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The Design Core

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DETAIL
DESIGN

Concept
Design

A vast subject. We will concentrate on:


Materials Selection

Detail
Design

Process Selection
Cost Breakdown
Manufacture

Sell

Materials Selection with Shape

FUNCTION

SHAPE

SHAPES FOR TENSION,


BENDING, TORSION,
BUCKLING
-------------------SHAPE FACTORS
-------------------PERFORMANCE INDICES
WITH SHAPE

MATERIAL

PROCESS

Common Modes of Loading

Moments of Sections: Elastic


Section
Shape

A
(m2)

I
(m4)

K
(m4)

r 2

4
r
4

4
r
2

ab

3 2
a
4

(ro2 ri 2 )
2rt

I = Second moment of area

sec tion

b4
12

0.14b

3
ab
4

a 3 b 3
(a 2 b 2 )

bh

A = Cross-sectional area

bh
12
4

a
32 3

4
( ro ri 4 )
4
r 3t

b3h
b
1 0.58
3
h
(h b )
a

3
80

4
(ro ri 4 )
2
2r 3t

y 2 dA

where

sec tion

y 2by dy

y is measured vertically
by is the section width at y

K = Resistance to twisting of section


( Polar moment J of a circular section)

K
where

TL
G

J 2r dr
3

sec tion

T is the torque
L is the length of the shaft
is the angle of twist
G is the shear modulus

Moments of Sections: Elastic


Section
Shape

A
(m2)

I
(m4)

K
(m4)

4bt

2 3
bt
3

t
b t 1
b

(a b )t

3
3b
a t 1

4
a

b(ho hi )
2bt

4 (ab )5 / 2 t
a2 b2

b 3
( ho hi3 )
12
btho2 / 2

2t ( h b )

1 3
3b
h t 1

6
h

2tb 2h 2

hb

2 3
4h
bt 1

3
b

2t ( h b )

t 3
( h 4bt 2 )
6

t3
(8b h )
3

2 3
4b
ht 1

3
h

2d 2

t 1
2
4

t d 2
8

Moments of Sections: Failure


Section
Shape

Z
(m3)

Q
(m3)

3
r
4

3
r
2

b3
6

0.21b3

2
ab
4

a 2 b
2
(a b )

bh
6

a3
32

b 2h 2
3h 1.8b
(h b)

a3
20

4
(ro ri 4 )
4ro

4
(ro ri 4 )
2ro

r 2t

2r 2t

Z = Section modulus

I
ym

where
ym is the normal distance from the neutral axis
to the outer surface of the beam carrying the
highest stress
Q = Factor in twisting similar to Z

Q
where

is the maximum surface shear stress

Moments of Sections: Failure


Section
Shape

Z
(m3)
4 2
bt
3

a 2t
3b
1

4
a

Q
(m3)
t
2b t 1
b

2t (a3b )1/ 2
(b a )

ho3 hi3
6ho
btho

h 2t
3b
1

3
h

2tbh

2 2
4h
bt 1

3
b

t
(h3 4bt 2 )
3h

t2
(8b h )
3

2 2
4b
ht 1

3
h

t d
4

Shape Factors: Elastic


BENDING

TORSION
SB

Bending stiffness of a beam

C1EI
L3

Torsional stiffness of a beam

ST

KG
L

where C1 is a constant depending on the


loading details, L is the length of the beam,
and E is the Youngs modulus of the material

where L is the length of the shaft, G is the


shear Modulus of the material.

