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Chapter: 5

Signal Space
Representation

Concept of orthogonality and


orthonormality
Let f (x) and f (x) be two real valued
m

functions defined over the interval a


x b.
If the product [fm(x)fn(x)] exists over
the interval, the two functions are
called orthogonal to each other in the
interval a x b when the following
condition holds:

Concept of orthogonality and


orthonormality

A set of real valued functions f1(x), f2(x)


fN(x) is called an orthogonal set over
an interval a x b if
(i) all the functions exist in that interval
and
(ii) all distinct pairs of the functions are
orthogonal to each other over the
interval, i.e.

concept of orthogonality and


orthonormality

An orthogonal set of functions f1(x),


f2(x) fN(x) is called an orthonormal set
if,

An orthonormal set can be obtained


from a corresponding orthogonal set of
functions by dividing each function by
its norm.

concept of orthogonality and


orthonormality

Now, let us consider a set of real functions


f1(x), f2(x) fN(x) such that, for some nonnegative weight function w(x) over the interval
axb

an orthogonal set with respect to the weight


function w(x) over the interval a x b by
defining the norm as,

Concept of orthogonality and


orthonormality
an orthogonal set of gi -s can be used to get an
orthogonal set of fi-s with respect to a specific
non-negative weight function w(x) over a x
b by the following substitution (provided
w(x)0, a x b):

A real orthogonal set can be generated by using


the concepts of Strum-Liouville (S-L) equation.

Concept of orthogonality and


orthonormality
It
satisfies
the
following
boundary
conditions:

Here c1, c2, d1 and d2 are real constants such


that at least one of c1 and c2 is non zero and
at least one of d1 and d2 is non zero.

Orthogonality Theorem
The Strum-Livouille equation,

Let the functions p(x), q(x) and (x) be


real valued and continuous in the interval
a x b.
Let ym(x) and yn(x) be eigen functions of
the S-L problem corresponding to distinct
eigenvalues m and n respectively.
ym(x) and yn(x) are orthogonal over a x
b with respect to the weight function w(x).8

if p(x =a) = 0, and if p(x = b) = 0, then


boundary condition (i) and (ii) may be omitted
from the problem.
If p(x = a) = p(x = b), then the boundary
condition can be simplified as,

We know that, for integer m and n,

Example of Orthogonal
Sets:

(1)

by substituting x = 2ft = t and dx = 2fdt


= dt equation (1) can be written as,

(2)
10


equation (2) of
is orthogonal
in terms of the
Example
Orthogonal
independent
variable
t
over
the
Sets
(Cont.):
fundamental
range 1/f and, in general, over
M.1/f = M.T0,
where T0 indicates the fundamental time
interval over which cos2mft and cos2nft
are orthogonal to each other.

if two cosine signals have a frequency


difference f, then we may say,
11

Example of Orthogonal
Sets (Cont.):
where mf = (n+p)f and p is an integer.

12

Let us define,
Example
of Orthogonal

Sets (Cont.):

we use the above observations on


orthogonality to distinguish among si-s
over a decision interval of T5 = T0 =1/f

13

Importance of the Concepts of


Orthogonality in Digital
Communications
a. In the design and selection of information bearing
pulses, orthogonality over a symbol duration may
be used to advantage for deriving efficient
symbol-by-symbol demodulation scheme.
b. Performance analysis of several modulation
demodulation schemes can be carried out if the
information-bearing signal waveforms are known
to be orthogonal to each other.
c. The concepts of orthogonality can be used to
advantage in the design and selection of single
and multiple carriers for modulation, transmission
and reception.

Orthogonality in a complex
domain

Orthogonality in a complex
domain
Let us consider a complex function,

We know that cos & sin are orthogonal


to each other over - < , i.e.,

So, using a constant weight function w =


r, which is non-negative, we may say

Now, x = r cos and y = r sin are also


orthogonal over - < .
Now, let be a continuous function of
t over - < . And,
Assuming a linear relationship, let,
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Under these conditions, we see,

i.e., x(t) and y(t) are orthogonal over the


interval

Gram Schmitz
Orthogonalization

The GSO states that any set of M energy


signals, {si(t)}, 1 i M can be expressed as
linear combinations of N orthonormal basis
functions, where N M.
If s1(t), s2(t), .., sM(t) are real valued energy
signals, each of duration T sec,
(1)

(2)

Gram-Schmidt
Orthogonalization (GSO)

The GSO states that any set of M energy


signals, {si(t)}, 1 i M can be expressed as
linear combinations of N orthonormal basis
functions, where N M.
If s1(t), s2(t), .., sM(t) are real valued energy
signals, each of duration T sec,
(1)

(2)

We will consider real-valued basis


functions j(t) - s which are orthonormal
to each other, i.e.,

Note that each basis function has unit


energy over the symbol duration T.

