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Stiffness calculation for Various shape geometry

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Market

Assessment

Specification

DETAIL

DESIGN

Concept

Design

Materials Selection

Detail

Design

Process Selection

Cost Breakdown

Manufacture

Sell

FUNCTION

SHAPE

BENDING, TORSION,

BUCKLING

-------------------SHAPE FACTORS

-------------------PERFORMANCE INDICES

WITH SHAPE

MATERIAL

PROCESS

Section

Shape

A

(m2)

I

(m4)

K

(m4)

r 2

4

r

4

4

r

2

ab

3 2

a

4

(ro2 ri 2 )

2rt

sec tion

b4

12

0.14b

3

ab

4

a 3 b 3

(a 2 b 2 )

bh

A = Cross-sectional area

bh

12

4

a

32 3

4

( ro ri 4 )

4

r 3t

b3h

b

1 0.58

3

h

(h b )

a

3

80

4

(ro ri 4 )

2

2r 3t

y 2 dA

where

sec tion

y 2by dy

y is measured vertically

by is the section width at y

( Polar moment J of a circular section)

K

where

TL

G

J 2r dr

3

sec tion

T is the torque

L is the length of the shaft

is the angle of twist

G is the shear modulus

Section

Shape

A

(m2)

I

(m4)

K

(m4)

4bt

2 3

bt

3

t

b t 1

b

(a b )t

3

3b

a t 1

4

a

b(ho hi )

2bt

4 (ab )5 / 2 t

a2 b2

b 3

( ho hi3 )

12

btho2 / 2

2t ( h b )

1 3

3b

h t 1

6

h

2tb 2h 2

hb

2 3

4h

bt 1

3

b

2t ( h b )

t 3

( h 4bt 2 )

6

t3

(8b h )

3

2 3

4b

ht 1

3

h

2d 2

t 1

2

4

t d 2

8

Section

Shape

Z

(m3)

Q

(m3)

3

r

4

3

r

2

b3

6

0.21b3

2

ab

4

a 2 b

2

(a b )

bh

6

a3

32

b 2h 2

3h 1.8b

(h b)

a3

20

4

(ro ri 4 )

4ro

4

(ro ri 4 )

2ro

r 2t

2r 2t

Z = Section modulus

I

ym

where

ym is the normal distance from the neutral axis

to the outer surface of the beam carrying the

highest stress

Q = Factor in twisting similar to Z

Q

where

Section

Shape

Z

(m3)

4 2

bt

3

a 2t

3b

1

4

a

Q

(m3)

t

2b t 1

b

2t (a3b )1/ 2

(b a )

ho3 hi3

6ho

btho

h 2t

3b

1

3

h

2tbh

2 2

4h

bt 1

3

b

t

(h3 4bt 2 )

3h

t2

(8b h )

3

2 2

4b

ht 1

3

h

t d

4

BENDING

TORSION

SB

C1EI

L3

ST

KG

L

loading details, L is the length of the beam,

and E is the Youngs modulus of the material

shear Modulus of the material.

stiffness of the shaped beam to that of a

solid circular section with the same crosssectional area thus:

S

I

torsional stiffness of the shaped shaft to that

of a solid circular section with the same

cross-sectional area thus:

Be

4 A2

Io r

4

4

SBo

Io

4I

so, 2

A

e

B

4 A2

Ko r

2

2

Te

ST

K

STo K o

so,

Te

2K

A2

BENDING

TORSION

M, experienced by a beam is at the surface a

distance ym furthest from the neutral axis:

experienced by a shaft is given by:

My m M

I

Z

enough for to reach the failure stress of the

material:

M Z

f

moment of the shaped beam to that of a solid

circular section with the same cross-sectional area

thus:

Mf

Z

f

3 A3 / 2

Zo r

4

4

Mfo

Zo

4 Z

so,

A3 / 2

f

B

T

Q

to reach the failure shear stress of the material:

Tf Q f

torque of the shaped shaft to that of a solid circular

section with the same cross-sectional area thus:

Tf

3 A3 / 2

Qo r

2

2

Tf

Q

Tfo Qo

so, T

f

2 Q

A3 / 2

Please Note:

The shape factors for failure/strength described in this lecture course are

those defined in the 2nd Edition of Materials Selection In Mechanical

Design by M.F. Ashby. These shape factors differ from those defined in

the 1st Edition of the book. The new failure/strength shape factor

definitions are the square root of the old ones.

