logical link between an
MS and its SGSN.
LLC includes functions for
the provision of one or more logical link connections
discriminated between by means of a DLCI.
sequence control, to maintain the sequential order of frames
across a logical link connection.
detection of transmission, format and operational errors on a
logical link connection.
recovery from detected transmission, format, and operational
errors.
notification of unrecoverable errors.
flow control.
ciphering.

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SGSN MSC/VLR signaling plane

BSSAP+

BSSAP+

SCCP

SCCP

MTP3

MTP3

MTP2

MTP2

L1

L1

SGSN

Gs

MSC/VLR

Gs interface is the optional interface.

It adopts BSSAP+ protocol to enable combined mobility management and


paging functions so as to improve the effective usage of wireless
resources.

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Network operation mode (Paging coordination)


Paging co-ordination means that the network sends paging messages

for circuit-switched services on the same channel as used for packetswitched services, i.e., on the GPRS paging channel or on the GPRS
traffic channel, and the MS needs only to monitor that channel.
Circuit Paging
Channel

GPRS Paging
Channel

Paging co-ordination

Packet Paging Channel

Packet Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

Packet Data Channel

Not Applicable

Yes (Gs interface is


present, all MSCoriginated paging of
GPRS-attached MSs shall
go via the SGSN)

CCCH Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

Packet Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

Mode

Network Operation Mode


I

Network Operation Mode


II
Network Operation Mode
III

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No (Gs interface is not


present, all MSCoriginated paging of
GPRS-attached MSs shall
go via the A interface)

Page 40

Chapter 1 GPRS System Structure


Chapter 2 GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols
Chapter 3 GPRS Wireless Subsystem
Chapter 4 GPRS Numbering
Chapter 5 GPRS Mobility Management (GMM)

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Physical channel
The same as in GSM

The same frequency

The modulation mode

The same TDMA frame definition

The same burst pulse definition

Application

IP/X25
SNDCP
LLC

The differences between GPRS and

RLC

GSM

MAC

The Multi-frame structure

The channel coding

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Physical
Layer
MS

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Page 42

RLC

Relay

BSSGP

Frame
relay

MAC
Physical
Layer
BSS

Physical
Layer

Packet logic channels


Packet Data CHannel (PDCH)
Packet control channel

Packet service channel

PBCCH

PCCCH

PDCCH

BCCH
PDTCH/U

TCH

PDTCH/D

PPCH

PRACH

PAGCH

PNCH

PACCH

PCH, RACH, AGCH

PTCCH/U

SACCH

The specific type of PDCH (except PRACH) is determined by


RLC/MAC head and RLC/MAC control message type.

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PTCCH/D

Channel abbreviation

Packet Data Traffic CHannel Uplink - PDTCH/U


Packet Data Traffic CHannel Downlink - PDTCH/D
Packet Broadcast Control CHannel - PBCCH
Packet Common Control CHannel - PCCCH
Packet Dedicated Control Channel - PDCCH
Packet Paging CHannel - PPCH
Packet Random Access CHannel - PRACH
Packet Access Grant CHannel - PAGCH
Packet Notification CHannel - PNCH
Packet Associated Control CHannel - PACCH
Packet Timing advance Control CHannel Uplink PTCCH/U
Packet Timing advance Control CHannel Downlink PTCCH/D

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PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic CHannel)

PDTCH transmits the user


data in the mode of packet
switching with a transmission

Packet service channel

rate of 0~22.8kbit/s.

All packet data traffic

PDTCH/U

channels are uni-directional.

Uplink (PDTCH/U) for a mobile


originated packet transfer.

Downlink (PDTCH/D) for a mobile


terminated packet transfer.

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PDTCH/D

PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control


CHannel)

The PBCCH broadcasts


parameters used by the MS to
access the network for packet
transmission operation.
The PBCCH also carries the
information transmitted via the
BCCH to allow circuit switching
operation.

Packet control channel

PBCCH

The MS in GPRS attached mode monitors


the PBCCH only, if PBCCH is available,
otherwise, the BCCH shall be used to
broadcast information for packet operation.
The existence of the PBCCH in the cell is
indicated on the BCCH via SI13.

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PCCCH (Packet Common Control


CHannel)

PPCH

Downlink only, used to page MS.