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Justification for G-S-O


procedure

Any given set of energy signals, {s i(t)}, 1


i M over 0 t < T, can be completely
described by a subset of energy signals
whose elements are linearly independent.
let us assume that all si(t)-s are not linearly
independent. Then, there must exist a set
of coefficients {ai}, 1 < i M, not all of
which are zero,
a1 0 and a3 0, then s1(t) and s3(t) are
dependent signals.

Let us arbitrarily set, aM 0. Then,

The set may be either linearly independent or


not. If not, there exists a set of {bi}, i = 1,2,
(M 1), not all equal to zero such that,
Again, arbitrarily assuming that bM-1 0, we may
express sM-1(t) as,
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Justification for G-S-O


procedure (Part-2)

We now show that it is possible to


construct a set of N orthonormal basis
functions 1(t), 2(t), .., N(t) from
{si(t)}, i = 1, 2, .., N.
first basis function as, 1(t) and E1
denotes the energy of the first signal
s1(t),

Justification for G-S-O


procedure (Part-2)

So, we verified that the function g2(t) is


orthogonal to the first basis function.
This gives us a clue to determine the
second basis function.
Now, energy of g2(t),

Justification for G-S-O


procedure (Part-2)

we can determine the third basis function, 3(t).


For i=3,

Indeed, in general,

for i = 1, 2,.., N, where

for i = 1, 2,.., N and j = 1, 2, , M

Summary of Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization


Method
If the signal set {sj(t)} is known for j = 1,2,.., M, 0
t <T,
Derive a subset of linearly independent energy signals,
{si(t)},i = 1, 2,.., N M.
Find the energy of s1(t) as this energy helps in
determining the first basis function 1(t), which is a
normalized form of the first signal. Note that the
choice of this first signal is arbitrary.
Find the scalar s21, energy of the second signal (E2), a
special function g2(t) which is orthogonal to the first
basis function and then finally the second orthonormal
basis function 2(t)
Follow the same procedure as that of finding the
second basis function to obtain the other basis
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functions.

Example:1 (a) Use the Gram-Schmidt


procedure to find a set orthonormal basis
functions corresponding to the signals show
below.
(a)Express x1, x2, and x3 in terms of the
orthonormal basis functions found in part 1)

Solution:
Step 1:
31

Step 2:

Step 3:

32

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Concept of Signal Space


Let, for a convenient set of {j (t)}, j =
1,2,,N and 0 t <T,

Now, we can represent a signal si(t) as a


column vector whose elements are the
scalar coefficients sij, j = 1, 2, .., N :

Concept of Signal Space


These M energy signals or vectors can
be viewed as a set of M points in an N
dimensional Euclidean space, known as
the Signal Space
Signal Constellation is the collection of M
signals points (or messages) on the
signal space.

Sketch of a 2-dimentional-signal space showing


three signal vectors

Concept of Signal Space


The squared norm is the inner product of the
vector

The cosine of the angle between two vectors is


defined as,

If Ei is the energy of the i-th signal vector,

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Schwarz Inequality
According to Schwarz inequality states that the
pair of energy signals S1(t) and S2(t) holds the
2

relationship,

2
2

S1 (t ) S 2 (t )dt S1 (t )dt S 2 (t )dt

If and only if S2(t) = C.S1(t) where C is any


constant. (t )
2 (t )
1
Proof:- S1(t) andS (St )2(t)
expressed
in terms of their

(
t
)

(
t
)
1
11 1
12 2
orthonormal basis functions
and
S 2 (t ) S 211 (t ) S 222 (t )

1 (t )

2 (t )

Where
and
satisfy
the

for i j
1 orthonormality
1 (interval
t )2 (t )dt (-
ij )

condition over the

0 elsewhere

Schwarz Inequality cont.


The signals S1(t) and S2(t) reprsented by the
respective pair of vectors,
S11
S 21
S1
and S 2

S
S
12
22
The angle subtended between the vector S1 and S2 is,

S1T S 2
Cos
S1 S 2

S (t )S (t )dt
1

Cos

Cos 1

2
1

(t )dt

1/ 2

2
2

(t )dt

1/ 2

This verifies the Schwarz inequality.

Schwarz Inequality cont.


If the signals S1(t) and S2(t) reprsented by the
complex real valued signal then equation may
2

be represented
as,

2
2
*
S
(
t
)
S
(t )dt
2
1

(t ) dt

(t ) dt

Where the equality holds if and only if S2(t) =


C.S1(t) where C is the constant.