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Electromagnetic

Fields and Waves

EEE C433:

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Dr. Praveen Kumar


A.V.
EEE Department
BITS Pilani, Pilani

Lecture 7:

Boundary Conditions
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

General boundary
conditions
Component
Vector form
form

E tan1 E tan2 0
D nor2 D nor1 s
H tan1 H tan2 J s
Bnor2 Bnor1 0

r r
n (E1 E 2 ) 0
r
r
n .(D 2 D1 ) s

r
r
r
(H1 H 2 ) n J s
r
r
n .(B2 B1 ) 0

n hat is the unit


vector normal to
the boundary ax, ay
or az
Inclusion of n hat
is very important if
one of the media is
a PEC or very good
conductor

If one of the media is perfect electric conductor or a very


good conductor
Eall, Hall in that medium are zero
, J at the surface are non-zero

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

How to proceed
If both media are dielectrics, then RHS of all BC = 0. Its an easy
matter then
If not, you may draw the whole picture
Draw the boundary between media showing material properties
on either sides
Draw the normal to the boundary in the +ve direction (to make
things easy)
Draw the other two coordinates as per right hand convention (Anti
clockwise rotation along xyzx)
Draw loop for Htan and pill-box for Dnor separately
Now the Dnor case is easy when you consider the outward normals
to be in opposite directions
H2 loop at the boundary
y
, draw the rectangular
and give
For Htanmed
2 as per the coordinate rotation direction
direction
x
z (outward)
med
1

H1

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

If you simply write the loop integral,


Htan1Htan2 = Js

(1)

Note that (1) is in component form only. We now consider directions.


Since we know that H and J are in mutually perpendicular directions,
property of cross product can be used
(H1H2) ay = +Js
ay (H1H2)= Js
ay (H2H1)= Js
Use either (2) or (3)

(2)

NB:
* The normal an extends
(a b=b a)
into medium 2
* For D and B, =
(3)
med2med1
* For E and H,
med1med2
* For E, an x E
* For H, H x an
BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Q1) Two dielectric media are separated by a boundary at z =0. Medium 2


has relative permittivity = 2 and the electric field is given by E =
ax2yay3x+az(5+z). If medium 1 has a relative permittivity of 3, find out E
and D in this.
Since the boundary is at z=0, normal is +az
Etan1 = Etan2 at the boundary or z = 0
Etan1 = ax2yay3x
Now, Dn1=Dn2 at the boundary or z = 0
0r1En1 = 0r2En2
En1 = r2/r1 En2 = az10/3
Now in medium 1, E = Etan1+Enor1 = ax2yay3x+az10/3
BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Q2) A long charged wire in air is placed above a dielectric of relative


permittivity 4. If the electric field at the boundary point P due to the wire
is given as 10 V/m, calculate the electric field in medium 2 at P. Given the
angle of incidence is 26.6o in medium 1.
r=
1
r=
4

26.6

Dn2=Dn1
4*En2 = 1*10*cos(26.6o)
En2 = 2.235 V/m

Et2=Et1
= 10*sin(26.6o)=4.477
V/m
E2 = sqrt(En2+Et2) = 5 V/m

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Q3) Three media are separated as shown in Figure. Media 1 and 2 meet at
x = d, media 2 and 3 meet at x = 0. Medium 1 is free space. Medium 2 is
a dielectric with twice the relative permittivity of medium 1. Medium 3 is a
PEC. If the fields in medium 2 are given as
E = Ex ax+Ez az , H = Hy ay. Calculate (1) surface charge and current
densities at x =0 and
(2) the E and H fields at x = d+
Med 2

Dn2Dn3 = s
s = ax.(D2D3)
= ax.0rE2 = 20Ex

x=0
Med
3
Med 2

x=0
Med
3

ax

(for PEC, Eall = 0, so D3 =0)


a
x

Ht3Ht2 = Js
Js = (H3H2) ax
= H2 ax = Hyaz
(for PEC, Hall = 0, so H3 =0)BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

At x = d+, we have medium 1 just above the boundary


Et2Et1 =0
Et1 = Ezaz
Dn1Dn2 = 0
En1 = r2*En2/r1 = 2Ex ax
Ht2Ht1 =0
Ht1 = Ht2 = Hyay
Bn1Bn2 = 0
Hn1 = r2*Hn2/r1 = 0
Thus,
E=2Ex ax+Ezaz

Remember, if the known E and H fields


have any
x, y , z variables, when
applying boundary condition, we need to
put those co-ordinate values at the
boundary. Eg: x = 0 in (1) and x=d in (2)
as all these conditions are given at the
boundary only

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus