Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40

Socialization

SC103 Socialization

Definition
Socialization
The lifelong process of integration
through which people acquire
personal identities and social skills.

SC103 Socialization

Heredity & the Environment


Biological determinism
Human behavior and much of the social
structure is determined by genetic and
physiological characteristics of
individuals.
People have

biological reflexes
biological drives
biological characteristics

Sociobiology
SC103 Socialization

Complexity of Biological
Determinism
Few behaviors are universal among

humans.
Much research documents the learning
involved in human behavior.
Genetics alone provide only tendencies.
Children raised in isolation

SC103 Socialization

The Process of
Socialization
Socialization
Its a complex
process that
starts at birth
and lasts
throughout an
individuals life
course.
SC103 Socialization

Agencies of Socialization
Agencies of Socialization are the

people, groups and institutions that


help in the socialization process.

Family
Peers
School
Mass Media

SC103 Socialization

Types of Socialization
Primary Socialization
The process of
transforming infants
into social human
beings.
Example: parents
teaching children
values, beliefs,
language and
behavior
SC103 Socialization

Types of Socialization
Resocialization
Learning a new set
of values, beliefs
and behaviors that
are different from
those held.
It includes learning
and unlearning.
SC103 Socialization

Types of Socialization
Anticipatory

Socialization

Learning about the


values, beliefs, and
behavior of a group
that one wants to
belong to.
Examples:
students in preprofessional
programs
SC103 Socialization

Socialization through
the Life Span
Transitions

across the life


span include:

SC103 Socialization

Gaining
independence
Work and family
Relationships

Socialization of Public
Opinion
Public Opinion
The distribution of the populations beliefs
about politics and policy issues.
Demographics
We can use these characteristics of the
population to generalize about public opinion.
Census
A valuable tool for understanding population
changes
Required every 10 years by the Constitution

Immigration
We are an immigration society
Melting Pot: The mixing of cultures, ideas and
peoples that has changed the American nation.
Wave 1: Before the late 19th century-

northwestern Europeans.
Wave 2: During the late 19th centurysouthern and eastern Europeans.
Wave 3: Recent decades- Hispanics from
Central America & Mexico. Asians from
Vietnam, Korea, etc.

A Changing America
Regional shift in population center from

east to west

This changes congressional makeup due to:

Reapportionment: the process of reallocating


seats in the House of Representatives every 10
years on the basis of the results of the census.

America is getting older


Minorities are becoming the majority
Influences which policies lawmakers address

Minority-Majority

American Values
Immigration, aging, and regional

changes mean that American society is


very diverseit encourages diversity

This diverse set of preferences must


congeal for citizens to get along

What brings us together? Political

Culture:

An overall set of values widely shared


within a society.

Political Socialization
Political Socialization:
The process through which an
individual acquires [their] particular
political orientation
Political socialization is how a

diverse group of people, from


different backgrounds, and with
different interests find middle
ground and get along

The Political Socialization


Process
What socializes us into politics?
Family

School

Your first introduction to politics


Shapes how you view government

Media

Informs and educates

All three work together, in different ways,

to socialize us into political process

Family
Political leanings of children often

mirror their parents leanings

Parents are your first teachers


If they are Republican, so are you

The Michigan Model of voting behavior


The American Voter

School
School used by government to socialize

the young into the political culture

Create positive view of government and the


United States

Pledge of Allegiance

Educate about the basics of American


government, history, etc.

Civics courses, credit required to graduate high


school
Texas colleges

Media
The Mass Media also influence our views
Political news

Media affect what we think is important, i.e., what


issues we think about

Entertainment television

Promote or dispel stereotypes


Satirze, yet inform

The Daily Show, South Park

Commercials

Consumer-driven society

Political Socialization
Political learning is a lifelong process:
Political orientation solidifies in late
adolescence
Yet, we tend to become more involved in
politics as we age
Why?

Generation gap in TV news viewing, as young


people watch less news than older folks do

More information means more likely to participate


Older you get, the more stake you have in your
community

Turnout Increases with Age

How well are we


socialized?
Generally? Pretty well.
Specifically?
Changing family means less time to
discuss or engage in political discussion
People do not have a firm grasp of
government and politics

Survey on the Bill of Rights

Media entertains more than it educates

Public Opinion
Politicians should know what the public

wants in a democracy
After all, the policymaking process begins
with public concern about an issue
How are politicians to know public opinion?

Letters, e-mail, and phone calls


Media attention
Public opinion polls

Macro-Level Perspectives
on Socialization
The

The Conflict

Functionalist
Perspective

Perspective

Socialization is
the key
mechanism for
integrating
human beings
into society.
SC103 Socialization

Socialization is
a coercive
process that
favors the
interests of
some groups
over others.