PCCCH

PRACH

Uplink only, used to request allocation of


one or several PDTCH/Us or PDTCH/Ds.

PAGCH

Downlink only, used to allocate one or


several PDTCHs.

PNCH

PPCH

PRACH

Downlink only, used to notify MS of PTMM call.

If no PCCCH is allocated, the


information for packet
switching operation is
transmitted on the CCCH. If a
PCCCH is allocated, it may
transmit information for circuit
switching operation.

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PAGCH

PNCH

PDCCH (Packet dedicated control


channels)

PACCH
Bi-directional, used to transmit the

PDCCH

packet signaling in data transmission.

PTCCH/U
Used to transmit random access bursts
to allow estimation of the timing
advance for one MS in packet transfer

PACCH

PTCCH/U

mode.

PTCCH/D
Used to transmit timing advance
updates for several MS. One PTCCH/D
is paired with several PTCCH/U's.

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PTCCH/D

Combinations of packet logic channel

Mode 1: PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
Mode 2: PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH

Mode 3: PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH

Mode 4: PBCCH+PCCCH
(PCCCH=PPCH+PRACH+PAGCH+PNCH

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With the increase of traffic, the


packet public channel should be
configured in the cell. Channel
combination mode 1 and mode 2
should be adopted.

In case of small GPRS traffic, GPRS and


circuit services use the same BCCH and
CCCH in the cell. In this case, only
combination mode 3 is needed in the cell.

Page 49

Mapping of packet logic channel


PDCH 52 multi-frame mapping

X = Idle frame

T = Frame used for PTCCH

B0 ~ B11 = Radio blocks

A radio block is a 4-normal-burst sequence that carries a RLC/MAC PDU (Protocol Data
Unit).

The mapping of logical channels onto the radio blocks is defined by means of the ordered list
of blocks (B0, B6, B3, B9, B1, B7, B4, B10, B2, B8, B5, B11).

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CCCH
FCCCH

CCCH
FCCCH

CCCH

Huawei Confidential
S A C C H /C 4 ( 0 )
S A C C H /C 4 ( 0 )
S A C C H /C 4 ( 0 )
S A C C H /C 4 ( 1 )
S A C C H /C 4 ( 1 )
S A C C H /C 4 ( 1 )
S A C C H /C 4 ( 1 )
ID L E

S A C C H /C 4 (2 )
S A C C H /C 4 (2 )
S A C C H /C 4 (3 )
S A C C H /C 4 (3 )
S A C C H /C 4 (3 )
S A C C H /C 4 (3 )
ID L E

FCCCH

FCCCH

S A C C H /C 4 (2 )

SCH

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

SCH

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

S A C C H /C 4 ( 0 )

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

SCH

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

S D C C H 4 /(3 )

S A C C H /C 4 (2 )

FCCCH

S D C C H $ /(2 )

S D C C H $ /(2 )

F ig u r e 8 b : T D M A f r a m e m a p p in g f o r F C C H + S C H + B C C H + C C C H + S D C C H /4 ( 0 ...3 ) + S A C C H /4 ( 0 ...3 )

FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/4

Page 51

ID L E

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

SCH

FCCCH

S D C C H $ /(2 )

FCCCH

FCCCH

CCCH

S D C C H $ /(2 )

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

CCCH

S D C C H $ /(2 )

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

CCCH

S D C C H $ /(2 )

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

SCH

FCCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

SCH

FCCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

BCCH

BCCH

BCCH

SCH

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

S D C C H 4 /(1 )

SCH
BCCH

S D C C H $ /(2 )

S D C C H /4 (0 )

S D C C H /4 (0 )

FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH

SCH

S D C C H /4 (0 )

S D C C H /4 (0 )

F ig u r e 8 a : T D M A f r a m e m a p p in g f o r F C C H + S C H + B C C H + C C C H

S D C C H $ /(2 )

S D C C H /4 (0 )

S D C C H /4 (0 )

SCH

CCCH

CCCH

S D C C H /4 (0 )

CCCH

CCCH

SCH

CCCH

CCCH

S D C C H /4 (0 )

CCCH

CCCH

FCCCH

FCCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

CCCH

SCH

BCCH

BCCH

CCCH

BCCH

BCCH

SCH

BCCH

BCCH

CCCH

SCH
BCCH

SCH
BCCH

Multi-frame structure comparison bet. PS


52 multi-frame
mapping of Packet Switching logic channel
and
CS
DL

UL

PBCCH+PCCCH (BS_PBCCH_ BLKS=2 BS_PAG_BLKS _RES=3


BS_PRACH_BLKS=4)

51 multi-frame mapping of Circuit Switching logic channel

Packet wireless channel


configurations

Reason of adopting static PDCH


To enable that GPRS MS is constantly online in the cell.
To ensure certain QoS of GPRS services.

