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Mechanics of Materials

Chaper4
Shear Force and Bending Moment in Beams
HENAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Edited by YANG MIN-xian
1

CHAPTER 4

Shear Force and Bending Moment in Beams

41 Concepts of planar bending and calculation sketch of the beam


42 The shearing force and bending moment of the beam
43 The shearing-force and bending-moment equations the shearingforce and bending-moment diagrams
44 Relations among the shearing force the bending moment and
the
density of the distributed load and their applications
45

Plot the bending-moment diagram by the theorem of


superpositiom

46 The internal-force diagrams of the planar rigid theorem frames


2

41

CONCEPTS OF PLANAR BENDING AND


CALCULATION SKETCH OF THE BEAM

1 CONCEPTS OF BENDING
1). BENDING: The action of the external force or external the couple vector
perpendicular to the axis of the rod makes the axis of the rod change into
curve from original straight lines, this deformation is called bending.
2).BEAM The member of
which the deformation is
mainly bending is generally
called beam.

3).Practical examples in engineering about bending

4).Planar bending After deformation the curved axis of the


beam is still in the same plane with the external forces.
Symmetric bending as shown in the following figure
a
special example of the planar bending.
P1
q
P2

The plane of
symmetry

Unsymmetrical bending if a beam does not possess any plane of


symmetry, or the external forces do not act in a plane of symmetry of the
beam with symmetric planes, this kind of bending is called unsymmetrical
bending. In later chapters we will mainly discuss the bending stresses and
deformations of the beam under symmetric bending.
7

2 Calculation sketch of the


In general supports and external forces of the beam are very complex.
beam
We should do some necessary simplification for them for our convenient
calculation and obtain the calculation sketch.

1). Simplification of the beams


In general case we take the place of the beam by its axis.

2). Simplification of the loads


The loads (including the reaction) acting on the beam may be reduced into
three types concentrated force concentrated force couple and distributed
force.
3). Simplification of

the supports
8

Fixed hinged support


2 constraints 1 degree of
freedom. Such as the fixed
hinged support under
bridges thrust ball bearing
etc.
Movable hinged support
1 constraint 2 degree of
freedom. Such as the movable
hinged support under the
bridge ball bearing etc.
9

Rigidly fixed end


3 constraints 0 degree of
freedom. Such as the support of
diving board at the swimming
pool support of the lower end of a
wooden pole.

4) Three basis types of beams

XA A

MA

YA
M Concentrated
force couple

Simple beam(or simply


supported beam)

q(x)

Distributed force

Cantilever beam
10

Overhanging beam
q

Uniformly
distributed
force

Concentrated
force

5). Statically determinate and statically indeterminate beams


Statically determinate beams Reactions of the beam can be determined only
by static equilibrium equations such as the above three kinds of basic beams.
Statically indeterminate beams Reactions of the beam cannot be
determined or only part of reactions can be determined by static equilibrium
equations.
11

Example 1

A stock tank is shown in the figure. Its length is L=5m its

inside diameter is D=1m thickness of its wall is t =10mm. Density of steel is


7.8g/cm. Density of the liquid is 1g/cm. Height of the liquid is 0.8m. Length of
overhanging end is 1m. Try to determine the calculation sketch of the stock tank.

Solution
q

Uniformly
Distributed
force

12

mg Vg A1L 1g A2 L 2 g A g A g
q

1 1
2 2
L
L
L

1 2
Dt 1 g [R R ( sin )] 2 g
2
2

106.30 1.855rad
3.14 1 0.01 7800 9.8 [3.14 0.52
1
0.52 (1.855 sin106.3)] 1000 9.8
2

Uniformly
Distributed
force

13

9 (kN/m)

42

THE SHEARING FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT


THE BEAM

1 Internal force in
bending
Example Knowing conditions are

OF

P a l , as shown in the figure.

B
l

Determine the internal forces on the


section at the distance x to the end A.

Solution Determine
external forces

X 0,
m

0,

XA 0
Pa
RB
l

XA A

YA

Y 0 ,

B
RB

P(l a)
YA
l

14

Determine internal forces


method of section
P(l a)
Y 0 , Q YA l
mC 0 , M YA x
Internal forces of the
beam in bending

XA A

1). Bending moment M

YA

perpendicular to the section when the beam is


bending.

Q
M

the acting plane in the cross-section

B
RB

x
A

Moment of the internal force couple with

YA

Shearing
force
Bending
moment

Q
M

C
RB
15

2). Shearing force Q


Internal force which the acting line in the cross-section parallel to the section, when the beam is
bending.