Define structure factor as the ratio of the


stiffness of the shaped beam to that of a
solid circular section with the same crosssectional area thus:
S
I

Define structure factor as the ratio of the


torsional stiffness of the shaped shaft to that
of a solid circular section with the same
cross-sectional area thus:

Be

4 A2
Io r
4
4

SBo

Io

4I
so, 2
A
e
B

4 A2
Ko r
2
2

Te

ST
K

STo K o

so,

Te

2K
A2

Shape Factors: Failure/Strength


BENDING

TORSION

The highest stress, for a given bending moment


M, experienced by a beam is at the surface a
distance ym furthest from the neutral axis:

The highest shear stress, for a given torque T,


experienced by a shaft is given by:

My m M

I
Z

The beam fails when the bending moment is large


enough for to reach the failure stress of the
material:
M Z
f

Define structure factor as the ratio of the failure


moment of the shaped beam to that of a solid
circular section with the same cross-sectional area
thus:
Mf
Z
f

3 A3 / 2
Zo r
4
4

Mfo

Zo

4 Z
so,
A3 / 2
f
B

T
Q

The beam fails when the torque is large enough for


to reach the failure shear stress of the material:

Tf Q f

Define structure factor as the ratio of the failure


torque of the shaped shaft to that of a solid circular
section with the same cross-sectional area thus:

Tf
3 A3 / 2
Qo r
2
2

Tf
Q

Tfo Qo
so, T
f

2 Q
A3 / 2

Shape Factors: Failure/Strength


Please Note:
The shape factors for failure/strength described in this lecture course are
those defined in the 2nd Edition of Materials Selection In Mechanical
Design by M.F. Ashby. These shape factors differ from those defined in
the 1st Edition of the book. The new failure/strength shape factor
definitions are the square root of the old ones.
The shape factors for the elastic case are not altered in the 2nd Edition.

Comparison of Size and Shape

Rectangular sections

I-sections

SIZE

Shape Factors
Section
Shape

Stiffness

Failure/Strength

Bf

Tf

1.05
3

0.88

2
1.18
3

0.74

a
b

2ab
a b2

h
3b

2b
h
1 0.58
3h
b
(h b)

e
B

2
1.21
3 3
r
t

e
T

a
b

2
0.73
5 3
r
t

2
3

a
b

h

b

0.77
2r

1/ 2

1/ 2

(a b )

2 (b / h )1/ 2
3(1 0.6b / h )2
(h b )

0.62
2r

1/ 2

Shape Factors contd


Section
Shape

e
B

b
6t
a(1 3b / a )
t (1 b / a )2

Stiffness

b
t
1
8t
b

f
B

8(ab )5 / 2
t (a 2 b 2 )(a b )2

2 b

3 t
a

t

1/ 2

b 2h 2
t ( h b )3

t (1 4h / b )
3b(1 h / b )2

h(1 4bt 2 / h3 ) t (1 8b / h ) t (1 4b / h )
6t (1 b / h )2
6h(1 b / h )2 3h(1 b / h )2
d 2
2t

1/ 2

b

t

Tf
1/ 2

t
1
b

4a1/ 2
t 1/ 2 (1 a / b )3 / 2

(1 3b / a )
(1 b / a )3 / 2
2 h
( bt )1/ 2

h 2
2bt
h(1 3b / h )
6t (1 b / h )2

Failure/Strength

e
T

2
3

h

t

h

2 t

1/ 2

1/ 2

(1 3b / h )
2 h
3/2
1/ 2
(1 b / h ) (bt ) (1 h / b )3 / 2

(1 4bt 2 / h3 )

(1 b / h )3 / 2

d
(t )1/ 2

18h

1/ 2

(1 8b / h )
(1 b / h )3 / 2

t

b

1/ 2

(1 4h / b )
(1 b / h )3 / 2

2 t

3 h

1/ 2

(1 4b / h )
(1 b / h )3 / 2

2
3

Efficiency of Standard Sections


ELASTIC BENDING
e
Shape Factor: B

4I
A2

Rearrange for I and take logs:

Be
log I 2 log A log
4
Plot logI against logA
Be : parallel lines of slope 2

Efficiency of Standard Sections


BENDING STRENGTH
Shape Factor: Bf

4 Z
A3 / 2

Rearrange for I and take logs:


3
Bf
log Z log A log
2
4
Plot logI against logA
Bf : parallel lines of slope 3/2

Efficiency of Standard Sections


TORSIONAL STRENGTH

ELASTIC TORSION
2K
2 ;
A
e
T

Te
log K 2 log A log
2

2 Q
3/2 ;
A
f
T

3
Tf
logQ log A log
2
2

N.B. Open sections are good in bending, but poor in torsion

Performance Indices with Shape


ELASTIC BENDING

ELASTIC TORSION

Bending stiffness of a beam:

