Sie sind auf Seite 1von 50

# Mechanics of Materials

Chaper4
Shear Force and Bending Moment in Beams
HENAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Edited by YANG MIN-xian
1

CHAPTER 4

## 41 Concepts of planar bending and calculation sketch of the beam

42 The shearing force and bending moment of the beam
43 The shearing-force and bending-moment equations the shearingforce and bending-moment diagrams
44 Relations among the shearing force the bending moment and
the
density of the distributed load and their applications
45

superpositiom

2

41

## CONCEPTS OF PLANAR BENDING AND

CALCULATION SKETCH OF THE BEAM

1 CONCEPTS OF BENDING
1). BENDING: The action of the external force or external the couple vector
perpendicular to the axis of the rod makes the axis of the rod change into
curve from original straight lines, this deformation is called bending.
2).BEAM The member of
which the deformation is
mainly bending is generally
called beam.

## 4).Planar bending After deformation the curved axis of the

beam is still in the same plane with the external forces.
Symmetric bending as shown in the following figure
a
special example of the planar bending.
P1
q
P2

The plane of
symmetry

## Unsymmetrical bending if a beam does not possess any plane of

symmetry, or the external forces do not act in a plane of symmetry of the
beam with symmetric planes, this kind of bending is called unsymmetrical
bending. In later chapters we will mainly discuss the bending stresses and
deformations of the beam under symmetric bending.
7

## 2 Calculation sketch of the

In general supports and external forces of the beam are very complex.
beam
We should do some necessary simplification for them for our convenient
calculation and obtain the calculation sketch.

## 1). Simplification of the beams

In general case we take the place of the beam by its axis.

## 2). Simplification of the loads

The loads (including the reaction) acting on the beam may be reduced into
three types concentrated force concentrated force couple and distributed
force.
3). Simplification of

the supports
8

## Fixed hinged support

2 constraints 1 degree of
freedom. Such as the fixed
hinged support under
bridges thrust ball bearing
etc.
Movable hinged support
1 constraint 2 degree of
freedom. Such as the movable
hinged support under the
bridge ball bearing etc.
9

## Rigidly fixed end

3 constraints 0 degree of
freedom. Such as the support of
diving board at the swimming
pool support of the lower end of a
wooden pole.

XA A

MA

YA
M Concentrated
force couple

## Simple beam(or simply

supported beam)

q(x)

Distributed force

Cantilever beam
10

Overhanging beam
q

Uniformly
distributed
force

Concentrated
force

## 5). Statically determinate and statically indeterminate beams

Statically determinate beams Reactions of the beam can be determined only
by static equilibrium equations such as the above three kinds of basic beams.
Statically indeterminate beams Reactions of the beam cannot be
determined or only part of reactions can be determined by static equilibrium
equations.
11

Example 1

## inside diameter is D=1m thickness of its wall is t =10mm. Density of steel is

7.8g/cm. Density of the liquid is 1g/cm. Height of the liquid is 0.8m. Length of
overhanging end is 1m. Try to determine the calculation sketch of the stock tank.

Solution
q

Uniformly
Distributed
force

12

mg Vg A1L 1g A2 L 2 g A g A g
q

1 1
2 2
L
L
L

1 2
Dt 1 g [R R ( sin )] 2 g
2
2

3.14 1 0.01 7800 9.8 [3.14 0.52
1
0.52 (1.855 sin106.3)] 1000 9.8
2

Uniformly
Distributed
force

13

9 (kN/m)

42

## THE SHEARING FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT

THE BEAM

1 Internal force in
bending
Example Knowing conditions are

OF

B
l

## Determine the internal forces on the

section at the distance x to the end A.

Solution Determine
external forces

X 0,
m

0,

XA 0
Pa
RB
l

XA A

YA

Y 0 ,

B
RB

P(l a)
YA
l

14

## Determine internal forces

method of section
P(l a)
Y 0 , Q YA l
mC 0 , M YA x
Internal forces of the
beam in bending

XA A

YA

bending.

Q
M

B
RB

x
A

YA

Shearing
force
Bending
moment

Q
M

C
RB
15

## 2). Shearing force Q

Internal force which the acting line in the cross-section parallel to the section, when the beam is
bending.

## Shearing force Q: It is positive when it results in a clockwise rotation with

respect to the object under consideration, otherwise it is negative.