3).Sign conventions for the internal forces:

Shearing force Q: It is positive when it results in a clockwise rotation with


respect to the object under consideration, otherwise it is negative.

Q(+)

Q()
Q(+)

Q()

Bending moment M It is positive when it tends to bend the portion concave


upwards, otherwise it is negative.

M(+)

M(+)
M()

M()
16

2 Examples
Example 2 Determine the internal forces acting on sections 11 and 22
section as shown in fig.(a).

qL

Solution Determine internal


forces

1 a

by the method of section.

Free body diagram of the left portion of


section 11 is shown in fig. b .

Fig. a

qL
A
M1
Q1

x1

Fig. b

Y qL Q1 0
Q1 qL

mA( Fi ) qLx1 M1 0
M1 qLx1

17

Free body diagram of the left portion of


section 22 is shown in fig. b .

qL

Y qL Q2 q( x2 a ) 0

Q2 q( x2 a L)
mB ( Fi ) 0 ,
1
qLx2 M 2 q( x2 a)2 0
2

1
M 2 q( x2 a)2 qLx2
2

1 a
y

qL

B
M2
x2

Q2
c
18

43

THE SHEARING-FORCE AND BENDING-MOMENT EQUATIONS


THE SHEARING-FORCE AND BENDING-MOMENT DIAGRAMS

1. Internal-force equations: Expressions that show the


internal forces as functions of the position x of the
Shearing force equation
section.
Q . Q (x)
M M (x)

Bending moment equation

2. The shearing-force and bending-moment diagrams:


Shearing-force diagram

sketch of the shearing-force equation


Q Q(x)

sketch of the bending-moment


equation
19
M M (x)

Bending Moment diagram

Example 3

Determine the internal-force equations and plot the diagrams of


the beam shown in the following figure.

MO

L
x

YO

Q(x)

Q(x)

Solution Determine the


reactions of the supports
YO P ; M O PL

M(x)

Write out the internalforce equations


Q( x ) YO P

PL

M ( x ) YO x M O
P( x L )

M(x)

Plot the internalforce diagrams 20

Solution Write out the


internal-force equations
L Q(x)

Q( x ) qx

M(x)

1
M ( x ) qx 2
2

Q(x)
x

qL

Plot the internalforce diagram

qL2

M(x)

21

q0
Solution Determine the
reactions of the supports
q0 L
q0 L
RA
; RB
6
3

L
RA

RB

Q(x)
q0 L
6
2

3
3

q Lx
0
L

M(x)

3q0 L2
27

Write out the internalforce equations


q
Q( x ) 0 ( L2 3x 2 )
6L
q0 x 2
M ( x)
( L x2 )
6L

Plot the internalforce diagrams


22

44 RELATIONS AMANG THE SHEARING FORCE, THE BENDING MOMENT


AND THE INDENSITY OF THE DISTRIBUTED LOAD AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

q(x)

1 Relations among the shearing


force the bending moment and the the
distributed load
By analysis of the equilibrium of the
infinitesimal length dx we can
Y 0
get

dx

q(x)

Q(x)+d Q(x)
M(x)
Q(x)

A
dx

M(x)+d M(x)

Q( x ) q( x )dx Q( x ) dQ( x ) 0

dQ x
q x
dxin the
Slope of the tangential line at a point

q( x )dx dQ( x )

shearing-force diagram is equal to the intensity


of the distributed load at the same point. 23

1
m A ( Fi ) 0, Q( x)dx q( x)(dx) 2 M ( x) [ M ( x) dM ( x)] 0
2
dM ( x)
Q( x)
dx

Slope of the tangential line at a point in the bending-moment diagram is


equal to the magnitude of the shearing force at the same point.

q(x)

Q(x)+d Q(x)
M(x)
Q(x)

A
dx

M(x)+d M(x)

Relation between the bending


moment and the indensity of the
distributed load

dM 2 ( x)
q( x)
2
dx
24

External force

2 Relations between the shearing force the bending moment and the external load
Uniform-load
No external-force
Concentrated force Concentrated couple
segment
segment

P
q=0

q>0

q<0

Characteristics of Qdiagram

Horizontal straight line

Inclined straight line

x
Q>0

Q<0

Increasing function

x
M

x
Decreasing function

x
M

Increasing function Decreasing function

Q2
Q1Q2=P

Flex from the left to Sudden change from the


the right
left to the right

x
M

Tomb-like

Q1
C

No change
Q

M
Basin-like Flex opposite to P

M
xM
1

Opposite tom

Characteristics of Mdiagram

curves

Inclined straight line

Sudden change from


the left to right

Q
x

M
25
M1 M 2 m

Simple method to plot the diagram:

The method to plot the diagrams

by using the relation between the internal forces and the external forces and
values of the internal forces at some special points.

