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ELEMENTARY GENETICS

Dr.P.T.Shukla .
Ph.D. (Genetics)
Retired Head, Botany Division,
Anand Agricultural University,
Anand (Gujarat)
388110.
India.

All About The Book


There are several books available in the market on the topic Genetics. Most of these
books deal with Principals of Genetics in great details. The language used is also very
difficult to understand by the students who have very limited knowledge of English
language. This comes in their way to understand and grasp the elements of basic
Genetics. I had this experience during my teaching to under graduate and post graduate
students. Due to semester system , the students have several subjects and this make their
study of any subject difficult. The students do not grasp the basic of the subject and
mostly memories the brief notes given by the teacher in the class. They do not develop
much interest in the subject. Retention of the knowledge in the memory of such students
is virtually nil.
If the chapters are written in simple language, properly illustrated with figures the
grasping power is improved and the students start developing interest in the topic. The
scientific subject involves work of several scientists. The students do not know much about
the scientists involved in developing basic concepts. This book gives information on the
well known scientists with photographs and their contribution in the field of their
specialization. This book is written in simple English , easy to understand by the non
English speaking students. Each chapter gives basic information on the topic and deals
with the basic concepts in such a way that without much efforts the students can grasp it.
Each chapter includes enough information on the subject and covers all the necessary
details required to understand the topic. If the students read it carefully, they will be able
to grasp all the essentials of Genetics. The e book is available on www.bookganga.com
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CHAPTER 1 : MENDELS LAWS


OF INHERITANCE
This chapter deals with Mendels Laws of Inheritance in
depth. The important terms used in inheritance studies
are introduced. Mendel's approach to character
inheritance , bracket method of gamete formation for
monohybrid, dihybrid and trihybrid crosses is
elaborated. Concept of Punnett Square for
monohybrid, dihybrid, and trihybrid is discussed. The
laws of segregation and independent assortment are
explained with suitable examples. Test cross and its
significance in plant breeding is smphasized.
Modification of monohybrid ratio due to incomplete
dominance, co dominance and lethal genes is
explained with suitable figures.
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CHAPTER 2: CHROMOSOMES AND CELL DIVISION

This chapter contains information on


chromosomes and cell division. The structure of
nucleus and chromosomes is dealt with suitable
figures. The chromosome morphology with
packing of DNA in it is explained. Special
chromosomes like Salivary Gland chromosomes,
Lamp Brush chromosomes and supernumerary
chromosomes are represented by suitable figures
and their role is explained. The importance of
mitosis and meiosis is explained along with
appropriate figures and their significance in
inheritance is listed.
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CHAPTER 3: SEX DETERMINATION SYSTEMS


History of Sex determination is discussed in this
chapter along with all the sex determination systems
in the plant and animal kingdom such as :
XX- XY: Mostly found in insects, Human , and in some
angiosperms.
XX-XO: grasshoppers, cockroaches. Nematodes.
ZZ-ZW : birds, fish, reptiles.
Haplodiploidy: Honey bees, Wasps, and Ants.
Non genetic: Effect of temperature and social behavior
on sex expression in fish, reptiles, turtles and alligator.
Sex determination in angiosperms.

CHAPTER 4 : POLYPLOIDY
(A)
Polyploidy in plants and animals is
discussed in this chapter. The major aspects
covered are :
CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOPOLYPLOIDS.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOPOLYPLOIDS
(Plants).
ORIGIN OF AUTOPOLYPLOIDS IN PLANTS.
Origin of Allopolyploids.
ORIGIN OF HEXAPLOID WHEAT.
PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL SPECIES OF
RAPHANOBRASSICA. Contd (B )
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CHAPTER 4 : POLYPLOIDY (B)


PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC WHEAT
RYE HYBRID: TRITICALE.
ORIGIN OF ALLOTETRAPLOID TOBACCO.
ALLOPOLYPLOIDY IN BRASSICA.
ALLOPOLYPLOIDY IN COTTON.
Allopolyploidy in animals.
ANEUPLOIDY.
IMPORTANCE OF ANEUPLOIDY AND
ALLOPLOIDY.
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CHAPTER 5 : MUTATIONS (A)


All the important aspects of
physical and chemical mutations
are covered. The important
points covered are:
History of mutagenesis.
PHYSICAL MUTAGENS.
CHEMICAL MUTAGENS.
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.
GENETIC EFFECTS OF RADITIONS.
contd (B).