Reason of adopting dynamic PDCH


GPRS and GSM share wireless resources.
Wireless resources should be adopted in priority; on the
other hand, QoS of voice services should be ensured.
In a cell, the percentage of packet switching services and the
percentage of circuit switching services are constantly
changing.
Dynamic PDCH is not visible for voice services.

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Packet wireless channel


configurations

General principles
The cell should be configured with static PDCH to enable MS to be normally
attached on GPRS network as well as certain QoS of GPRS services.
Dynamic PDCH should be configured according to the GPRS traffic forecast,
which should be adjusted as TCH or PDCH usable in the operation process
according to the cell traffic status.
Circuit switching services can seize the channel used by GPRS services.

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Allocation of wireless packet


resources
TS 0

B0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

TS 1

B0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

TS 2

B0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

MS1

MS2

MS3

Wireless resource allocation and wireless transmission adopt the wireless block (BLOCK) as
the basic unit.

Each PDCH can be used by several MSs; each MS can use multiple PDCHs at the same time.

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Transmission principle of data packet on Um


interface
Subscriber IP packet
SNDCP PDU

LLC PDU

RLC/MAC block

Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst

RLC/MAC head

LLC head

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Physical layer

Subscriber data
Page 55

LLC FCS

RLC/MAC block structure (GPRS)


RLC/MAC data block

An RLC/MAC block containing an RLC data block may be encoded using


any of the available channel coding schemes CS-1, CS-2, CS-3, or CS-4.
RLC/MAC blocks encoded using CS-1 do not contain spare bits.
RLC/MAC block
MAC header

RLC data block


RLC header

RLC data unit

Spare bits

RLC/MAC control block

An RLC/MAC control blocks shall always be encoded using the coding scheme CS-1.
RLC/MAC block
MAC header
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RLC/MAC control block


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RLC/MAC block structure (EGPRS)


RLC/MAC data block
Dissimilar to GPRS

RLC/MAC block
RLC/MAC header

RLC data block 1

RLC data block 2


(conditional)

RLC/MAC control block


Similar to GPRS

RLC/MAC block
MAC header

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RLC/MAC control block

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PDCH coding mode


Kbps
60.00

59.2
54.4

50.00

GPRS

44.8

EGPRS

40.00

29.6

30.00
22.4

21.4

20.00
13.4

10.00

15.6

14.8

9.05

8.8

17.6

11.2

0.00
CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1MCS-2MCS-3MCS-4MCS-5MCS-6MCS-7MCS-8MCS-9

8PSK

GMSK
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Huawei EDGE test result


Downlink, 4 TS, MCS-9

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Medium access modes

Uplink resource allocation mode


Dynamic allocation : MS determines the blocks on each PDCH.
Fixed allocation : fixed bit mapping is adopted to determine the allocated
blocks in the allocation period.
Extended dynamic allocation : MS determines the blocks on multiple PDCH.
Either the Dynamic Allocation medium access mode or Fixed Allocation
medium access mode shall be supported by all mobile stations and all
networks that support GPRS. The support of Extended Dynamic Allocation
is optional for the network.

Downlink resource allocation mode


Dynamic allocation and fixed allocation.
The difference between the dynamic mode and the fixed mode lies on the
downlink measurement time scheduling reserved by MS.

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MS multi-TS ability

Concept of MS multi-TS ability


Definition: the multi-TS ability level is 1-29; the bigger the level,
the stronger the multi-TS ability.
three elements(1<= Rx + Tx <= Sum):
Rx maximum receiving TS number (downlink TS)
Tx maximum transmission TS number (uplink TS)
Sum maximum total TS number

BSS allocates resources according to the MS multiTS ability, requested QoS and current resource
configuration.

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Power control

Power control can improve the spectrum usage and system


capacity as well as reduce MS power consumption.

