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COMPUTER MULTI

DISCIPLINARY
PROJECT
he Himalayas
Submitted by: Ankit, Ashok, Prakash,
Prashant, Tanmay, Ranvijay, Aditi,
Kamla, Mansi (Class: 9 C)
Submitted to: Mr. Brijesh

The Himalayas : An
Overview
The Himalaya is a mountain range
stretching over the northern
borders of India. The Himalayan
range forms an arc of about
2400 kms length. The Himalayan
range is home to the planet's
highest peaks. The Himalayas
include over a 100 mountains
exceeding 7,200 metres of
height.The
Himalayas
have
profoundly shaped the cultures
of South Asia. Three of the
world's major rivers, the Indus,
the
Gangesand
theBrahmaputra, rise in the
Himalayas.
Their

Highest Peaks of The


Himalayas
Peak
Country
Height in
Mt. Everest
Kanchenjung
a
Makalu
Dhaulagiri
Nanga
parbat
Annapurna
Nanda Devi
Kamet
Namcha

Nepal
India

metres
8848
8598

Nepal
Nepal
India

8484
8172
8126

Nepal
India
India
India

8078
7817
7756
7756

Formation of the Himalaya


According to the modern theory
ofplate tectonics, their formation
is a result of a
continental
collision
along
theconvergent boundary between
theIndo-Australian
Plate
and
theEurasian
Plate.
The
fast
moving Indo-Australian plate had
completely
closed
theTethys
Ocean, the existence of which has
been determined bysedimentary
rockssettled on the ocean floor,
and thevolcanoesthat fringed its
edges. Since both plates were
composed
of
low
densitycontinental
crust,
they

Classification
The Himalayan range consists of three parallel rangesthe Himadri, the Himachal and the Shiwaliks.
The Himadri or Great Himalaya is the northernmost
range of the Himalayas. It is the most continous
range of the Himalayas. It consists of the loftiest
peaks with an average height of 6000 m. It contains
all the prominent peaks.
The Himachal range lies south of the Himadri range.

Its altitude varies between 3700 to 4500 m. It has an


average width of 50 km. It is famous for its hill
stations and valleys.
The Shiwaliks is the sothernmost range of the
Himalayas. These include hills which extend over a
width of 10-50 km. Its altitude varies between 900-

Bio-diversity of the
Himalayas
Of the Plants
estimated 10,000
Vertebrates
species of plants in the
Himalaya hotspot, about
3,160
are
endemic. Birds: . Nearly 980 birds
Furthermore,
five
plant have been recorded in the
families are endemic to the hotspot, but only 15 are
The
Western
region,
the endemic.
Himalaya has 11 species
Tetracentraceae,
restricted to it. The Eastern
Hamamelidaceae,
Himalaya has nearly 20
Circaesteraceae,
Butomaceae
and endemic species.
Stachyuraceae. The largest Mammals:
About
300
family of flowering plants
mammal species have been
is the Orchidacea. The recorded in the Himalayas,
Eastern Himalaya is also a including a dozen that are
center of diversity for endemic to the hotspot. The
several widely distributed only endemic genus is the

Bio- diversity of the


Himalayas

Wild water
buffalo

Western

Cheer
pheasant

Black necked

History of the Himalayas


Historically the Himalayas has a lot of relevance. The
barrier didn't stop individuals from pursuing
adventurous journeys to explore the unknown side of
the mountains. People traveled for religious
andTRADE purposes. The trans-Himalayan region
was a key center for trade and commerce. With the
famous Silk Route this region first gained importance.
Himalayas was also a witness to the Indus
Valley Civilization, the oldest Indian Civilization. In
1856 in the foothills of the Himalayas the twin cities of
Mohenjo-daro and Harappa was discovered. So
Himalayas has a rich historical background to unfold.

Religious significance

In Hinduism, the
Himalayas
have
Buddhism
beenHinduism
personified as
the
godHimavat,
father
ofGangaandParvati
A number ofTibetan
.
Buddhistsites
are
situated
in
the
Himalayas. There were
over
6,000
such
monasteries.

Photo
Gallery

Photo Gallery

THANK
YOU