4I
Shape factor: 2
A
e
B

4SB

m
C1

1/ 2

SB

C1EI
L3

C1EBe A2
so, SB
4L3

2
5/2

L
e
E B

Torsional stiffness of a shaft:

2K
Shape factor:
A2
e
T

ST

KG
L

GTe A2
so, ST
2L

1/ 2

2
1/ 2
3/2

m 2ST L
e
GT

f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)

1/ 2

f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)

So, to minimize
(EBe )1/ 2
mass m, maximise M1

3
E So, to minimize
(ETe )1/ 2
8
mass m, maximise M 2

Performance Indices with Shape


FAILURE IN BENDING

FAILURE IN TORSION

Failure when moment reaches: Mf Z f

Failure when torque reaches: Tf Q f

4 Z
f Bf A3 / 2
Shape factor:
so, Mf
A3 / 2
4

2 Q
f Tf A3 / 2
Shape factor:
so, Tf
A3 / 2
4
( f f 2)

f
B

3/2
2/3

m ( 4 Mf ) L
f
f B

2/3

f
T

m 4 Tf

2/3

3/2

L
f
f T

2/3

f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)

f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)


So, to minimize
( f Bf )2 / 3
mass m, maximise M3

So, to minimize
( f Tf )2 / 3
mass m, maximise M 4

Shape in Materials Selection Maps


EXAMPLE 1, Elastic bending
Performance index for elastic
bending including shape,

(BeE )1/ 2
M1

Ceramics

Search
Region
Composites

can be written as

M1

(E )

=10

A material with Youngs modulus,


E and density, , with a particular
section acts as a material with an
effective Youngs modulus

E E

and density

=1

Woods

e 1/ 2
B
e
B

e
B

Be

Engineering
Polymers

Polymer
Foams

Engineering
Alloys

Elastomers

Shape in Materials Selection Maps


EXAMPLE 1, Failure in bending
Performance index for failure in
bending including shape,

(Bf f )2 / 3
M3

can be written as

M3

( f ( ) )
( )

f 2 2/3
B
f 2
B

A material with strength, f and


density, , with a particular
section acts as a material with an
effective strength

f f (Bf )2
and density

(Bf )2

Ceramics
Composites
Search
Region
Engineering
Alloys
Woods

=1
Engineering
Polymers
=10 Elastomers

Polymer
Foams

Micro-Shape Factors
Material

Up to now we have only


considered the role of
macroscopic shape on the
performance of fully dense
materials.
However, materials can have
internal shape, Micro-Shape
which also affects their
performance,
e.g. cellular solids, foams,
honeycombs.

Macro-Shape from
Micro-Shaped Material,

Micro-Shape

Micro-Shaped Material,

Macro-Shape,

Micro-Shaped Material,

Micro-Shape Factors
Consider a solid cylindrical beam expanded, at constant
mass, to a circular beam with internal shape (see right).
Stiffness of the solid beam: SBo

C1EoIo
L3

On expanding the beam, its density falls from o to ,


and its radius increases from ro to
1/ 2


r o

ro

Fibres embedded
in a foam matrix

Prismatic cells

2
2
The second moment
4 o 4 o
of area increases to I r
ro
Io

If the cells, fibres or rings are



Eo
parallel to the axis of the beam then E
o
The stiffness of the
C EI C EI
expanded beam is thus SB 1 3 1 3 o o

Concentric cylindrical
shells with foam between

Shape Factor: B
e

S o

So

Mats. Selection: Multiple Constraints


Function
Tie

Beam

Objective
Constraint
Minimum cost
Stiffness
Minimum weight

Shaft

Column

Mechanical
Thermal
Electrical..

