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Chapter 5

5.1 The Mole


5.2 Molar Mass
5.6 Mole Relationships in Chemical
Equations
5.7 Mass Calculations for Reactions
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Collection Terms
1 trio

3 singers

1 six-pack Cola

6 cans Cola drink

1 dozen donuts

12 donuts

1 gross of pencils

144 pencils
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A Moles of Particles
Contains 6.02 x 1023 particles
1 mole C

= 6.02 x 1023 C atoms

1 mole H2O

= 6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules

1 mole NaCl

= 6.02 x 1023 Na+ ions and


6.02 x 1023 Cl ions
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Examples of Moles
Moles of elements
1 mole Mg = 6.02 x 1023 Mg atoms
1 mole Au = 6.02 x 1023 Au atoms
Moles of compounds
1 mole NH3 = 6.02 x 1023 NH3 molecules
1 mole C9H8O4

= 6.02 x 1023 aspirin molecules


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Avogadros Number
6.02 x 1023 particles
1 mole
or
1 mole
6.02 x 1023 particles

Learning Check
Suppose we invented a new collection unit called a
mep. One mep contains 8 objects.
A. How many paper clips in 1 mep?
1) 1
2) 4

3) 8

B. How many oranges in 2.0 meps?


1) 4

2) 8

3) 16

C. How many meps contain 40 gummy bears?


1) 5

2) 10

3) 20
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Solution
Suppose we invented a new collection unit called
a mep. One mep contains 8 objects.
A. How many paper clips in 1 mep?
3) 8
B. How many oranges in 2.0 meps?
3) 16
C. How many meps contain 40 gummy bears?
1) 5

Learning Check
1. Number of atoms in 0.500 mole of Al
1) 500 Al atoms
2) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms
3) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms
2.Number of moles of S in 1.8 x 1024 S atoms
1) 1.0 mole S atoms
2) 3.0 mole S atoms
3) 1.1 x 1048 mole S atoms

Solution
1. Number of atoms in 0.500 mol of Al
3) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms
0.500 mol Al x 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms
1 mol Al
2. Number of moles of S if a sample of S contains 4.50 x
1024 S atoms
2) 3.0 mole S atoms
4.50 x 1024 S atoms x 1 mol S
6.02 x 1023 S atoms
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Molar Mass

Number of grams in 1 mole

Equal to the numerical value of the atomic mass


1 mole of C atoms

12.0 g

1 mole of Mg atoms

24.3 g

1 mole of Cu atoms

63.5 g

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Learning Check
Give the molar mass to 0.1 g
A. 1 mole of Br atoms

________

B. 1 mole of Sn atoms

________

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Solution
Give the molar mass to 0.1 g
A. 1 mole of Br atoms

79.9 g/mole

B. 1 mole of Sn atoms

118.7 g/mole

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Molar Mass of Compounds


Mass in grams of 1 mole equal numerically to the sum
of the atomic masses
1 mole of CaCl2

= 111.1 g/mole

1 mole Ca x 40.1 g/mole


+ 2 moles Cl x 35.5 g/mole
1 mole of N2O4 = 74.0 g/mole
2 moles N x 14.0 g/mole
+ 4 moles O x 16.0 g/mole
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Learning Check
A. 1 mole of K2O

= ______g

B. 1 mole of antacid Al(OH)3

= ______g

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Solution
A. 1 mole of K2O

= 94.2 g

2 K x 39.1 g/mole + 1 O x 16.0 g/mole

B. 1 mole of antacid Al(OH)3

= 78.0 g

1 Al x 27.0 g/mole + 3 O x 16.0 g/mole


+ 3 x 1.0
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Learning Check
Prozac, C17H18F3NO, is a widely used
antidepressant that inhibits the uptake of serotonin
by the brain. It has a molar mass of
1) 40.0 g/mole
2) 262 g/mole
3) 309 g/mole

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Solution
Prozac, C17H18F3NO, is a widely used
antidepressant that inhibits the uptake of serotonin
by the brain. It has a molar mass of
3) 309 g/mole
17C (12.0) + 18H (1.0) + 3F (19.0) + 1N (14.0) + 1 O
(16.0)

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Learning Check
What is the percent carbon in C5H8NO4 (MSG
monosodium glutamate), a compound used to
flavor foods and tenderize meats?
1) 8.22 %C
2) 24.3 %C
3) 41.1 %C

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Solution
Molar mass = 146.0 g/mole
% = total g C
x 100
total g compound
= 60.0 g C
146.0 g MSG

x 100 = 41.1% C

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Molar Mass Factors


Methane CH4 known as natural gas is used in gas
cook tops and gas heaters. Express the molar
mass of methane in the form of conversion factors.
Molar mass of CH4 = 16.0 g
16.0 g CH4
1 mole CH4

and

1 mole CH4
16.0 g CH4
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Learning Check
Acetic acid CH3COOH is the acid in vinegar . It has
a molar mass of 60.0 g/mole.
1 mole of acetic acid =
1 mole acetic acid
g acetic acid

or

____________
g acetic acid
1 mole acetic acid

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Solution
Acetic acid CH3COOH is the acid in vinegar . It has
a molar mass of 60.0 g/mole.
1 mole of acetic acid =

60.0 g acetic acid

1 mole acetic acid

60.0 g acetic acid

60.0 g acetic acid

or

1 mole acetic acid

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Calculations with Molar Mass


molar mass
Grams
Moles

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Moles and Grams


Aluminum is often used for the structure of
light-weight bicycle frames. How many
grams of Al are in 3.00 moles of Al?
3.00 moles Al

? g Al

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1. Molar mass of Al

1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al

2. Conversion factors for Al


27.0g Al
or
1 mol Al
1 mol Al
27.0 g Al
3. Setup

3.00 moles Al
Answer

27.0 g Al
1 mole Al
= 81.0 g Al
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Learning Check
The artificial sweetener aspartame (NutriSweet) formula C14H18N2O5 is used to
sweeten diet foods, coffee and soft drinks.
How many moles of aspartame are present
in 225 g of aspartame?

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Solution
1. Molar mass of Aspartame C14H18N2O5
(14 x 12.0) + (18 x 1.01) + (2 x 14.0) + (5 x 16.0)
= 294 g/mole
2. Setup
225 g aspartame x 1 mole aspartame
294 g aspartame
= 0.765 mole aspartame
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