Q(+)

Q()
Q(+)

Q()

## Bending moment M It is positive when it tends to bend the portion concave

upwards, otherwise it is negative.

M(+)

M(+)
M()

M()
16

2 Examples
Example 2 Determine the internal forces acting on sections 11 and 22
section as shown in fig.(a).

qL

forces

1 a

## Free body diagram of the left portion of

section 11 is shown in fig. b .

Fig. a

qL
A
M1
Q1

x1

Fig. b

Y qL Q1 0
Q1 qL

mA( Fi ) qLx1 M1 0
M1 qLx1

17

## Free body diagram of the left portion of

section 22 is shown in fig. b .

qL

Y qL Q2 q( x2 a ) 0

Q2 q( x2 a L)
mB ( Fi ) 0 ,
1
qLx2 M 2 q( x2 a)2 0
2

1
M 2 q( x2 a)2 qLx2
2

1 a
y

qL

B
M2
x2

Q2
c
18

43

## THE SHEARING-FORCE AND BENDING-MOMENT EQUATIONS

THE SHEARING-FORCE AND BENDING-MOMENT DIAGRAMS

## 1. Internal-force equations: Expressions that show the

internal forces as functions of the position x of the
Shearing force equation
section.
Q . Q (x)
M M (x)

## 2. The shearing-force and bending-moment diagrams:

Shearing-force diagram

Q Q(x)

equation
19
M M (x)

Example 3

## Determine the internal-force equations and plot the diagrams of

the beam shown in the following figure.

MO

L
x

YO

Q(x)

Q(x)

## Solution Determine the

reactions of the supports
YO P ; M O PL

M(x)

Q( x ) YO P

PL

M ( x ) YO x M O
P( x L )

M(x)

## Solution Write out the

internal-force equations
L Q(x)

Q( x ) qx

M(x)

1
M ( x ) qx 2
2

Q(x)
x

qL

## Plot the internalforce diagram

qL2

M(x)

21

q0
Solution Determine the
reactions of the supports
q0 L
q0 L
RA
; RB
6
3

L
RA

RB

Q(x)
q0 L
6
2

3
3

q Lx
0
L

M(x)

3q0 L2
27

## Write out the internalforce equations

q
Q( x ) 0 ( L2 3x 2 )
6L
q0 x 2
M ( x)
( L x2 )
6L

22

## 44 RELATIONS AMANG THE SHEARING FORCE, THE BENDING MOMENT

AND THE INDENSITY OF THE DISTRIBUTED LOAD AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

q(x)

## 1 Relations among the shearing

force the bending moment and the the
By analysis of the equilibrium of the
infinitesimal length dx we can
Y 0
get

dx

q(x)

Q(x)+d Q(x)
M(x)
Q(x)

A
dx

M(x)+d M(x)

Q( x ) q( x )dx Q( x ) dQ( x ) 0

dQ x
q x
dxin the
Slope of the tangential line at a point

q( x )dx dQ( x )

## shearing-force diagram is equal to the intensity

of the distributed load at the same point. 23

1
m A ( Fi ) 0, Q( x)dx q( x)(dx) 2 M ( x) [ M ( x) dM ( x)] 0
2
dM ( x)
Q( x)
dx

## Slope of the tangential line at a point in the bending-moment diagram is

equal to the magnitude of the shearing force at the same point.

q(x)

Q(x)+d Q(x)
M(x)
Q(x)

A
dx

M(x)+d M(x)

## Relation between the bending

moment and the indensity of the

dM 2 ( x)
q( x)
2
dx
24

External force

2 Relations between the shearing force the bending moment and the external load
No external-force
Concentrated force Concentrated couple
segment
segment

P
q=0

q>0

q<0

Characteristics of Qdiagram

## Inclined straight line

x
Q>0

Q<0

Increasing function

x
M

x
Decreasing function

x
M

Q2
Q1Q2=P

## Flex from the left to Sudden change from the

the right
left to the right

x
M

Tomb-like

Q1
C

No change
Q

M
Basin-like Flex opposite to P

M
xM
1

Opposite tom

Characteristics of Mdiagram

curves

## Sudden change from

the left to right

Q
x

M
25
M1 M 2 m

## The method to plot the diagrams

by using the relation between the internal forces and the external forces and
values of the internal forces at some special points.