Strength

Index
E 1/ 2
M1

Maximum stored
energy
Minimum
environmental
impact

Fatigue

Index

Geometry

f2 / 3
M2

Materials for Safe Pressure Vessels


DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Yield before break


CK IC
,
aC

K
aC C 2 IC
f

M1

K IC
f

Function

Pressure vessel =contain


pressure p

Objective

Maximum safety

Constraints

(a) Must yield before break


(b) Must leak before break
(c) Wall thickness small to
reduce mass and cost

Leak before break

Minimum strength

pR
pR
, t
2t
2 f

M3 f

t
CK IC

2
t / 2
C 2pR K IC2

K IC2
M2
4
f
f

aC

Materials for Safe Pressure Vessels


Search
Region

K
M1 IC
f

M1 = 0.6 m1/2

M3 = 100 MPa

K IC2
M2
f

M3 f

Material

M1
(m1/2)

M3
(MPa)

Comment

Tough steels
Tough Cu alloys
Tough Al alloys

>0.6
>0.6
>0.6

300
120
80

Standard.
OFHC Cu.
1xxx & 3xxx

Ti-alloys
High strength Al
alloys
GFRP/CFRP

0.2
0.1
0.1

700
500
500

High strength,
but low safety
margin. Good
for light
vessels.

Multiple Constraints: Formalised


1. Express the objective as an equation.
2. Eliminate the free variables using each constraint in turn, giving a set of
performance equations (objective functions) of the form:
P1 f1(F ) g1(G ) h1(M1 )
where f, g and h are expressions containing
P2 f2 (F ) g 2 (G ) h2 (M 2 )
P3 f3 (F ) g 3 (G ) h3 (M3 )

the functional requirements F, geometry M


and materials indices M.

Pi fi (F ) g i (G ) hi (Mi )
3. If the first constraint is the most restrictive (known as the active constraint)
then the performance is given by P1, and this is maximized by seeking
materials with the best values of M1. If the second constraint is the active
one then the performance is given by P2 and this is maximized by seeking
materials with the best values of M2; and so on.
N.B. For a given Function the Active Constraint will be material dependent.

Multiple Constraints: A Simple Analysis


A LIGHT, STIFF, STRONG BEAM
Constraint 1: Stiffness

C1EI
L3

C I
Constraint 2: Strength Ff 2 f
y mL

The object function is m AL


t4
where I
12

12SB

so, m1
C1

where y m

6Ff

so,
2
C2

t
2

1/ 2

L5 / 2

2/3

L5 / 3

E 1/ 2

f2 / 3

If the beam is to meet both constraints then, for a given material, its weight is
determined by the larger of m1 or m2
or more generally, for i constraints
Choose a material
~
that minimizes m

Material
1020 Steel
6061 Al
Ti 6-4

~ max( m , m , m .....m )
m
1
2
3
i
E
(GPa)
205
70
115

m1

m2

(MPa)

(kgm-3)

(kg)

(kg)

~
m
(kg)

320
120
950

7850
2700
4400

8.7
5.1
6.5

16.2
10.7
4.4

16.2
10.7
6.5

Multiple Constraints: Graphical


Construct a materials selection map based on
Performance Indices instead of materials
properties.

f1(F1 )g1(G1 )
M 2 Cc M 2

f2 (F2 )g 2 (G2 )

M1

log Index M2

The selection map can be divided into two


domains in each of which one constraint is active.
The Coupling Line separates the domains and
is calculated by coupling the Objective Functions:

M1 Limited
Domain

where CC is the Coupling Constant.


Materials with M2/M1>CC , e.g.
and constraint 1 is active.

