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Rapidly Varied Flow The

Hydraulic Jump

Use of hydraulic jumps


Specific force revisited
Sequent or conjugate depths
Types of jump

Uses of Hydraulic Jumps

Hydraulic Jumps can and do occur


naturally for example, in and after
rapids in rivers
They are also deliberately created:
To dissipate energy after a spillway etc and so
prevent scouring
To recover head downstream of an obstruction
To induce mixing and aeration

Specific Force Revisited

Over a short reach of channel, external


friction forces can be ignored and if the
slope is mild the downstream self-weight
body forces can also be ignored.

Thus.

and

Qv1 P1 Qv2 P2
Q
v
A

P gA y
giving
2

Q
Q
A1 y1
A2 y2 F
gA1
gA2

Sequent or Conjugate Depths

These terms refer to the depths at


sections 1 and 2, before and after a
hydraulic jump

Evaluation of Conjugate
Depths

In general form:
2

Q
F
Ay
gA

and F1 = F2, referring to diagram on


previous slide.

For a wide or rectangular channel,


A=By and y y / 2
Hence, dividing by B:
2

2
1

2
2

q
y
q
y

gy1 2 gy2 2

2q
g

1 1

y22 y12
y1 y2

Which leads to:

y2 1
2

1 8 Fr1 1
y1 2

y1 1
2

1 8 Fr2 1
y2 2

These equations can be used to


determine the depths upstream or
downstream of a hydraulic jump.

The Froude Number Fr is used to


characterize a jump.

Undular Jump

Fr1 = 1.0 to 1.7


y1 near ycr
y2/y1 low
Little energy dissipation
As Fr1 increases towards 1.7 the first
undulation becomes more pronounced
and will eventually break.

Weak Jump

Fr1 = 1.7 to 2.5


Little energy dissipation
Surface fairly smooth
Breaking of first undulation gives small
rollers on the face of the jump.

Oscillating Jump

Fr1 = 2.5 to 4.5


High velocity entering jump.
This oscillates from bed to surface and
back, producing waves of irregular period
downstream
Avoid in design.

Steady Jump

Fr1 = 4.5 to 9.0


Jet oscillation disappears
Surface roller increases in length till it
ends where the jet reaches the surface
45-70% energy dissipation
Aim for in design

Choppy Jump

Fr1 = >9.0
Surface roller highly aerated
Jet penetrates for a long distance
downstream, requiring a long deep stilling
basin.

Important

You have to use Specific Force for


hydraulic jumps because the friction loss
in the fluid due to the eddying is significant
Specific Energy does not work because it
neglects friction
Specific Force wont work on weirs etc
because it does not consider the force on
the weir itself.
Get this right!!!!!

Example

Flow enters a channel through an


undershot sluice gate. q=2.5m 3/s/m,
n=0.025 and S0=0.001039. The depth
upstream of the gate is 5.5m. Determine
where the hydraulic jump forms. Assume
no energy losses, and that the channel is
wide compared to its depth.

Locating a Hydraulic Jump

The location of the hydraulic jump is controlled


by the downstream depth (typically normal
depth).
If y2 < yconj, the flow profile downstream of the
gate will expand in an M3 or H3 profile until the
conjugate depth to y3 is reached.
The jump will then occur.

But, if y2 = yconj, the jump forms at the vena


contracta
Whilst if y2 > yconj, the jump moves
upstream and may break against the gate.

Downstream Depth
Controlled

Downstream depth may be greater than


normal depth due to a further restriction (a
weir, sluice gate, overfall etc)
If downstream depth > y3, then jump moves
upstream (F3 > F2)
If downstream depth < y3 then jump moves
downstream (F2 > F3)
In either case, jump forms when yconj related
to the actual downstream depth is reached.

Stilling Basins

It is often necessary to control the location of a


hydraulic jump.
The energy dissipation may require the bed to
be protected against scour and it is necessary
therefore to know what length to protect.
A step in the bed is used to control the position
of the jump, ensuring that y3 is artificially raised
to the required level to force the jump.

Typical Stilling Basin Design

Expansions and
Contractions

Vertical Contraction

Considering a vertical contraction, the


momentum change between sections 2
and 3 may be written as:

Q v3 v2 P2 ( P3 P3a )

P3a can be obtained from hydrostatics.

Then, for a wide channel:

yo Z
q
y
q

gy2 2 gyo
2
2

2
2

This is a step-up; use it to move or fix


jump upstream

Vertical Expansion

q
y2 Z

gy2
2
2

q 2 y02

gyo 2

Similarly:

Step-down; use to move jump downstream

Horizontal Expansions and


Contractions

Similar principles apply.

