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SMA Mixture

Design Requirements
Alexander W. (Sandy) Brown, P.Eng.
Ontario Hot Mix Producers Association - Technical Director
Asphalt Institute - Canadian Field Engineer

www.ohmpa.org

ASPHALT INSTITUTE

Overview

Introduction
What is SMA?
Mixture Properties
Mix Production
Applications for SMA
SMA Concerns

November 2006

Definitions

Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) is hot mix


asphalt consisting of two parts; a coarse
aggregate skeleton and an asphalt binder
rich mortar. The mixture has an aggregate
skeleton with coarse aggregate stone-onstone contact.

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Definitions

Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) Mortar means a


mixture of asphalt cement (and any
additives), filler (all material passing the
75 m sieve from the dry sieving of all
aggregate components including any
commercial filler) and fibres blended by
volume.

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Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA)

Introduction

What is Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA)?

SMA is a gap graded rut resistant


hot mix asphalt
Mix is composed of:

High Quality Aggregates


Asphalt Rich Mortar
Mineral Filler
Cellulose Fibres

November 2006

Introduction

Key Benefits of SMA

Rut Resistant Mix


Very High Skid Resistance
Reduced Water Spray
Noise Reduction
Durable Mix

November 2006

Mixture Properties

Governing Specifications

AASHTO MP 8-051
Standard Specification for Designing Stone
Matrix Asphalt (SMA)

MTO OPSS 1151 (Nov. 2004)


Material Specification for Superpave and Stone
Mastic Asphalt Mixtures

November 2006

Mixture Properties

Ontario Mix Design Procedures

CCIL Certified Type A or AMRL or equivalent


certified laboratory
4 point mix design
Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC)
Ndesign of 100 gyrations
Detailed mix design submission

Job Mix Formula (JMF)

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Gradation Envelope
Sieve

SMA 12.5 mm

SP 12.5 mm FC1

19.0 mm

100

100

12.5 mm

90 99

90 100

9.5 mm

50 85

4.75 mm

28 40

45 60

2.36 mm

16 28

28 58

8 11

2 10

75 m

Mix Properties
Design Parameter

Design Criteria

Air Voids %

4.0

Voids in Mineral
Aggregate, VMA %

17 Minimum

VCAmix %

Less than VCA

DRC

Tensile Strength Ratio


%

70 Minimum

Draindown %

0.3 Maximum

Air Voids

Laboratory compaction by use of


Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC)

Voids in Coarse
Aggregate of Mix, VCA

MIX

Specification:

VCA MIX: The volume in between the


coarse aggregate particles. This volume
includes filler, fine aggregate, air voids,
asphalt binder, and fibre.
VCA DRC: The volume in between the
coarse aggregate particles of the final
job mix formula in a dry rodded
condition.

November 2006

Less than VCA

DRC

13

Voids in Coarse Aggregate of


Mix, VCA MIX

VCA

MIX

<= VCA

DRC

to give the SMA Stone

on Stone Contact

This allows the coarse aggregate skeleton


to transfer the traffic loads

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Tensile Strength Ratio, TSR

Specification:
70% Minimum
Checks the moisture susceptibility of the
asphalt mixture
Two acceptable test procedures:

Tensile Strength Ratio, AASHTO T283


Retained Stability, LS-283

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Tensile Strength Ratio, TSR

Draindown

Specification:
0.3% Maximum
Tested at production temperature of
asphalt mixture for 1 hour
Mass of asphalt mortar that has drained
from total asphalt mass is determined and
expressed as percent of total mass of the
original sample

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Draindown

Asphalt Mortar

Asphalt Cement, Mineral Filler, Fibres


Provides coating of coarse aggregate
skeleton to:

Protect from moisture and environment


Bind the aggregate particles together

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Mix Production

SMA can be produced in either batch or


drum plants
The production of SMA is better geared to
large tonnage projects
Consistent aggregate gradations are
critical for SMA production

Bailey method 2% change in PCS results in


1% change in voids

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Mix Production

Production rates of SMA are based on plant


layout:

2 cold feed bins for CA, 1 for FA


Mineral filler will need to be imported
AC content is high schedule deliveries to
keep up with production
Method of fibre addition

Bagged fibres by hand


Air blown fibres
Pelletized fibres

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Fibre Addition by Hand

Applications for SMA

MTO Directive PHY-C-016, The Use of


Surface Course Types on Provincial
Highways, July 2002

SMA is warranted when:


ESALS / design lane / year exceeds 3 million

DFC or SP 12.5 FC2 is for 1 to 3 million

Some Municipalities use SMA

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Concerns

Durability of coarse aggregate

LA abrasion < 30 ?
May be too high for some brittle aggregate
VMA collapse

Bridging over of voids

AC content too high


Low initial skid resistance

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Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA)

Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA)

Thank You
Any Questions?

www.ohmpa.org

ASPHALT INSTITUTE