Sociological Perspectives
on Social Interaction
Functionalist Perspective:
Supportive Interactions
Exchange

is an interaction in which two


individuals offer each other something
in order to obtain a reward in return.
Cooperation is an interaction in which
two or more individuals work together
to achieve a common goal.

Sociological Perspectives
on Social Interaction
Conflict Perspective: Oppositional
Interactions
Competition

is an interaction in which two


individuals follow mutually accepted rules, each
trying to achieve the same goal before the other
does.

Conflict

is an interaction in which two individuals


disregard any rules, each trying to achieve his
or her own goal by defeating the other.

Sociological Perspectives
on Social Interaction
Symbolic Interactionist
Perspective: Interpreting Interactions
Supportive

Interactions are referred to as


supportive interchanges, or mutual
dealings. All these words or actions
should not be taken at face value because
they are not what they appear to be.
Oppositional Interactions usually involve
people of different statuses.

Theoretical Thumbnail: What


Happens in Social Interaction
Perspective

Focus

Insights

Functionalist

Supportive
interactions:
exchange and
cooperation

In exchange, we pay others to build a house; in


cooperation, we work with them to build the house.

Conflict

Oppositional
interactions:
competition
and conflict

In competition, we try to win a boxing match by following


the rules of the game. In conflict, we try to knock out the
opponent by any means available.

Symbolic
interactionist

Interpreting
interactions

In supportive interactions, we heed others well-intended


meanings behind their expressed words and actions. In
oppositional interactions, we see others as less worthy of
respect and act toward them accordingly.

Interaction as Symbolic
Communication
The essence of human interactionwords and
gestures.
Symbols are arbitraryno connection between the
word and the thing itself.
Meanings of words are socially constructed.
Animal communication is a closed system while
human communication is an open system.
Human communication is nonverbal as well using
kinesics body language, and proxemics the use of
space for communication.

The Work of George Herbert


Mead
Significant symbols
Symbols that many people use and
recognize in the same way.
Stages of development
Imitation: mimic others for reward
Play: taking the role of significant others
Games: the generalized other emerges
from role-taking and coordinated behavior
The self consists of the me and the

I.

SC103 Socialization

The Development of Self


Key concepts

from an
interactionist
perspective

Personality
Self-concept
Looking glass self

SC103 Socialization

Erik Eriksons Stages Of


Development
Stag Age
e1
0-2

Life Stage

Challenge

Infancy

Trust vs. Mistrust

2-3

Early Childhood

4-5

Late Childhood

Autonomy vs.
Shame/Doubt
Initiative
vs. Guilt

6-12

School Age

Industry vs. Inferiority

1218
19-

Adolescence

Identity vs. Role


Confusion
Intimacy
vs. Isolation

6
7
8

40
4065
65+

Young
Adulthood
Middle
Adulthood
Older
Adulthood

SC103 Socialization

Generativity vs.
Stagnation
Integrity
vs. Despair

Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the


Construction of Masculinities By Michael A.
Messner
What part does family play in the socialization of

young males for sports?


Why do males from lower-status backgrounds

often develop higher levels of commitment to


sports careers than males from higher-status
backgrounds?
How does race affect boys decisions to compete

in athletic events and pursue sports careers?


SC103 Socialization

Interaction as Symbolic
Communication
Global Analysis of Communication

Verbal and nonverbal communication


is conducted differently in different
societies.

U.S. Diversity in Communication

Verbal and nonverbal communication


also vary from one groups to another
in U.S. society.

Communication Between
Men and Women
Speaking Different Genderlects
linguistic styles that reflect the
different worlds of men and women.
Proxemics and Gender

Men tend to dominate women in


proxemics by invading their personal
space, in interactions of mutual
affection, and intimate moments.

Dramaturgy
We play roles like
actors in a drama
or a stage play.
Outward
performance is
known as being
onstage.
Inward feeling is
backstage.

Sociological Frontier: Thank


You for Not Killing Me
Taxi drivers have highest homicide rate

of any occupation.
From many interactions with strangers,
taxi drivers have learned to single out
harmless from dangerous people.
Drivers look for trustworthy
characteristics such as age, gender, and
race.

The Social Construction


of Reality
Process by which people create through social
interactions certain ideas, feelings, and beliefs
about their environment.
Thomas theoremIf people define situations as
real, they are real in their consequences.
If people believe in God, God is just as real to them
as,
say, a table.
Can be a self-fulfilling prophesy (e.g. if I believe I
will be successful, I will do something to make it
real).

Ethnomethodology
Researchers found that people define the
world in a vague, ambiguous manner.
People share a set of popularly held
assumptions about how to interact.
Ethnomethodologists challenge these
assumptions.
The more diverse a society, the more
untenable the assumption of sharedunderstanding.