The shape factors for the elastic case are not altered in the 2nd Edition.

Rectangular sections

I-sections

SIZE

Shape Factors

Section

Shape

Stiffness

Failure/Strength

Bf

Tf

1.05

3

0.88

2

1.18

3

0.74

a

b

2ab

a b2

h

3b

2b

h

1 0.58

3h

b

(h b)

e

B

2

1.21

3 3

r

t

e

T

a

b

2

0.73

5 3

r

t

2

3

a

b

h

b

0.77

2r

1/ 2

1/ 2

(a b )

2 (b / h )1/ 2

3(1 0.6b / h )2

(h b )

0.62

2r

1/ 2

Section

Shape

e

B

b

6t

a(1 3b / a )

t (1 b / a )2

Stiffness

b

t

1

8t

b

f

B

8(ab )5 / 2

t (a 2 b 2 )(a b )2

2 b

3 t

a

t

1/ 2

b 2h 2

t ( h b )3

t (1 4h / b )

3b(1 h / b )2

h(1 4bt 2 / h3 ) t (1 8b / h ) t (1 4b / h )

6t (1 b / h )2

6h(1 b / h )2 3h(1 b / h )2

d 2

2t

1/ 2

b

t

Tf

1/ 2

t

1

b

4a1/ 2

t 1/ 2 (1 a / b )3 / 2

(1 3b / a )

(1 b / a )3 / 2

2 h

( bt )1/ 2

h 2

2bt

h(1 3b / h )

6t (1 b / h )2

Failure/Strength

e

T

2

3

h

t

h

2 t

1/ 2

1/ 2

(1 3b / h )

2 h

3/2

1/ 2

(1 b / h ) (bt ) (1 h / b )3 / 2

(1 4bt 2 / h3 )

(1 b / h )3 / 2

d

(t )1/ 2

18h

1/ 2

(1 8b / h )

(1 b / h )3 / 2

t

b

1/ 2

(1 4h / b )

(1 b / h )3 / 2

2 t

3 h

1/ 2

(1 4b / h )

(1 b / h )3 / 2

2

3

ELASTIC BENDING

e

Shape Factor: B

4I

A2

Be

log I 2 log A log

4

Plot logI against logA

Be : parallel lines of slope 2

BENDING STRENGTH

Shape Factor: Bf

4 Z

A3 / 2

3

Bf

log Z log A log

2

4

Plot logI against logA

Bf : parallel lines of slope 3/2

TORSIONAL STRENGTH

ELASTIC TORSION

2K

2 ;

A

e

T

Te

log K 2 log A log

2

2 Q

3/2 ;

A

f

T

3

Tf

logQ log A log

2

2

ELASTIC BENDING

ELASTIC TORSION

4I

Shape factor: 2

A

e

B

4SB

m

C1

1/ 2

SB

C1EI

L3

C1EBe A2

so, SB

4L3

2

5/2

L

e

E B

2K

Shape factor:

A2

e

T

ST

KG

L

GTe A2

so, ST

2L

1/ 2

2

1/ 2

3/2

m 2ST L

e

GT

1/ 2

So, to minimize

(EBe )1/ 2

mass m, maximise M1

3

E So, to minimize

(ETe )1/ 2

8

mass m, maximise M 2

FAILURE IN BENDING

FAILURE IN TORSION

4 Z

f Bf A3 / 2

Shape factor:

so, Mf

A3 / 2

4

2 Q

f Tf A3 / 2

Shape factor:

so, Tf

A3 / 2

4

( f f 2)

f

B

3/2

2/3

m ( 4 Mf ) L

f

f B

2/3

f

T

m 4 Tf

2/3

3/2

L

f

f T

2/3

So, to minimize

( f Bf )2 / 3

mass m, maximise M3

So, to minimize

( f Tf )2 / 3

mass m, maximise M 4

EXAMPLE 1, Elastic bending

Performance index for elastic

bending including shape,

(BeE )1/ 2

M1

Ceramics

Search

Region

Composites

can be written as

M1

(E )

=10

E and density, , with a particular

section acts as a material with an

effective Youngs modulus

E E

and density

=1

Woods

e 1/ 2

B

e

B

e

B

Be

Engineering

Polymers

Polymer

Foams

Engineering

Alloys

Elastomers

EXAMPLE 1, Failure in bending

Performance index for failure in

bending including shape,

(Bf f )2 / 3

M3

can be written as

M3

( f ( ) )

( )

f 2 2/3

B

f 2

B

density, , with a particular

section acts as a material with an

effective strength

f f (Bf )2

and density

(Bf )2

Ceramics

Composites

Search

Region

Engineering

Alloys

Woods

=1

Engineering

Polymers

=10 Elastomers

Polymer

Foams

Micro-Shape Factors

Material

considered the role of

macroscopic shape on the

performance of fully dense

materials.

