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Chapter

8
Consumer Attitude
Formation and
Change

Attitudes

A learned
predisposition to
behave in a
consistently
favorable or
unfavorable manner
with respect to a
given object.

What are Attitudes?


Attitudes are a learned
predisposition
Attitudes have consistency
Attitudes occur within a
situation

1. Tricomponent Attitude Model

Conation

Affect

Cognition

The Tricomponent Model


Cognitive Component
The knowledge and perceptions that are
acquired by a combination of direct experience
with the attitude object and related information
from various sources.

Affective Component
A consumers emotions or feelings about a
particular product or brand.

Conative Component
The likelihood or tendency that an individual will
undertake a specific action or behave in a
particular way with regard to the attitude object.

HI Products vs Low Involvement


Products

Multiattribute
Attitude
Models

Attitude models that


examine the
composition of
consumer attitudes
in terms of selected
product attributes or
beliefs.

Multiattribute Attitude
Models
The attitude-toward-object model
Attitude is function of evaluation of
product-specific beliefs and attributes

The attitude-toward-behavior model


Is the attitude toward behaving or acting
with respect to an object, rather than
the attitude toward the object itself

Theory-of-reasoned-action model
A comprehensive, integrative model of
attitudes

AttitudeTowardBehavior
Model

A model that proposes


that a consumers
attitude toward a
specific behavior is a
function of how
strongly he or she
believes that the action
will lead to a specific
outcome (either
favorable or
unfavorable).

Theory of
Reasoned
Action

A comprehensive
theory of the
interrelationship
among attitudes,
intentions, and
behavior.
Has all 3 components

Theory of Reasoned Action

Beliefs
Beliefsthat
that
the
thebehavior
behavior
leads
leadstoto
certain
certain
outcomes
outcomes

Evaluation
Evaluation
ofofthe
the
outcomes
outcomes

Beliefs
Beliefsthat
that
specific
specific
referents
referents
think
thinkII
should
shouldor
or
should
shouldnot
not
perform
performthe
the
behavior
behavior

Attitude
Attitudetoward
toward
the
thebehavior
behavior

Motivation
Motivation
totocomply
comply
with
withthe
the
specific
specific
referents
referents

Subjective
Subjective
norm
norm
Intention
Intention
Behavior
Behavior

AttitudeTowardthe-Ad
Model

A model that proposes that


a consumer forms various
feelings (affects) and
judgments (cognitions) as
the result of exposure to
an advertisement, which,
in turn, affect the
consumers attitude
toward the ad and attitude
toward the brand.

Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model

Exposure to an Ad
Judgments about
the Ad (Cognition)

Feelings from the


Ad (Affect)

Beliefs about the


Brand

Attitude toward
the Ad
Attitude toward
the Brand

Issues in Attitude
Formation
How attitudes are learned
Sources of influence on attitude
formation
Personality factors

Strategies of Attitude
Change
1. Changing the Basic Motivational
Function
2. Associating the Product With an
Admired Group or Event
3. Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes
4. Changing Beliefs About
Competitors Brands
5. Change attitude function

Four Basic Attitude


Functions

The
The
The
The

Utilitarian Function
Ego-defensive Function
Value-expressive Function
Knowledge Function

Need to know function of a


target segment

Elaboration
Likelihood
Model
(ELM)

A theory that suggests


that a persons level of
involvement during
message processing is
a critical factor in
determining which
route to persuasion is
likely to be effective.

Why Might Behavior Precede


Attitude Formation?
Cognitive
Dissonance Theory
Attribution Theory

Form Attitude

Behave (Purchase)

Form Attitude

Cognitive
Dissonance
Theory

Holds that discomfort or


dissonance occurs when
a consumer holds
conflicting thoughts
about a belief or an
attitude object.

Postpurchase
Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance
that occurs after a
consumer has made a
purchase
commitment.
Consumers resolve
this dissonance
through a variety of
strategies designed to
confirm the wisdom
of their choice.

Attribution
Theory

A theory concerned
with how people assign
casualty to events and
form or alter their
attitudes as an outcome
of assessing their own
or other peoples
behavior.

Defensive
Attribution

A theory that suggests


consumers are likely
to accept credit for
successful outcomes
(internal attribution)
and to blame other
persons or products for
failure (external
attribution).

Strategies to change
attitude
What is low involvement
Is it necessary to change belief
Low involvement strategies
Change attitude by using peripheral cues
St :
Link the pdt to an issue : break fast cereal with school
performance
Link to a situation : sun tan to holiday / cream to
sense of togetherness
Develop high involvement ads
Add imp new characteristics : sugar free in soft drinks

High involvement strategies


Change beliefs about consequence of
behavior
Change consumers evaluation on a
particular action