CHAPTER 5 : MUTATIONS (B)


UV RADIATION.
CHEMICAL MUTAGENS : BASE
SUBSTITUTION , ALKYLATION ,
TAUTOMERISM, DEAMINATION, APURINIC
GAP, INTERCALATION, BASE ANALOGUES ,
List of Chemical Mutagens.
TYPES OF MUTATIONS: POINT MUTATIONS
OR FORWARD MUTATIONS , FRAME SHIFT
MUTATIONS, MIS SENSE MUTATIONS.
Contd (C)
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CHAPTER 5 : MUTATION
(C )

NONSENSE MUTATIONS.
Silent mutations.
CHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONS.
EFFECTS OF MUTATONS.
MUTATION FREQUENCY.
DNA REPAIR SYSTEMS : Photo reactivation
Repair, Recombinational repair, Base excision
repair, Mismatch Repair, Adaptive or inducible
repair, SOS or inducible error prone repair.
Contd (D)
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Chapter : 5 MUTATIONS (D )
MUTAGENECITY TESTS IN
Drosophilamelanogaster : About Fruit fly ,
ATTACHED X TECHNIQUE FOR SCORING
SEX LINKED VISIBLE MUTATIONS, MULLER
5 TECHNIQUE .
MUTATION INDUCTION IN CROP PLANTS
:MUTAGENIC TREATMENT, STEPS FOR
ISOLAION OF MUTANTS .
SIGNIFICANCE OF MUTATIONS,
APPLICATION OF MUTATIONS, MUTATIONS
AND CROP IMPROVEMENT.
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CHAPTER 6 : GENE
INTERACTIONS
The history of gene interaction is elaborated in this chapter. The
allelic and non allelic interactions are described. The following
types of gene interactions in plants and animals are discussed with
figures :

COMPLEMENTARY GENE INTERACTION.

SUPPLEMENTARY OR RECESSIVE GENE INTERACTION.

DOMINANT EPISTASIS.

DUPLICATE FACTOR.

INHIBITARY FACTOR.

POLYMERIC OR ADDITIVE GENE INTERACTION.

PARTIAL DOMINANCE AT INHIBITORY LOCUS.

INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE AT TWO ADDITIVE LOCI.

DOMINANT MODIFICATION OF DUPLICATE GENES.

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CHAPTER 7 : LINKAGE AND


CHROMOSOME MAPPING
History of linkage and
chromosome mapping.
COUPLING AND REPULSION
PHASE.
COUPLING OR CIS
ARRANGEMENT.
REPULION OR TRANS
ARRANGEMENT.
THREE POINT TEST CROSS.
INTERFERENCE AND

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CHAPTER 8 : CYTOPLASMIC
INHERITANCE
Cytoplasmic Inheritance in Mirabelis jalapa
PIGMENTATION IN FLOUR MOTH (Ephestia
kuhniella).
COILING OF SHELL IN SNAIL (Limnaea
peregra).
CYTOPLASMIC INHERITANCE IN MICE.
CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILITY.
EXTRA CHROMOSOMAL PARTICLES :
KAPPA PARTICLES IN PARAMECIUM.
SIGMA PARTICLES IN DROSOPHILA.
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Chapter 9 : DNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

TRANSFORMATION EXPERIMENTS OF GRIFFITH .


Experiment of Avery, MacLeod and McCarty in 1944.
Waring Blender Experiment of Hershey and Chase,
1952.
WATSON CRICK PROPOSED DNA STRUCTURE, 1953.
STRUCTURE OF DNA.
DNA REPLICATION.
GENETIC CODE (THE LANGUAGE OF LIFE).
PROPERTIES OF GENETIC CODE.
CENTRAL DOGMA : DNA
RNA
Protein.
MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) , RIBOSOMAL RNA (r RNA),
TRANSFER RNA (tRNA).
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.
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CHAPTER 10 :GENE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Historical aspects of gene structure and


function.
Gene splicing in eukaryotes .
TYPES OF OPERONS.
REGULATION OF LAC OPERON IN E.COLI.
TRYPTOPHAN OPERON.
GENE CONTROL IN EUKARYOTS.
TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL (PROTEIN
SPLICING).
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