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SUBSTATION OVERVIEW

-B. Prasad Chartered Engineer

amieclub@gmail.com

TYPE OF SUBSTATION

Classification based on voltage levels, e.g. :

A.C. Substation : EHV, HV, MV, LV; HVDC Substation.

Classification based on Outdoor or Indoor :

Outdoor substation is under open sky. Indoor substation is inside a building.

Classification based on configuration, e.g. :

Conventional air insulated outdoor substation or SF6 Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) Composite substations having combination of the above two

Classification based on application

Step Up Substation : Associated with generating station as the generating voltage is low.

Primary Grid Substation : Created at suitable load centre along Primary transmission lines.

Secondary Substation : Along Secondary Transmission Line.

Distribution Substation : Created where the transmission line voltage is Step Down to supply voltage.

Bulk supply and industrial substation : Similar to distribution sub-station but created separately for each consumer.

Mining Substation precaution for safety needed in the operation of electric supply.

Mobile Substation: Temporary requirement

PROMARY/SECONDARY/DISTRIBUTION

SUBSTATION

Primary Substations receive power from EHV lines at 400KV, 220KV, 132KV and transform the voltage to 66KV, 33KV or 22KV (22KV is uncommon) to suit the local requirements in respect of both load and distance of ultimate consumers. These are also referred to ‘EHV’ Substations.

Secondary Substations receive power at 66/33KV which is stepped down usually to 11KV.

Distribution Substations receive power at 11KV, 6.6 KV and step down to a volt suitable for LV distribution purposes, normally at 415 volts

SUBSTATION PARTS AND EQUIPMENTS

Outdoor Switchyard

Incoming Lines Outgoing Lines Bus bar Transformers Bus post insulator & string insulators Substation Equipment such as Circuit- beakers, Isolators, Earthing Switches, Surge Arresters, CTs, VTs, Neutral Grounding equipment.

SUBSTATION PARTS ….CONTD…

Station Earthing system comprising ground mat, risers, auxiliary mat, earthing strips, earthing spikes & earth electrodes.

Overhead earth wire shielding against lightening strokes.

Galvanised steel structures for towers, gantries, equipment supports.

PLCC equipment including line trap, tuning unit, coupling capacitor, etc.

Power cables Control cables for protection and control Roads, Railway track, cable trenches Station illumination system

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

Transformer part

Batteries for industrial or substation applications

Vented / Flooded Lead Acid batteries

Sealed maintenance free batteries/Valve Regulated Lead Acid

Nickel Cadmium (Ni-cd) batteries

Batteries for industrial or substation applications  Vented / Flooded Lead Acid batteries  Sealed maintenance

Battery AH

LOAD CURRENT 10A for 3 hrs.

Cell voltage =12V DC CALCULATION ,

AH=10X3

CAPACITY =30/

(0.75X0.8)=50AH

Discharge factor=0.7 Ageing factor =0.8 Drain capacity =C10

CHARGER

Type of charger Input voltage output voltage Application Protection Metering Indication Alarms Auto operation

CHARGER  Type of charger  Input voltage  output voltage  Application  Protection 

Clearance around an Indoor electrical panel (NES 110.26)

Description of Clearance

Left to Right the minimum clearance

Distance between Panel and wall

Distance between Panel and Ceiling

Clear Height in front of Panel >480V

Clear Height in front of Panel <480V

Clearance When Facing Other Electrical Panels <480V

The width of the working space in front of the Panel

Distance (min)

0.9

Meter (3 Ft)

1.0 Meter

0.9

Meter

2.0

Meter

0.9

Meter (3 Ft)

0.9

Meter (3 Ft)

The width of Panel or 0.762 Meter which is Greater.

Headroom of working spaces for panel boards (Up to 200Amp)

Up to 2 Meter

Clearance between Bare Metal Busbar in Panel (NES 408.5)

Voltage

Opposite Polarity Mounted on Same Surface

Opposite Polarity Where Held Free in Air

Live Parts to Ground

Up to 125 V

19.1 mm

  • 12.7 mm

  • 12.7 mm

125 V to 250 V

  • 31.8 mm

  • 19.1 mm

  • 12.7 mm

250 V to 600 V

  • 50.8 mm

25.4 mm

25.4 mm

Clearance of Outdoor electrical panel to Fence/Wall (NES 110.31)

Voltage

Distance (min)