Example 4

Plot the internal force diagrams of the beams shown in


the following figures by the simple method to plot the diagram.

Solution:

qa

Plot the diagram by using the


relation between the internal forces and the
external forces and the internal force values at

some special points of the beam.

Special points:
End point partition point the point
at which external forces changed and
stationary point etc.
26

qa

Q qa; M 0
Left
end
Shapeof the curve is determined

A
a

according to

qa

dM ( x)
Q ( x)
dx

dM 2 ( x)
q( x)
dx 2

And the law of the point acted


by concentrated force.

3 2
qa
2

qa2

Partition
Q qa; M qa 2
point A

Stationary

x
M

dQ x
q x
dx

point of M

Right
end

3 2
Q 0 ; M qa
2
3 2
Q 0; M qa
227

Example 5 Plot the internal-force diagrams of the beams shown in the


following figures by the simple method to plot the diagram.

q
B

qa2

Solution
Determine reactions

RA

qa
qa
; RD

2
2

qa
Q
;M 0
Left end A
2
RA qa
qa
1 2
Left of
Q
qa/2
Q
; M qa
x
+
point B
2
2
qa
1 2

Right of
Q
; M qa
point B
2
2
qa/2
qa/2
qa
1 2
Left
of
Q
; M qa
qa2/2
2
2
point
2
2
3qa /8 qa /2

C
3 2
Stationary
Q

0
;
M

qa
+
x
8
point of
M
qa2/2
qa
1 2
M

Right
of
1
Q
; M qa
Q

qa
;
M

0
2
2 28
Right end D
point C
2

D
RD

45

PLOT THE DIAGRAM OF BENDING MOMENT BY THE


THEOREM OF SUPERPOSITIOM

1 Theorem of superposition
Internal forces in the structure due to simultaneous action of many forces are
equal to algebraic sum of the internal forces due to separate action of each force.

Q( P1P2 Pn ) Q1( P1) Q2(P2 ) Qn (Pn )

M ( P1P2 Pn ) M1(P1) M 2(P2 ) M n ( Pn )


Applying condition Relation between the parameters
(internal forces stresses displacements and the
external forces must be linear, that is they satisfy Hookes

29

2 Structural members in mechanics of material is of small


deformation and linear elasticity, and must obey this principle
method of superposition
Steps
Plot respectively the diagram of the bending moment of
the beam under the separate action of each external load
Sum up the corresponding longitudinal coordinates
(Attention: do not simply piece together figures.

30

Example 6

Plot the diagram of bending moment by the principle of

superposition.

P at the middle point of the beam AB.


(AB=2a force P is acting
q
A

+
B

+
q
B

Pa qa 2

2
2
x

+
M1

M2

Pa
2
+
qa 2
2

x
31

3 Applications of symmetry and antisymmetry


For the symmetric structure under the action of symmetric loads
the diagram of its shearing stress Q is antisymmetric and the
diagram of the bending moment M is symmetric. For the symmetric
structure under the action of antisymmetric loads the diagram of its
shearing stress Q is symmetric and the diagram of the bending
moment M is antisymmetric.

32

Example 7

Plot internal-force diagrams of the beams shown in the

PL

L
P

0.5P

P
Q1

following figure.

0.5P
+

0.5P

0.5P
Q2

PL

0.5P

0.5P

0.5P

33

PL

L
P

0.5P

x
+
P

PL
x

0.5P

+
0.5PL

M1
0.5PL

PL

x
+

0.5P

0.5P

M2

0.5PL
34

Example 8 Correct the mistakes in the following internal-force diagrams.


A

q
B

qa2

RA

qa/4
+

2a

RB

qa/4

qa
RA
;
4
7qa
RB
4

3qa/4

7qa/4
qa /4
5qa2/4
2

3qa2/2
49qa2/32

x
35

Example 9 Knowing Q-diagram, determine external loads and Mdiagram (Therefore no concentrated force couples acted on the
2
beam).Q(kN)
1
+
+
x

3
1m
2m
1m
5kN

1kN

1.25

+
M(kNm)

q=2kN/m
1

x
36

46

THE INTERNAL-FORCE DIAGRAMS OF THE PLANAR RIGID FRAMES

1 Planar rigid frame


1). Planar rigid frame Structure made from rods of different direction
that are mutually connected in rigidity at their ends in the same plane.

Characteristics There are internal forces Q, M and N in each rod.


2). Conventions to plot diagram of internal forces
Bending-moment diagram Plot it at the side where fibers are
elongated and not mark the sign of positive or negative.

