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# REINFORCING DETAILING

OF R.C.C MEMBERS

WHO IS AN ENGINEER?
According to USA President Herbert Hoover, who was an
engineer before he became a politician, said:
The great liability of the engineer compared to men of other
professionsis that his works are out in the open where all
can see them.
His acts ..step by step are in hard substances.
He cannot bury his mistakes in the grave like the DOCTORS.
He cannot argue them into thin air..or blame the judge..like
the LAWYERS.
He cannot, like the ARCHITECT, cover his figures with trees and
vines.
He cannot, like the politicians, screen his shortcomings by
blaming his opponents.and hope the people will forget. The
ENGINEER simply cannot deny he did it.
If his works do not workhe is damned.

## A design engineers responsibility should

include assuring the structural safety of the
design, details, checking shop drawing.
Detailing is as important as design since
proper detailing of engineering designs is an
essential link in the planning and engineering
process as some of the most devasting
collapses in history have been caused by
defective connections or DETAILING. There
are many examples explained in the book"
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FAILURES by
Dov Kaminetzky.
Detailing is very important not only for the
proper execution of the structures but for the
safety of the structures.
Detailing is necessary not only for the steel
structures but also for the RCC members as it
is the translation of all the mathematical
expressions and equations results.

Column
A compression member, the effective length >three
times the least lateral dimension.
Short and Slender Compression Members
When both slenderness ratios lex/D and ley/b are
<12
Column is a short column
If more than 12, then it is long or slender column.
Slender Columns are designed for Additional
Moments as per Clause 39.7 of IS456
Effective height of column: For effective column height refer table 28
(Annexure E) of IS:456-2000.

For the RCC members for most commonly used for buildings we
can divide the detailing for
1.

## SLABS-WITH OR WITHOUT OPENINGS.

(RECTANGULAR,CIRCULAR,NON-RECTANGULAR-PYRAMID
SLAB,TRIANGULAR ETC)
-BALCONY SLAB,LOFT SLAB,CORNER SLAB etc

2.

## BEAMS- WITH OR WITHOUT OPENIGS.(SHALLOW & DEEP BEAMS)

3.

COLUMNS.(RECTANGULAR,L-SHAPE,T-SHAPE,
CIRCULAR,OCTAGONAL,CROSS SHAPE etc)

4. FOUNDATIONS.
specially for the SEISMIC FORCES.
Apart from the detailing for the above there is a different
detailing required for the Rehabilitation and strengthening of
damaged structures.
We will now dwell on the DETAILING OF MEMBERS FOR THE
GRAVITY AND SOME CODAL DETAILINGS AS PER IS CODE IS 13920
AND IS 4326 AS REQUIRED FOR SEISMIC FORCES.

DOS-GENERAL
1.

## Prepare drawings properly & accurately if possible label each bar

and show its shape for clarity.
12

I dia@12c/c

1- dia@12c/c

Cross section of retaining wall which collapsed immediately after placing of soil
backfill because rather than 1-1/4 dia. were used. Error occurred because
Correct rebar dia. Was covered by a dimension line.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

## Prepare bar-bending schedule , if necessary.

Indicate proper cover-clear cover, nominal cover
or effective cover to reinforcement.
Decide detailed location of opening/hole and
around the openings.
Use commonly available size of bars and spirals.
For a single structural member the number of
different sizes of bars shall be kept minimum.
The grade of the steel shall be clearly stated in
the drawing.
Deformed bars need not have hooks at their
ends.
Show enlarged details at corners, intersections
of walls, beams and column joint and at similar
situations.

9.

## Congestion of bars should be avoided at points where

members intersect and make certain that all rein. Can be
properly placed.
10. In the case of bundled bars, lapped splice of bundled bars
shall be made by splicing one bar at a time; such
individual splices within the bundle shall be staggered.
11. Make sure that hooked and bent up bars can be placed

12.

## Indicate all expansion, construction and contraction joints

on plans and provide details for such joints.
13. The location of construction joints shall be at the point of
minimum shear approximately at mid or near the mid points.
It shall be formed vertically and not in a sloped manner.
DOS BEAMS & SLABS:
1.
Where splices are provided in bars, they shall be , as far as
possible, away from the sections of maximum stresses and
shall be staggered.
2.
Were the depth of beams exceeds 750mm in case of beams
without torsion and 450mm with torsion provide face rein.
as per IS456-2000.
3.
Deflection in slabs/beams may be reduced by providing
compression reinforcement.
4.
Only closed stirrups shall be used for transverse rein. For
members subjected to torsion and for members likely to be
subjected to reversal of stresses as in Seismic forces.

5.

## To accommodate bottom bars, it is good practice to make

secondary beams shallower than main beams, at least by
50mm.
Dos COLUMNS.
1.
A reinforced column shall have at least six bars of
longitudinal reinforcement for using in transverse helical
reinforcement.-for CIRCULAR sections.
2.
A min four bars one at each corner of the column in the
case of rectangular sections.
3.
Keep outer dimensions of column constant, as far as
possible , for reuse of forms.
4.
Preferably avoid use of 2 grades of vertical bars in the
same element.
DONOTS-GENERAL:
1.
Reinforcement shall not extend across an expansion joint
and the break between the sections shall be complete.
2.
Flexural reinforcement preferably shall not be terminated
in a tension zone.