600 V to 13.8 KV

  • 3.05 Meter

13.8 KV to 230 KV

  • 4.57 Meter

Above 230 KV

  • 5.49 Meter

GROUND CLEARANCE

VOLTAGE LEVEL

MINIMUM GROUND CLEARANCE

less than 66kV

6.1m

66kV - 110kV

6.4m

110kV - 165kV

6.7m

greater than 165kV

7.0m

Earth resistance value

Major power station= 0.5 Ohm. Major Sub-stations= 1.0 Ohm Minor Sub-station = 2 Ohm Neutral Bushing. =2 Ohm Service connection = 4 Ohm Medium Voltage Network =2 Ohm L.T.Lightening Arrestor= 4 Ohm L.T.Pole= 5 Ohm H.T.Pole =10 Ohm Tower =20-30 Ohm

Measurement of Earth Resistance (Three point method)

Size of earth wire for motor

Sr.

Capacity

Size of earth wire

Size Of Earth Electrode

   

Cu

GI

Cu

GI

1

01- 10 HP

8

SWG

8

SWG

60cmX60cmX3.18

60cmX60c

   

mm

mX6.35mm

2

  • 10 – 15 HP

8

SWG

6

SWG

60cmX60cmX3.18

60cmX60c

   

mm

mX6.35mm

3

  • 15 – 30 HP

6

SWG

4SWG

60cmX60cmX3.18

90cmX90c

 

mm

mX6.35mm

4

30 – 50 HP

4SWG

25mmX3 mm

90cmX90cmX6.35

90cmX90c

mm

mX6.35mm

IR Value of Submersible Motor

IR Value of Submersible Motor

Motor Out off Well (Without Cable)

IR Value

New Motor

20 MΩ

A used motor which can be reinstalled

10 MΩ

Motor Installed in Well (With Cable)

 

New Motor

2 MΩ

A used motor which can be reinstalled

0.5 MΩ

IR Value of Transformers:

Voltage

Test Voltage

Test Voltage

Min IR

(DC) LV side

(DC) HV side

Value

415V

500V

2.5KV

100MΩ

Up to 6.6KV

500V

2.5KV

200MΩ

6.6KV to 11KV

500V

2.5KV

400MΩ

11KV to 33KV

1000V

5KV

500MΩ

33KV to 66KV

1000V

5KV

600MΩ

66KV to 132KV

1000V

5KV

600MΩ

132KV to 220KV

1000V

5KV

650MΩ

Standard voltage

Type

Voltage

EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE

Up to 50V AC/DC

LOW VOLTAGE

50-1000V AC/DC

MEDIUM VOLTAGE

ABOVE 1000V AC/DC UPTO 6.6KV AC

HIGH VOLTAGE

ABOVE 6.6KV AC TO 33 KV AC

EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE

ABOVE 33KV AC

TO 400 KV AC

ULTRA HIGH VOLTAGE

ABOVE 400 KV AC AC

TO 765 KV

Cable end termination

Breaker ACB/VCB/SF6/OCB

Breaker ACB/VCB/SF6/OCB

EARTHING

The following steps, when put into practice, will ensure a reliable, safe and trouble-free substation grounding system:

Size conductors for anticipated faults Use the right connections Ground rod selection Soil preparation Grounding using building foundations Grounding the substation fence Special attention to operating points Surge arrestors must be grounded properly Grounding of cable trays Temporary grounding of normally energized parts

Earthing

.....

contd

Cabling

Depth of the trench 750

  • mm for cables up to

1.1KV

Depth of the trench 1200

  • mm for cables up to

1.1KV

Sand - covered with 150

mm

Width of the trench - 350

mm

minimum

Loop –approximate -3 meter each side

Cabling  Depth of the trench 750 mm for cables up to 1.1KV  Depth of

Cable laying

Laying direct in ground In pipes, Closed or Open ducts, Cable trays and On surface of wall

BUILDING

Administrative building Conference room etc. Battery Room Operator room Check and change room Adjacent maintenance room ECC room

Switchgear and Control Panel Building

Low voltage AC. Switchgear High voltage AC. Switchgear Control Panels, Protection Panels Capacitor panel room

Mechanical, Electrical and Other Auxiliaries

Fire fighting system D.G. Set Oil purification system

ACT FAST AND INITIATE FIRST

बड़ड़ ससचस ततजज सत ससचस व सबसत पहलत ससचस ववचड़रस पर वकसज कड़ एकड़वधकड़र नहजह हसतड़. ----धजरभड़ई अमबड़नज

ACT FAST AND INITIATE FIRST  बड़ड़ ससचस  ततजज सत ससचस व  सबसत पहलत

THANK YOU