Example 4

## Plot the internal force diagrams of the beams shown in

the following figures by the simple method to plot the diagram.

Solution:

qa

## Plot the diagram by using the

relation between the internal forces and the
external forces and the internal force values at

## some special points of the beam.

Special points:
End point partition point the point
at which external forces changed and
stationary point etc.
26

qa

Q qa; M 0
Left
end
Shapeof the curve is determined

A
a

according to

qa

dM ( x)
Q ( x)
dx

dM 2 ( x)
q( x)
dx 2

## And the law of the point acted

by concentrated force.

3 2
qa
2

qa2

Partition
Q qa; M qa 2
point A

Stationary

x
M

dQ x
q x
dx

point of M

Right
end

3 2
Q 0 ; M qa
2
3 2
Q 0; M qa
227

## Example 5 Plot the internal-force diagrams of the beams shown in the

following figures by the simple method to plot the diagram.

q
B

qa2

Solution
Determine reactions

RA

qa
qa
; RD

2
2

qa
Q
;M 0
Left end A
2
RA qa
qa
1 2
Left of
Q
qa/2
Q
; M qa
x
+
point B
2
2
qa
1 2

Right of
Q
; M qa
point B
2
2
qa/2
qa/2
qa
1 2
Left
of
Q
; M qa
qa2/2
2
2
point
2
2
3qa /8 qa /2

C
3 2
Stationary
Q

0
;
M

qa
+
x
8
point of
M
qa2/2
qa
1 2
M

Right
of
1
Q
; M qa
Q

qa
;
M

0
2
2 28
Right end D
point C
2

D
RD

45

## PLOT THE DIAGRAM OF BENDING MOMENT BY THE

THEOREM OF SUPERPOSITIOM

1 Theorem of superposition
Internal forces in the structure due to simultaneous action of many forces are
equal to algebraic sum of the internal forces due to separate action of each force.

## M ( P1P2 Pn ) M1(P1) M 2(P2 ) M n ( Pn )

Applying condition Relation between the parameters
(internal forces stresses displacements and the
external forces must be linear, that is they satisfy Hookes

29

## 2 Structural members in mechanics of material is of small

deformation and linear elasticity, and must obey this principle
method of superposition
Steps
Plot respectively the diagram of the bending moment of
the beam under the separate action of each external load
Sum up the corresponding longitudinal coordinates
(Attention: do not simply piece together figures.

30

Example 6

superposition.

## P at the middle point of the beam AB.

(AB=2a force P is acting
q
A

+
B

+
q
B

Pa qa 2

2
2
x

+
M1

M2

Pa
2
+
qa 2
2

x
31

## 3 Applications of symmetry and antisymmetry

For the symmetric structure under the action of symmetric loads
the diagram of its shearing stress Q is antisymmetric and the
diagram of the bending moment M is symmetric. For the symmetric
structure under the action of antisymmetric loads the diagram of its
shearing stress Q is symmetric and the diagram of the bending
moment M is antisymmetric.

32

Example 7

## Plot internal-force diagrams of the beams shown in the

PL

L
P

0.5P

P
Q1

following figure.

0.5P
+

0.5P

0.5P
Q2

PL

0.5P

0.5P

0.5P

33

PL

L
P

0.5P

x
+
P

PL
x

0.5P

+
0.5PL

M1
0.5PL

PL

x
+

0.5P

0.5P

M2

0.5PL
34

## Example 8 Correct the mistakes in the following internal-force diagrams.

A

q
B

qa2

RA

qa/4
+

2a

RB

qa/4

qa
RA
;
4
7qa
RB
4

3qa/4

7qa/4
qa /4
5qa2/4
2

3qa2/2
49qa2/32

x
35

Example 9 Knowing Q-diagram, determine external loads and Mdiagram (Therefore no concentrated force couples acted on the
2
beam).Q(kN)
1
+
+
x

3
1m
2m
1m
5kN

1kN

1.25

+
M(kNm)

q=2kN/m
1

x
36

46

## 1 Planar rigid frame

1). Planar rigid frame Structure made from rods of different direction
that are mutually connected in rigidity at their ends in the same plane.

## Characteristics There are internal forces Q, M and N in each rod.

2). Conventions to plot diagram of internal forces
Bending-moment diagram Plot it at the side where fibers are
elongated and not mark the sign of positive or negative.