Shearing-force and axial-force diagrams May be plotted


at any side of the frame In common the diagram with positive value is
plotted outside the frame but must mark the signs of positive and
negative.

37

Example 10 Try to plot the internal-force diagrams of the rigid frame


shown in the figure.

P1

P2

P1
C

B
l

P1a

+
Q -diagram

P1a

P1
+
P1a+ P2 l

P2

N-diagram

M -diagram
38

EXERCISE LESSONS ABOUT INTERNAL FORCES OF BENDING


DIAGRAMS OF SHEARING STRESSES AND BENDING MOMENTS

1 Method to determine directly the internal forces


When we determine the internal forces in an arbitrary section A, we can
take the left part of section A as our study object and use the following formulas
to calculate internal forces. where Pi and Pj are respectively upward and
downward external forces acted on the left part.

QA Pi Pj

M A mA ( Pi )

m (P )
A

39

Relations among the shearing force the bending moment and


the external load
q(x)
dQ x
q x
dx

2 Simple method to plot the diagram:

dM 2 ( x) dMdx(x) Q(x)
q( x)
2
dx

The method to plot the diagrams by using the relation between the internal
forces and the external forces and using values of the internal forces at some special
points.
40

3 Principle of superposition
Internal forces in the structure due to simultaneous action of many forces
are equal to the algebra sum of the internal forces due to separate action of each
force.

Q( P1P2 Pn ) Q1( P1) Q2(P2 ) Qn (Pn )

M (P1P2 Pn ) M1(P1) M 2(P2 ) M n (Pn )


4 Applications of symmetry and antisymmetry
For the symmetric structure under the action of symmetric loads the diagram of its
shearing stress is antisymmetric and the diagram of bending moment is symmetric.
For the symmetric structure under the action of antisymmetric loads the diagram of
its shearing stress is symmetric and the diagram of bending moment is
antisymmetric

41

External force

5 Relations between the shearing force, the bending moment and the external load
Uniform-load
No external-force
Concentrated force Concentrated couple
segment
segment

P
q=0

q>0

q<0

Characteristics of Qdiagram

Horizontal straight line

Inclined straight line

x
Q>0

Q<0

Increasing function

x
M

x
Decreasing function

x
M

Increasing function Decreasing function

Q2
Q1Q2=P

Flex from the left to Sudden change from the


the right
left to the right

x
M

Tomb-like

Q1
C

No change
Q

M
Basin-like Flex opposite to P

M
xM
1

Opposite tom

curves

Inclined straight line

Sudden change from


the left to right

Q
x

M
42
M1 M 2 m

Example 1 Plot the bending-moment diagrams of the beam shown in the


following figure.

2P

(1)
a

+
Pa

P M

=
2Pa

2P

M2

M1
+
2Pa

x
43

(2)

qa2

=
+

M1

+
qa2/2

3qa2/2

M2

x
44

(3)

PL/2

PL/2

L/2

L/2

+
PL/4

M1

PL/2

PL/2

M2
45

(4)
20kNm

20kNm

50kN

2m

x
30kNm

=
20kNm

20kNm

2m

20kNm

20kNm

20kNm

M1

50kN

M2

+
50kNm

x
46

Example 2

The structure is shown in the figure. Try to prove (1 resultant

of the shearing stresses in an arbitrary cross section is equal to the shearing force in
the same section 2 Resultant moment of the normal stresses in an arbitrary
cross section is equal to the bending moment in the same section 3 which
force can balance the resultant of the shearing stress in the longitudinal section at
middle height balanced ?.

Solution: 1 Shearing stress


on the cross section is

QSz Q h2

( y2)
bI z 2I z 4

b
z
y

Normal stress on the cross section is

My

Iz

47

(2) Resultant shearing force in the cross section is


0.5 h

Q h
2

d
A

y
)b dy
A

2I z 4
0.5 h
Qb h 3 2 h 3

[ ( ) ] Q
2I z 4 3 2
(3) Resultant force couple

My 2
M
Mz
dA
Iz M
Iz
0.5h I z
0.5h

48

max
L

x
(4)Shearing stress in the

Q( x )
qx

max 1.5
1.5 ( )
middle longitudinal section is
A
bh
(5)Resultant of the shearing stress in the longitudinal section is
L

Q AB

3
3qL2
dA
(qx)dx
2h
4h

Resultant of the shearing stress in the longitudinal section is


balanced by resultant of the normal stress in the right-side section.

NA1

2
2
M max A1
1
1
qL
6
bh
3
qL
max A1

2
2
2W z
2 2 bh 2
4h
Q AB N A1

49

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