However, materials can have

internal shape, Micro-Shape

which also affects their

performance,

e.g. cellular solids, foams,

honeycombs.

Macro-Shape from

Micro-Shaped Material,

Micro-Shape

Micro-Shaped Material,

Macro-Shape,

Micro-Shaped Material,

Micro-Shape Factors

Consider a solid cylindrical beam expanded, at constant

mass, to a circular beam with internal shape (see right).

Stiffness of the solid beam: SBo

C1EoIo

L3

and its radius increases from ro to

1/ 2

r o

ro

Fibres embedded

in a foam matrix

Prismatic cells

2

2

The second moment

4 o 4 o

of area increases to I r

ro

Io

Eo

parallel to the axis of the beam then E

o

The stiffness of the

C EI C EI

expanded beam is thus SB 1 3 1 3 o o

Concentric cylindrical

shells with foam between

Shape Factor: B

e

S o

So

Function

Tie

Beam

Objective

Constraint

Minimum cost

Stiffness

Minimum weight

Shaft

Column

Mechanical

Thermal

Electrical..

Strength

Index

E 1/ 2

M1

Maximum stored

energy

Minimum

environmental

impact

Fatigue

Index

Geometry

f2 / 3

M2

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

CK IC

,

aC

K

aC C 2 IC

f

M1

K IC

f

Function

pressure p

Objective

Maximum safety

Constraints

(b) Must leak before break

(c) Wall thickness small to

reduce mass and cost

Minimum strength

pR

pR

, t

2t

2 f

M3 f

t

CK IC

2

t / 2

C 2pR K IC2

K IC2

M2

4

f

f

aC

Search

Region

K

M1 IC

f

M1 = 0.6 m1/2

M3 = 100 MPa

K IC2

M2

f

M3 f

Material

M1

(m1/2)

M3

(MPa)

Comment

Tough steels

Tough Cu alloys

Tough Al alloys

>0.6

>0.6

>0.6

300

120

80

Standard.

OFHC Cu.

1xxx & 3xxx

Ti-alloys

High strength Al

alloys

GFRP/CFRP

0.2

0.1

0.1

700

500

500

High strength,

but low safety

margin. Good

for light

vessels.

1. Express the objective as an equation.

2. Eliminate the free variables using each constraint in turn, giving a set of

performance equations (objective functions) of the form:

P1 f1(F ) g1(G ) h1(M1 )

where f, g and h are expressions containing

P2 f2 (F ) g 2 (G ) h2 (M 2 )

P3 f3 (F ) g 3 (G ) h3 (M3 )

and materials indices M.

Pi fi (F ) g i (G ) hi (Mi )

3. If the first constraint is the most restrictive (known as the active constraint)

then the performance is given by P1, and this is maximized by seeking

materials with the best values of M1. If the second constraint is the active

one then the performance is given by P2 and this is maximized by seeking

materials with the best values of M2; and so on.

N.B. For a given Function the Active Constraint will be material dependent.

A LIGHT, STIFF, STRONG BEAM

Constraint 1: Stiffness

C1EI

L3

C I

Constraint 2: Strength Ff 2 f

y mL

t4

where I

12

12SB

so, m1

C1

where y m

6Ff

so,

2

C2

t

2

1/ 2

L5 / 2

2/3

L5 / 3

E 1/ 2

f2 / 3

If the beam is to meet both constraints then, for a given material, its weight is

determined by the larger of m1 or m2

or more generally, for i constraints

Choose a material

~

that minimizes m

Material

1020 Steel

6061 Al

Ti 6-4

~ max( m , m , m .....m )

m

1

2

3

i

E

(GPa)

205

70

115

m1

m2

(MPa)

(kgm-3)

(kg)

(kg)

~

m

(kg)

320

120

950

7850

2700

4400

8.7

5.1

6.5

16.2

10.7

4.4

16.2

10.7

6.5

Construct a materials selection map based on

Performance Indices instead of materials

properties.

f1(F1 )g1(G1 )

M 2 Cc M 2

f2 (F2 )g 2 (G2 )

M1

log Index M2

domains in each of which one constraint is active.

