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The team and their topics along Roll

N um bers.

Takasur
Azeem

M.Imran

Hamza
Yaqoob

R.A.I.D

NAS

Cloud
Storage

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R.A.I.D
By : Takasur Azeem
Roll No : BITF13A002

What is R.A.I.D?
In 1987, Patterson, Gibson and Katz at the University
of California Berkeley, published a paper entitled "A
Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
(R.A.I.D)
Hardware R.A.I.D
Software R.A.I.D

Arrays of Inexpensive Disks


A lot of PC disk development
Used today in what is called R.A.I.D level 0
(explanation to come)

S.L.E.D.
S.L.E.D. Single Large Expensive
Disks
Capacity: good
Performance: not-keeping-up with
CPU
Solution?

Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive


Disks
Adding redundancy for error correction
Different Levels of R.A.I.D. features vs. performance:
i.

R.A.I.D 0 Blocks Striping

ii. R.A.I.D 1 Mirroring


iii. R.A.I.D 2 Hamming Code
iv. R.A.I.D 3 Single Check Disk per Group
v. R.A.I.D 4 Independent Reads/Writes
vi. R.A.I.D 5 No Single Check Disk
vii. R.A.I.D 6 Extends R.A.I.D5 by adding an

R.A.I.D 0 Blocks Striping


Not technically a R.A.I.D level
Very good performance, but at a price
No mirror no parity.
Recommended Applications :
i.

Video Production and Editing

ii. Image Editing


iii. Any application requiring high bandwidth

R.A.I.D 1 - Mirroring
Data are written identically to two (or more) drives
Recommended Applications
i.

Accounting

ii. Payroll
iii. Financial
iv. Any application requiring very high availability

R.A.I.D 2 Hamming Code


Uses bit-level striping and
hamming code ECC in an
effort to reduce errors
Example
Massive disk requirements
and poor performance on
small data kept this
R.A.I.D level more
theoretical then practical

R.A.I.D 3 Byte Level Stripping


This uses byte level striping. i.e. Instead of striping
the blocks across the disks, it stripes the bytes
across the disks.
Example
In the diagram B1, B2, B3 are bytes. p1, p2, p3 are
parities.

R.A.I.D 4 Independent Reads


Just like R.A.I.D 3 but stripes on the file (blocks)
level
Fast reads: theoretically 1 per disk concurrently
Slow writes: have to read corresponding sectors
on each disk to calculate new parity

R.A.I.D 5 Blocks Stripped, Distributed


Parity

Check disk information is distributed across all data


disks no more check disk bottleneck

Some Key Points :

i.

Minimum 3 disks.

ii.

Good performance ( as blocks are striped ).

iii. Good redundancy ( distributed parity ).

Recommended Applications

i.

Database servers

i.

WWW, E-mail, and News servers

R.A.I.D 6 Blocks Stripped Two Distributed Parities.


Just like RAID 5, this does block level striping. However, it uses dual
parity.
In the above diagram A, B, C are blocks. p1, p2, p3 are parities.
This creates two parity blocks for each data block.
Can handle two disk failure
This RAID configuration is complex to implement in a RAID controller,
as it has to calculate two parity data for each data block.

R.A.I.D 10 Blocks Mirrored, Blocks


Stripped
Minimum 4 disks.
This is also called as stripe of
mirrors
Excellent redundancy ( as blocks are
mirrored )
Excellent performance ( as blocks
are striped )
If you can afford the dollar, this is
the BEST option for any mission
critical applications (especially
databases).

Conclusions
R.A.I.D offers a cost effective alternative to SLED
through the use of data striping, mirroring, and
parity
Different R.A.I.D levels can be chosen to suit
different functions for the computer.

MUHAMMAD IMRAN
BS(IT) afternoon
BITF13A014

AGENDA
NAS(Network attached storage)

What is NAS?
NAS is a file level storage that is connected to a network to
provide a file data access to heterogeneous (systems that
use more than one kind of processor) group of clients.

BENEFITS OF (NAS)
Improved efficiency
Improved flexibility
Centralized storage
Security
scalability

NAS protocols
Andrew File System(AFS)
R sync
Universal plug and play
Network File System(NFS)

TYPES O F N AS
Consumer level NAS
Small medium business NAS
Enterprise NAS storage
Clustered NAS

THE
END
THANKS FOR WATCHING