3.
4.
5.

6.

## Bars larger than 36mm dia. Shall not be bundled.

Lap splices shall be not be used for bars larger than
36mm dia. Except where welded.
Where dowels are provided, their diameter shall not
exceed the diameter of the column bars by more than
3mm.
Where bent up bars are provided, their contribution
towards shear resistance shall not be more than 50% of
the total shear to be resisted. USE OF SINGEL BENT UP
BARS(CRANKED) ARE NOT ALLOWED IN THE CASE
OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE STRUCTURES.

OR OPENINGS.

## The building plan DX-3 shows the

slabs in different levels for the
purpose of eliminating the inflow of
rainwater into the room from the open
terrace and also the sunken slab for
toilet in first floor.
The building plan DX-A3 is one in
which the client asked the architect to
provide opening all round.
Refer the 3d
elevation

## Different shapes of slabs used in the

6depression for OT &
buildings.
9 for sunken slabs.

## Portico slab in elevation

19-6
5wide corridor all

## Portico slab in plan

9-6suare
opening
Portico and other rooms
roof slab in plan

round

## Minimum and max.reinforcement % in beams, slabs and

columns as per codal provisions should be followed.
SLABS:
It is better to provide a max spacing of 200mm(8) for main
bars and 250mm(10) in order to control the crack width and
spacing.
A min. of 0.24% shall be used for the roof slabs since it is
subjected to higher temperature. Variations than the floor
slabs. This is required to take care of temp. differences.
It is advisable to not to use 6mm bars as main bars as this
size available in the local market is of inferior not only with
respect to size but also the quality since like TATA and SAIL
are not producing this size of bar.
BEAMS:
A min. of 0.2% is to be provided for the compression bars in
order to take care of the deflection.

## The stirrups shall be min.size of

8mm in the case of lateral load
resistance .
The hooks shall be bent to 135
degree .

CANTILEVER BEAM

crack

INCORRECT
Ldt

CLOSE
STIRRUPS

Ldt/2

Ld/2

Ld/2
Ld

CORRECT

crack

INCORRECT
Ldt

CLOSE
STIRRUPS

Ldt/2

Ld/2

Ld/2
Ld

CORRECT

GRID BEAM
GRID BEAM

INCORRECT

Close rings
1.5d

1.5d
300

300

2#extra bars
Slope 1:10

Hanger bars
CORRECT

Secondary beam

Main beam
INCORRECT
Secondary beam
Close rings
1.5d
300

1.5d
300
d
60degree

Hanger bars
CORRECT

Main beam

BEAM
d

INCORRECT

1/4OR
1/5 SPAN

Ld

Ld

LINE OF CRACK

d/2
t

1.5d

d/2

d/2+d/2Cot(t)

CORRECT

Continuous beam
continuous beam

Span/4

Span/4

Span/4

Span/4

Span/4

incorrect

Span/4

1.5d

1.5d

correct

Span/4

1.5d

CONTINUOUS BEAM
SPAN/4

SPAN/4

.08L1

100%
CRACK

SPAN/4

CRACK
.08L1

L1

100%

CRACK

L2

.08L2

INCORRECT

L1/4

0.1L1

100%
20%

L1/4

L2/4

20%

100%

100%

L1
CORRECT

.15L1

.15L2

L2

NONPRISMATIC
SECTION OF BEAM
D

CRACK

INCORRECT

CLOSE RING

CLOSE RING

CORRECT

FROM COLUMN

COLUMN

INCORRECT

NOT LESS
THAN 0.5Ast

## NOT LESS THAN GREATER OF 0.5L OR Ld

50mm

Ld

0.25Ast
COLUMN
CORRECT

Ld/3

SLOPING BEAM

CRACK

Ld
Ld

CORRECT

HAUNCH BEAMS

CRACK

CRACK

L
INCORRECT
Ld

Ld

CORRECT
Ld

L/8 TO
L/10

L/8 TO
L/10

Ld

C-COMPRESSION

STRESSES AT CORNERS

T-TENSION
C
t
C

CRACK
t
RESULTANT TENSILE STRESS FOR
ACROSS CORNER(ONE PLANE)

t
c

## RESULTANT TENSILE STRESS FOR

ACROSS CORNER(DIFFERENT PLANE)
CRACK
t
c

## SHEAR AND TORSION REIN. IN

BEAMS
Stirrups taken round outermost
bars spacing<=x1
<=(x1+y1)/4
<=300mm
Min 0.2%bd to control deflection as
well as for seismic requ.
INCORRECT
n

d
Skin rein.10dia is
required when depth
exceeds 450mm(0.1%
of web area distributed
equally on two faces)