A,

Materials with M2/M1<CC , e.g.


and constraint 2 is active.

are limited by M1

, are limited by M2

M2 Limited
Domain

Coupling Line
M2 = CCM1

log Index M1

Multiple Constraints: Graphical


A box shaped Search Region is identified with its
corner on the Coupling Line.
Within this Search Region the performance is
maximized whilst simultaneously satisfying both
C
constraints.
are good
materials.
M1 Limited
Domain

M1 Limited
Domain

Search
Area
A

log Index M2

Search
Area
A

log Index M2

Changing the functional requirements F or geometry


G changes CC, which shifts the Coupling Line, alters
the Search Area, and alters the scope of materials
selection.
A and
C are selectable.
Now

B
Coupling Line
M2 = CCM1

M2 Limited
Domain

Coupling Line
M2 = CCM1

log Index M1

M2 Limited
Domain

log Index M1

Windings for High Field Magnets


B

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

N Turns
Current i

2r

Function

Magnet windings

Objective

Maximize magnetic field

Constraints

(a) No mechanical failure


(b) Temperature rise <150C
(c) Radius r and length L of
coil specified

Classification

Upper limits on field and pulse duration are


set by the coil material.
Field too high the coil fails mechanically
Pulse too long the coil overheats

Continuous
Long
Standard
Short
Ultra-short

Pulse
Duration

Field
Strength

1s-
100 ms-1 s
10 - 100 ms
10 - 1000 s
0.1 - 10 s

<30 T
30-60 T
40-70 T
70-80 T
>100 T

Windings for High Field Magnets


CONSTRAINT 1: Mechanical Failure
The field (weber/m2) is
where

oNif
f ( , )
L

o = the permeability of air, N = number of turns, i = current, f = filling factor,


f(,) = geometric constant, = 1+(d/r), = L/2r

Radial pressure created by the field

B2
p
2 o f ( , )

pr
B 2r

d 2o f ( , )d

generates a stress in the coil

must be less than the yield stress of the coil material y


1/ 2
and hence
2 d f ( , )

Bfailure

So, Bfailure is maximized


by maximizing
M1 y

Windings for High Field Magnets


CONSTRAINT 1: Overheating
The energy of the pulse is i Ret pulse (Re = average of the resistance over the
heating cycle, tpulse = length of the pulse) causes the temperature of the coil to rise by
2

B 2et pulse
T 2 2
o d Cp

where

e = electrical resistivity of the coil material


Cp = specific heat capacity of the coil material

If the upper limit for the change in temperature


is Tmax and the geometric constant of the coil
is included then the second limit on the field is

Bheat

o2d 2Cp Tmax

t pulse e

1/ 2

f ( , )

So, Bheat is maximized


by maximizing
Cp
M2
e

Windings for High Field Magnets


In this case the field is limited by the lowest of Bfailure and Bheat:
y
Material

(MPa)

(Mg/m3)

High conductivity Cu
Cu-15%Nb composite
HSLA steel

250
780
1600

8.94
8.90
7.85

~
B min( Bfailure , Bheat ) e.g.

Cp

Bfailure

Bheat

(J/kgK)

(10-8m)

(wb/m2)

(wb/m2)

~
B
(wb/m2)

385
368
450

1.7
2.4
25

35
62
89

113
92
30

35
62
30

Pulse length = 10 ms

Bfailure

Bheat

2 od y f ( , )

1/ 2

o2d 2Cp Tmax

t pulse e

1/ 2

f ( , )

o rdf f ( , )Tmax
M 2 CC M2
M1

2t pulse

Thus defining the Coupling Line

Windings for High Field Magnets


Search Region:
Ultra-short pulse

Search Region:
short pulse

HSLA steels

M1 y

M2

Cu-Be-Co-Ni
Cu-Nb
Be-Coppers

Cu-Al2O3

Search Region:
long pulse
Cu-Zr

Cu-4Sn

GP coppers

HC Coppers
Al-S150.1

Cp
e

Cu

Material

Comment

Continuous and long


pulse
High purity coppers
Pure Silver

Best choice for low field,


long pulse magnets (heat
limited)

Short pulse
Cu-Al2O3 composites
H-C Cu-Cd alloys
H-C Cu-Zr alloys
H-C Cu-Cr alloys
Drawn Cu-Nb comps
Ultra short pulse,
ultra high field
Cu-Be-Co-Ni alloys
HSLA steels

Best choice for high field,


short pulse magnets (heat
and strength limited)

Best choice for high field,


short pulse magnets
(strength limited)