Example 1

Considering the previous example on a


hydraulic jump, determine the size of the
step required to bring the start of the
hydraulic jump to the vena contracta after
the sluice gate.

Example 2

Re-evaluate the previous problem with the


slope S0 = 0.000129. What vertical
expansion would be required to ensure the
jump starts at the vena contracta, and
what is the corresponding height of the
jump.

Control Structures

Critical Depth Meters


Sluice Gates to control discharge
Stilling Basins
Baffle Blocks in Stilling Basins

Critical Depth Meters

Any structure at which critical flow occurs


gives a fixed relationship between depth
(stage) and discharge.

cf Lab experiment three types of weir.

Broadcrested weir:
3
2
Q Cd b 2 g h1 2
3

This type of weir is cheaper to construct


and more resilient than sharp-crested or
V-notch, but V-notch is more sensitive
at low flows.
Can connect to chart recorder or
satellite etc.

Approach Velocity

Previous equation is derived from Bernoulli assuming


the approach (ie upstream velocity) is zero. If it isnt:

2
u

Q C D b 2 g h1
3
2g

2
1


2g
2
1

Various values and formulae for CD, which can vary


particularly at low flows when viscosity and surface
tension come more into play

Submergence

Modular flow is flow when downstream level is too


low to affect flow over weir you design for this.
Modular limit occurs when downstream level rises
above this limit and flow over weir is affected
Can use Villemonte formula if downstream depth
y3 can be estimated.

h3
QS

1
Q
h1

0.385

Sluice Gates

Given upstream water level


Determine required gate opening to
pass a particular discharge

Energy principle applies:

y1

2
v1

2g

y2

2
v2

2g

Q
Q
y1
y2
2 2
2 gB y1
2 gB 2 y22

Q2
Q2
y1
y2
2 2
2 gB y1
2 gB 2 y22
Q By1 y2

2g
y1 y2

y2 can be expressed in terms of the


gate opening yg: y2 = Ccyg where Cc is a
coefficient of contraction, typically 0.61.

Also, the coefficient of discharge Cd can


be defined as:
C d Cc

y1

y1 y 2

Cc
1 Cc

yg
y1

Hence:

Q BCd y g 2gy1

Example

A vertical, underflow sluice gate 3m wide


is opened to 0.25m above the bed of a 3m
wide rectangular channel. The depth
upstream of the gate is 2.5m, and the
channel bed slope is 0.002 with Mannings
n of 0.028. Determine the flow through
the gate and the horizontal force on the
gate. Take Cc = 0.61.

Stilling Basin Design

There is a lot of empirical work


A good source of design guidelines is the US
Bureau of Land Reclamation (USBR)
Typically the length of a hydraulic jump will
approximate to 6(y2-y1), where y2 and y1 are the
downstream and upstream conjugate depths.
Baffle blocks are often used to increase energy
dissipation.

Example

If, for the arrangement sketched, y 1 =


0.15m and y2 = 4.0m, and the discharge
per unit width q = 4 m3/s/m, determine the
force on the baffle blocks.

(note: force on baffle blocks affects d/s


specific force and so the height of the
jump)

References

Chadwick and Morfett pages 142-149


Also pages 405-408; 427-430 and 430435.
Chapter 13 on Hydraulic Structures is all
worth a read.

Culverts

Definition
Design of culverts
Analysis of existing culverts

Definition of Culverts

Covered channel or pipe carrying a


watercourse under an obstruction such as
a road.
May extend for many kilometres in cities.
Typically made from precast sections.

Definition Sketch

Design Principles

adequate size to pass debris thus avoiding need


for a trash screen
self-cleansing (debris and silt removal)
avoid slope or cross-section changes which might
reduce capacity, catch debris or lead to silting up
visual appearance
ease of construction
low maintenance
risk to children, drunken students etc.

Design and Analysis

Flow that a culvert must pass depends on


upstream catchment.
Determine tailwater depth for this flow
based on d/s channel.
Headwater depth depends on allowable
depth eg to avoid overtopping.
Various types of flow can exist as follows.

The six possible types of flow as shown.


Free flow and surcharged conditions.
Type varies with flow so multiple
analysis required.
Aim for Type III in design
Surcharging increases head loss and
can lead to upstream flooding.

Example

An existing box culvert is 1.5m wide, 1.2m high and


35m long, and has a slope of 0.005. There is a
trash screen at the inlet with 12 20mm diameter
bars in a 1.9m wide rectangular channel. The
downstream channel is rectangular, 3.5m wide and
1.0m deep with a bed slope of 0.0007 and
n=0.025. The maximum allowable headwater depth
is 2.1m.

Determine the capacity of the culvert.

Reference

None for this part.