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STEAM

BOILERS

WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES BASE ON THEIR WORKING PRINCIPLE

1. Fire tube consist of large tubes for low pressure


heating plants and the product of combustion pass
through the inside of the tubes and outside is
surrounded by water.
2. Water tube constructed with small tubes and efficient
production of higher steam pressure, where the water
is contained inside the tubes, with product of
combustion passing around the outside of the tubes.

Additional accessories of modern marine


boilers.

ECONOMIZER

IS A BOILER THAT
UTILIZES THE HEAT IN FLUE GASES TO INCREASE
THE TEMPERATURE OF FEED WATER BEFORE THAT
FEED WATER ENTERS THE BOILER DRUM. IT'S
CONSTRUCTION EITHER SINGLE LOOP OR
CONTINUOUS LOOP TYPE WITH HEADER FOR
EXPANSION AND MAINTENANCE REPAIR.
ADVANTAGES: A. SAVING IN FUEL 5 TO 18 %
RESULTS.
B. REDUCTION IN THERMAL SHOCK.
C. INCREASE IN STORAGE CAPACITY.

DISADVANTAGES: a. original cost is high


b. increased maintenance cost
c. Space occupied by the economizer also needed.

AIR HEATERS -

ARE OFTEN INSTALLED ON


MODERN BOILERS TO HEAT THE COMBUSTION
AIR BEFORE THE AIR ENTERS THE BOILER
FURNACE.
ADVANTAGES:
1. IT INCREASES BOILER EFFICIENCY, SINCE THE
STACK TEMPERATURES ARE REDUCED.
2. IT INCREASES FURNACE EFFICIENCY, SINCE
HOT AIR INCREASES FURNACE TEMPERATURE
WHICH PROMOTES BETTER COMBUSTION.

SOOTBLOWERS

OFTEN INSTALLED ON
ECONOMIZER TO KEEP THE TUBES FREE FROM
CARBON, SOOTS COMING FROM EXHAUST GAS
OF THE ENGINE THEREBY PRODUCING A BETTER
OUTPUT OF THE BOILER OPERATING
PERFORMANCE.

SMOKE INDICATOR

AN APPARATUS
USUALLY CONSIST OF A SERIES OF MIRRORS SO
LOCATED THAT THE FIREMAN CAN EASILY SEE
THE CONDITION OF THE STACK. A STRONG LAMP
BEING ATTACHED ON ONE SIDE OF THE UPTAKE
PARALLEL TO THE BOILER CONTROL ROOM.

What are boiler mountings found on modern water-tube boiler and


function?

STEAM DRUM CYLINDRICAL FORGED STEEL WITH


BOTH END FITTED WITH MANHOLE COVER FOR REPAIR
PASSAGE. MOUNTED WITH INTERNAL FITTINGS LIKE
DRYPIPE, SURFACE BLOWLINE, FEED WATER LINE AND
DESUPERHEATER ON HIGHER PRESSURE BOILER.
WATER DRUM TO EQUALIZE THE DISTRIBUTION OF
WATER TO THE GENERATING TUBES AND TO PROVIDE
SPACE FOR THE ACCUMULATION OF SCALE AND OTHER
SOLID OR SLUDGE WHICH WAS BLOWN OUT BY
BOTTOM BLOW-VALVE.
DOWNCOMER CONSIST OF NIPPLE TUBES
CONNECTED BETWEEN STEAM DRUM AND FRONT
SECTION HEADERS, WHERE WATER LEAVES THE DRUM
PASSES TO HEADERS FOR EXPANSION WITHOUT
STRAIN OCCUR.

DRY PIPE

IS A PERFORATED OR SLOTTED PIPE PLACED IN


THE HIGHER PART OF THE STEAM SPACE OF A BOILER TO PREVENT
PRIMING. THE STEAM OUTLET VALVES ARE CONNECTED TO THE
DRY PIPE.

WATERWALL

THESE ARE SERIES OF VERTICAL OR


INCLINED WATER TUBES INSTALLED ALONG ONE OR MORE WALLS
OF THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER AND EXPOSED TO DIRECT
RADIANT HEAT OF THE FIRE.
2 PURPOSES SERVED BY WATERWALL:
1. ADDED HEATING SURFACE AND BOILER CAPACITY ARE SECURED.
REVAMPING AND ADDING WATERWALLS TO AN EXISTING BOILER
MAY DOUBLE ITS CAPACITY.
2. MAINTENANCE OF THE REFRACTORY WALL IS REDUCED GREATLY.

FURNACE

PROVIDE SPACE IN WHICH THE FUEL AND AIR MIX


AND ATOMIZE CREATING PERFECT COMBUSTION. IT ALSO
INCREASED TOTAL HEAT TRANSFER TO THE SURROUNDED WATER
WALL AND GENERATING TUBES.

FURNACE REFRACTORY

MADE OF BRICKS OR
TILES FITTED AROUND LOWER BASE HEADER INORDER TO
MAINTAIN FURNACE TEMPERATURE PROVIDING GOOD
COMBUSTION. PROVIDES TRANSFER OF HOT COMBUSTION
GASES THOUGH BANK OF GENERATING TUBES
PREVENTING HEAT ESCAPING TO THE ATMOSPHERE
MAINTANING BOILER EFFICIENCY.

GAS BAFFLES

USED TO DIVERT THE PATH OF


COMBUSTION GASES FROM FURNACE TO UPTAKE.

STEAM BAFFLES

PREVENT STEAM COMING BACK


THROUGH RETURN TUBES FROM BLOWING DIRECTLY INTO
THE WATER IN THE STEAM TO AVOID TURBULENCE EFFECT.

SCUM PAN

TO COLLECT THE FLOATING IMPURITIES


SUCH AS OIL, GREASE TO OVERBOARD.

What are the requirements of efficient oil burning in


a boiler?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Proper amount of fuel


Proper amount of air
Proper atomization
Proper fuel and air temperature
High furnace temperature

What the methods by which rate of combustion


varied to meet changed in the steam demand?
1.
2.
3.
4.

The size of the atomized used


The number of atomizer used
The oil pressure used
The fuel oil back pressure used.

What are the causes of excessive oil temperature ?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Insufficient oil circulation


Improper viscosity of oil
Overloading
Overheated bearings
Jacket cooling system not effective
Late burning of fuel
Sludge coating on the crankcase
Oil cooler clogged

What causes panting in a water tube boiler ?


1. Deficiency of air
2. Excessive oil temperature
3. Poor fuel air mixture

What are the two parts of a burner? Function?


1. Atomizer used to atomized the fuel into tiny spray.
2. Air register allows entry of a strong blast whirling of air
which catches the fuel fog,

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