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Chapter 5

6-DOF Rigid Body Solver

Solving FSI Applications


using Workbench, ANSYS
Mechanical and CFX
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Rigid Body FSI

Training Manual

6-DOF solutions available as -feature in version 12


Fluid forces/torques on a body auto-calculated
Body response included in flow solution
Either via mesh motion or via immersed solid
Simplified FSI case where body does not change shape
under fluid load
Can make assumptions about its behaviour
Does not need the expense of a full structural simulation

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Rigid Body Dynamics

Training Manual

Forces and torques acting on a rigid body can be


summed and assumed to act on/about the centre of mass
Chasles Theorem: The general displacement of a rigid
body is a linear motion of a origin point plus a rotation
around the origin point
Can separate translation and rotation

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Rigid Translation

Training Manual

Translational equation of motion, applied to Centre of


Mass
P mx = Linear Momentum

dP
mx G F
dt

x G = Acceleration about centre of mass

F FAero mg [kSpring ( x x so )] FExt


Discretized using implicit Newmark integration scheme
Default integration parameters give 2nd order accuracy
Advantage over previous explicit CEL implementation

Can add influence of external spring or external force to


F
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Rigid Rotation

Training Manual

Rotational equation of motion about Centre of Mass

d d ( I B )

M
dt
dt

= Angular Momentum

= Moment of Inertia tensor

d ( IB )
B I B I B
dt

B I 1 ( M B B I B )

M B M Aero [kSpring ( so )] M Ext

Two methods of discretization available


Simo-Wong [1] (Default. Second order, iteratively conservative)
First Order Backward Euler

Can add influence of external torsion spring or external


torque to MExt
[1] Simo, J.C., Wong, K.K., Unconditionally Stable Algorithms for Rigid Body Dynamics that exactly Preserves
Energy and Momentum, Int. J. Num. Methods in Eng., vol. 31, 19-52 (1991)
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Creating a Rigid Body in CFX-Pre

Training Manual

Enable Beta Features


Case Options > General

Insert a Rigid Body into the


Flow Analysis

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Rigid Body Basic Settings

Training Manual

Mass
Rigid body mass

Location
The 2D boundary region of the rigid body

Coord Frame
Must create a Coord Frame at the centre
of mass and select here
Cannot constrain a body to rotate about
a point

Mass Moment of Inertia


Enter components for the Mass Moment
of Inertia tensor
See next slides
As calculated with respect to the rigid
body coordinate frame
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Note: Until a service pack is


available for version 12.0 dont use
Coord 0 as the Coord Frame, even if
it is located at the centre of mass

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Mass Moment of Inertia Tensor

Training Manual

This tensor describes an objects resistance to changes in


its rotation rate
I
I
I
xx

xy

xz

I I yx
I zx

I yy
I zy

I yz
I zz

Its a symmetric tensor, so Ixy = Iyx


Hence only 6 components are entered on the Basic Settings panel

Ixx describes the moment of inertia around the x-axis when


the objects are rotated around the x-axis
Non-zero when you have rotation about the x-axis

Ixy describes the moment of inertia around the y-axis when


the objects are rotated around the x-axis, etc
Non-zero when you have rotation about the x and y axis
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Mass Moment of Inertia Tensor

Training Manual

For rotation about only the y-axis, the tensor simplifies


to:
0 0
I 0 I yy
0 0

0
0
0

For rotation about the x and y axes we have:


I xx
I I yx
0

I xy
I yy
0

0
0
0

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_of_inertia for


detailed background on mass moment of inertia
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Rigid Body Dynamics

Training Manual

External Forces / Torques


- Use Spring or Value option
- Spring:
- Set Origin coords and Spring Constant

- Value
- Enter Cartesian components (can use CEL
expressions)

Degrees of Freedom
Select Translational / Rotational DOF
Default is None need to set at least one
DOF

Enter Gravity Vector


Acts at the centre of mass as set by Coord
Frame
Should be consistent with Domain gravity
(if specified in the Domain)

Everything specified in Rigid Body


Coord Frame
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Rigid Body Initialization

Training Manual

All state variables defining


rigid body can be initialized in
terms of the rigid body
coordinate frame
Default behaviour is to use
Automatic
Assumes quiescent conditions
unless a previous solution is
provided to restart from

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Rigid Body Mesh Motion

Training Manual

After creating the rigid body, set


mesh motion parameters on
boundaries, subdomains and/or
interfaces
Option = Rigid Body Solution
Rigid Body = <Location>
Motion Constraints
Ignore Translations
Ignore Rotations
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Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Training Manual

Ship hull example


2-DOF
Rotation about y-axis
Translation along the zaxis

A subdomain moves with


the rigid body so that
near-wall mesh quality
can be maintained
See EX4 in the examples
folder

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Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Training Manual

Hull wall boundary mesh motion defined by the Rigid Body


Solution

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Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Training Manual

Subdomain mesh motion also defined by the Rigid Body Solution


Hull and subdomain rotate and translate together as a rigid body

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Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Training Manual

A Domain Interface is used between the subdomain and the rest of


the domain
The subdomain side of the interface uses the same mesh motion
setting as the subdomain and hull

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Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Training Manual

The other side of the interface uses the Rigid Body Solution to set
the mesh motion, but Ignore Rotations is selected

The mesh slides at the domain interface so rotational motion is not


transmitted to the outer domain
Translational motion is passed and absorbed by the outer domain
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Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Training Manual

This example demonstrates


the preferred topology when
rotation about a single axis
is included
For rotation about multiple
axes surround the rigid body
with a sphere when
significant rotation occurs

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Rigid Body Solver Control

Training Manual

Solver Control > Advanced Options


Update Frequency
Every Time Step Explicit
Every Coefficient Loop Implicit
Must combine with expert parameter
meshdisp each coefiter = t

Fully implicit option important for large


timestep use and cases with high
virtual-mass (body-mass ratio)

Can use Under Relaxation Factors


for steady state simulations
Dont restart with Under Relaxation < 1
Currently not permitted for transients

Use default Integration Method


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Rigid Body Solution

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Training Manual

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Limitations

Training Manual

Limitations will be addressed when available as a fully


released feature
CEL access of rigid body variables
Cannot access displacements / rotations of the centre of mass
in CEL
Available in User FORTRAN

However, can access mesh displacement information on the


boundaries
Attach monitor point to a node
Use callbacks to query mesh displacements/position on boundaries

Use of 6-DOF in moving reference frames


Not available in rotating frames
Can use stationary frames with rotating mesh, as in
previous example
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