The Coupling Line separates the domains and

is calculated by coupling the Objective Functions:

M1 Limited

Domain

Materials with M2/M1>CC , e.g.

and constraint 1 is active.

A,

and constraint 2 is active.

are limited by M1

, are limited by M2

M2 Limited

Domain

Coupling Line

M2 = CCM1

log Index M1

A box shaped Search Region is identified with its

corner on the Coupling Line.

Within this Search Region the performance is

maximized whilst simultaneously satisfying both

C

constraints.

are good

materials.

M1 Limited

Domain

M1 Limited

Domain

Search

Area

A

log Index M2

Search

Area

A

log Index M2

G changes CC, which shifts the Coupling Line, alters

the Search Area, and alters the scope of materials

selection.

A and

C are selectable.

Now

B

Coupling Line

M2 = CCM1

M2 Limited

Domain

Coupling Line

M2 = CCM1

log Index M1

M2 Limited

Domain

log Index M1

B

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

N Turns

Current i

2r

Function

Magnet windings

Objective

Constraints

(b) Temperature rise <150C

(c) Radius r and length L of

coil specified

Classification

set by the coil material.

Field too high the coil fails mechanically

Pulse too long the coil overheats

Continuous

Long

Standard

Short

Ultra-short

Pulse

Duration

Field

Strength

1s-

100 ms-1 s

10 - 100 ms

10 - 1000 s

0.1 - 10 s

<30 T

30-60 T

40-70 T

70-80 T

>100 T

CONSTRAINT 1: Mechanical Failure

The field (weber/m2) is

where

oNif

f ( , )

L

f(,) = geometric constant, = 1+(d/r), = L/2r

B2

p

2 o f ( , )

pr

B 2r

d 2o f ( , )d

1/ 2

and hence

2 d f ( , )

Bfailure

by maximizing

M1 y

CONSTRAINT 1: Overheating

The energy of the pulse is i Ret pulse (Re = average of the resistance over the

heating cycle, tpulse = length of the pulse) causes the temperature of the coil to rise by

2

B 2et pulse

T 2 2

o d Cp

where

Cp = specific heat capacity of the coil material

is Tmax and the geometric constant of the coil

is included then the second limit on the field is

Bheat

t pulse e

1/ 2

f ( , )

by maximizing

Cp

M2

e

In this case the field is limited by the lowest of Bfailure and Bheat:

y

Material

(MPa)

(Mg/m3)

High conductivity Cu

Cu-15%Nb composite

HSLA steel

250

780

1600

8.94

8.90

7.85

~

B min( Bfailure , Bheat ) e.g.

Cp

Bfailure

Bheat

(J/kgK)

(10-8m)

(wb/m2)

(wb/m2)

~

B

(wb/m2)

385

368

450

1.7

2.4

25

35

62

89

113

92

30

35

62

30

Pulse length = 10 ms

Bfailure

Bheat

2 od y f ( , )

1/ 2

t pulse e

1/ 2

f ( , )

o rdf f ( , )Tmax

M 2 CC M2

M1

2t pulse

Search Region:

Ultra-short pulse

Search Region:

short pulse

HSLA steels

M1 y

M2

Cu-Be-Co-Ni

Cu-Nb

Be-Coppers

Cu-Al2O3

Search Region:

long pulse

Cu-Zr

Cu-4Sn

GP coppers

HC Coppers

Al-S150.1

Cp

e

Cu

Material

Comment

pulse

High purity coppers

Pure Silver

long pulse magnets (heat

limited)

Short pulse

Cu-Al2O3 composites

H-C Cu-Cd alloys

H-C Cu-Zr alloys

H-C Cu-Cr alloys

Drawn Cu-Nb comps

Ultra short pulse,

ultra high field

Cu-Be-Co-Ni alloys

HSLA steels

short pulse magnets (heat

and strength limited)

short pulse magnets

(strength limited)

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