y1

D
100 to
200mm

D-n>500mm

D/5
x1
b

CORRECT

Shear rein.
INCORRECT

2/3d

Ld

Ld

CORRECT
Extra ties

INCORRECT
opening

crack

crack

## OPENING IN WEB OF BEAM

d/2

opening

d/2

Closed stps
for d/2

Closed stps
for d/2
Ld
OPENING IN WEB OF BEAM
CORRECT

INCORRECT
2max

CLOSED STPS

U TYPE BARS

Ld

IN TENSION-Ld

CORRECT

COVER

CLOSE
TIES @S/2

SLOPE 1:6

S-SPACING

INCORRECT

CORRECT

REDUCTION
COLUMN BOTH
SIDES

INCORRECT

BEAM BOTTOM

SPLICE

3NO.CLOSE TIES

3NO.CLOSE TIES

<=75mm

CORRECT

## TERMINATION OF COLUMN BARS INSIDE BEAM

INCORRECT

Ld

CORRECT

*COL.CORE HAS TO
EQ REGION-BEAM-COL JN-EXTERIOR

BE CONFINED BY
CIRCULAR OR
RECTANGULAR TIES
IN ACCORDANCE
WITH END REGION

SPACING OF
LATERAL
TIES <=d/2
END REGION

COL.
CORE*

SPACING OF
LATERAL
TIES
<=100mm
END REGION

## BEAM COL. JUNCTION-EQ

REGION

INCORRECT

SPACING OF
LATERAL
TIES <=d/2

CORRECT
BEAM COL. JUNCTION-EQ
REGION

## COLUMN DETAILS IN EQ REGIONS

incorrect

First stirrups
50mm from beam
face

END
REGION

correct

END REGION-h/6 or D or
450MM whichever is
greater

d
D

END
REGION

columns

END
REGION

## Spacing of shear rein. In

columns

EQ-REGION-CONTINUOUS BEAM
INCORRECT

50mmmax

## CONTINUOUS BARS NOT LESS THAN

AREA OF BARS AT COL.FACE

A=L1/3

A=L1/3

CORRECT
A=L1/3

Ld

stp@maxd/2

2d

Stirrup spacing=d/4 or
100mm or 8dia which
ever is the least

2d

2d

stp@maxd/2

FOOTING-DETAILS(INDEPENDENT)

INCORRECT

COLUMN
BARS

STARTER
BARS

NATURAL
G.L

COVER TO
STARTER

Lb
3 SIDE COVER

Ldt

Ldt

CORRECT

Min.300

COVER50mm
IF p.c.c below
or 75mm

INCORRECT

## TYPICAL REIN DETAILS OF

HAMMER FOUNDATION BLOCK

CORRECT

Ld
Ld

SECTION OF TRENCH
INCORRECT
CRACK

CORRECT
Ld

Ld

Ld

## STAIRCASE-WITH WAIST SLAB

INCORRECT

Extra bar
Ld(min)
Ld(min)

Ld(min)
CORRECT

SLABLESS STAIRCASE

Dist.

Alternate 1
Main bar

Main bar

SLABLESS STAIRCASE

Main bar
L=horizontal span

Alternate 2
A=0.25L

## DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF BARS

FOR A CONCRETE GRADE M20 &STEEL STRENGTH Fy=415
SLNO

BAR
DIA.

TENSION
mm

COMPRESSION

376.0

301.0

10

470.0

376.0

12

564.0

451.0

16

752.0

602.0

20

940.0

752.0

22

1034.0

827.0

25

1175.0

940.0

28

1316.0

1053.0

32

1504.0

1203.0

REMARKS

## APPROXIMATELY USE 50Xdia FOR TENSION

CONCLUSION:
Before concluding I will show some more details drawn
in autocad exported in wwf format

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## As there is no time to elaborately explaining ,the following topics are not

covered :
Flat slabs, Folded plates, shell structures-cylindrical shells, silos,
Staircases- helical staircase, central beam type, cantilever type etc.
Different types of foundations-raft, pile foundation, strap foundation etc.
Retaining wall structures,
Liquid retaining structures.
Deep beams.
Shear wall, walls.
Hope that I have enlighten some of the detailing technique for the most
commonly encountered RCC members in buildings.
In the above statements if my senior colleagues and ACCE members
can find different method or any new detailing system it will be of immense
help not only for me but to other young engineers who should learn in wright
ways and not wrong lessons.

REFERENCES:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## HANDBOOK ON CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND

DETAILING-SP:34(S&T)-1987.
MANUAL OF ENGINEERING & PLACING DRAWINGS
FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES(ACI 315-80
MANUAL OF STANDARD PRACTICE CONCRETE
REINFORCING STEEL INSTITUTE.
TWARD BOARD MANUAL FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY
SCHEMES.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND DETAILING OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES. By D.S.PRAKASH RAO.
SIMPLIFIED DESIGN-RC BUILDINGS OF MODERATE
SIZE AND HEIGHT-BY PORTLAND CEMENT
ASSOCIATION,USA.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FAILURES BY DOV
KAMINETZKY.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

## IS:2502-1963 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR BENDING AND

FIXING OF BARS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT.
IS:1893:2000.
IS:4326.
IS:456:2000
REINFORCED HAND BOOK BY REYNOLD.

THANK YOU.