As there is no continuous bi-directional connection in the packet


data transmission process, GPRS power control is very complicated.

Uplink power control includes open-loop and close-loop power


control.

About downlink power control, there is no specific definition in


protocol. It lies on the BTS and its algorithm needs information
about downlink, so downlink power control needs MS sends channel
quality reports to BTS.

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Network control modes

During the network controlled cell re-selection, the


network may request measurement reports from the
MS and control its cell re-selection. Hence, three types
of mode are defined as follows:
NC0: Normal MS controls. The MS shall perform autonomous
cell re-selection.
NC1: MS control with measurement reports. The MS shall
send measurement reports to the network. The MS shall
perform autonomous cell re-selection.
NC2: Network control. The MS shall send measurement
reports to the network. The MS shall not perform
autonomous cell re-selection.

The network subsystem must support NC0 and should


gradually support NC1 and NC2.

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Chapter 1 GPRS System Structure


Chapter 2 GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols
Chapter 3 GPRS Wireless Subsystem
Chapter 4 GPRS Numbering
Chapter 5 GPRS Mobility Management (GMM)

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CGI
MCC

MNC

LAC

CI

Location Area Identification


Cell Global Identification
MCC (Mobile Country Code): It consists of 3 digits .

For example: The MCC of China is "460"

MNC (Mobile Network Code): It consists of 2 digits .

For example: The MNC of China Mobile is "00"

LAC (Location Area Code): It is a two bytes BCD code (hex).

The value 0000 and FFFF is invalid.

CI (Cell Identity): This code uses two bytes BCD code (hex) to identify the

radio cells within a LAI.


For example : 460-00-0011-0001
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RAI

MCC

MNC

LAC

RAC

Location Area Identification


Routing Area Identification

Routing area is the sub-set of the location area. In special


cases, the two areas are equal

The division of the routing area is related with traffic


distribution and SGSN processing ability

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BSIC

NCC

BCC

Base Station Identification Color Code

NCC(PLMN Network Color Code): It comprises 3 bits.

It allows various neighboring PLMNs to be distinguished.

BCC(BTS Color Code): It comprises 3 bits.

It allows distinctions between different radio frequency channels using the


same frequency in neighboring cells.

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Chapter 1 GPRS System Structure


Chapter 2 GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols
Chapter 3 GPRS Wireless Subsystem
Chapter 4 GPRS Numbering
Chapter 5 GPRS Mobility Management (GMM)

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GMM concept

Routing area: subset of location area


Mobility management entities: SGSN, HLR and
MS
GMM context
MS identification/ MS location information (routing
area ID, cell ID)
Current service SGSN address, VLR number (MS only)
Encryption algorithm and authentication parameter
GMM status

GMM status

Idle: GMM context is not established; MS is not


reachable.
Standby: GMM context is established; MS can receive
paging but cannot implement data transmission.
Ready: MS can implement data transmission.

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GMM status models


MM State Model of MS

MM State Model of SGSN


IDLE

IDLE

GPRS Attach

GPRS Detach

READY

READY timer expiry


or
Force to STANDBY

Implicit Detach
or
Cancel Location

PDU
transmission

READY

READY timer expiry


or
Force to STANDBY
or
Abnormal RLC condition

STANDBY

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GPRS Detach
or
Cancel Location

GPRS Attach

STANDBY

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PDU
reception

Major functions of GMM

General functions

GPRS attachment: MM context is established; MM status is changed to


ready.
GPRS detachment: MM context is deleted; MM status is changed to idle.
Originated by MS or network side.
Security function: authentication, encryption, identification check, etc.
Location management:
routing area updating
periodical routing area
cell updating

Specific functions at the network side

GMM context clearing in cooperation with HLR


Combined location updating and combined paging in cooperation with
MSC/VLR

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Cooperation between GMM and MM

Objectives
To improve the effective usage of wireless resources
To reduce the network signaling traffic

Pre-condition
SGSN and MSC/VLR support Gs interface

Functions
Combined IMSI/GPRS attachment
Combined IMSI/GPRS detachment
Combined routing area/location area updating (including
periodical)

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Summary

GPRS System Structure

GPRS Network Interfaces &


Protocols

GPRS Wireless Subsystem

GPRS Numbering

GPRS Mobility Management (GMM)

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