## Shearing-force and axial-force diagrams May be plotted

at any side of the frame In common the diagram with positive value is
plotted outside the frame but must mark the signs of positive and
negative.

37

## Example 10 Try to plot the internal-force diagrams of the rigid frame

shown in the figure.

P1

P2

P1
C

B
l

P1a

+
Q -diagram

P1a

P1
+
P1a+ P2 l

P2

N-diagram

M -diagram
38

## EXERCISE LESSONS ABOUT INTERNAL FORCES OF BENDING

DIAGRAMS OF SHEARING STRESSES AND BENDING MOMENTS

## 1 Method to determine directly the internal forces

When we determine the internal forces in an arbitrary section A, we can
take the left part of section A as our study object and use the following formulas
to calculate internal forces. where Pi and Pj are respectively upward and
downward external forces acted on the left part.

QA Pi Pj

M A mA ( Pi )

m (P )
A

39

q(x)
dQ x
q x
dx

## 2 Simple method to plot the diagram:

dM 2 ( x) dMdx(x) Q(x)
q( x)
2
dx

The method to plot the diagrams by using the relation between the internal
forces and the external forces and using values of the internal forces at some special
points.
40

3 Principle of superposition
Internal forces in the structure due to simultaneous action of many forces
are equal to the algebra sum of the internal forces due to separate action of each
force.

## M (P1P2 Pn ) M1(P1) M 2(P2 ) M n (Pn )

4 Applications of symmetry and antisymmetry
For the symmetric structure under the action of symmetric loads the diagram of its
shearing stress is antisymmetric and the diagram of bending moment is symmetric.
For the symmetric structure under the action of antisymmetric loads the diagram of
its shearing stress is symmetric and the diagram of bending moment is
antisymmetric

41

External force

5 Relations between the shearing force, the bending moment and the external load
No external-force
Concentrated force Concentrated couple
segment
segment

P
q=0

q>0

q<0

Characteristics of Qdiagram

## Inclined straight line

x
Q>0

Q<0

Increasing function

x
M

x
Decreasing function

x
M

Q2
Q1Q2=P

## Flex from the left to Sudden change from the

the right
left to the right

x
M

Tomb-like

Q1
C

No change
Q

M
Basin-like Flex opposite to P

M
xM
1

Opposite tom

curves

## Sudden change from

the left to right

Q
x

M
42
M1 M 2 m

## Example 1 Plot the bending-moment diagrams of the beam shown in the

following figure.

2P

(1)
a

+
Pa

P M

=
2Pa

2P

M2

M1
+
2Pa

x
43

(2)

qa2

=
+

M1

+
qa2/2

3qa2/2

M2

x
44

(3)

PL/2

PL/2

L/2

L/2

+
PL/4

M1

PL/2

PL/2

M2
45

(4)
20kNm

20kNm

50kN

2m

x
30kNm

=
20kNm

20kNm

2m

20kNm

20kNm

20kNm

M1

50kN

M2

+
50kNm

x
46

Example 2

## The structure is shown in the figure. Try to prove (1 resultant

of the shearing stresses in an arbitrary cross section is equal to the shearing force in
the same section 2 Resultant moment of the normal stresses in an arbitrary
cross section is equal to the bending moment in the same section 3 which
force can balance the resultant of the shearing stress in the longitudinal section at
middle height balanced ?.

## Solution: 1 Shearing stress

on the cross section is

QSz Q h2

( y2)
bI z 2I z 4

b
z
y

My

Iz

47

## (2) Resultant shearing force in the cross section is

0.5 h

Q h
2

d
A

y
)b dy
A

2I z 4
0.5 h
Qb h 3 2 h 3

[ ( ) ] Q
2I z 4 3 2
(3) Resultant force couple

My 2
M
Mz
dA
Iz M
Iz
0.5h I z
0.5h

48

max
L

x
(4)Shearing stress in the

Q( x )
qx

max 1.5
1.5 ( )
middle longitudinal section is
A
bh
(5)Resultant of the shearing stress in the longitudinal section is
L

Q AB

3
3qL2
dA
(qx)dx
2h
4h

## Resultant of the shearing stress in the longitudinal section is

balanced by resultant of the normal stress in the right-side section.

NA1

2
2
M max A1
1
1
qL
6
bh
3
qL
max A1

2
2
2W z
2 2 bh 2
4h
Q AB N A1

49

50