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Recruitment and Selection

RECRUITMENT

Recruitment
The process of attracting
individuals on a timely basis, in
sufficient numbers, and with
appropriate qualifications, and
encouraging them to apply for jobs
with an organization

According to Yoder Recruitment is a


process to discover the sources of
manpower to meet the requirements
of the staffing schedule and to
employ effective measures for
attracting that manpower in
adequate numbers to facilitate
effective selection of an efficient
working force.

Byars and Rue, Recruitment involves


seeking and attracting a pool of people
from which qualified candidates for job
vacancies can be chosen.

Organizations like Infosys, Citi Bank,


Johnson & Johnson and Procter &Gamble
etc uses employee stock option plan as a
strategy to attract and retain people in
their organization.

To have good recruitment it is


important that there should be
three thingsi) attractive compensation
ii) better career opportunities and
iii) good organizational image or
reputation

Alternatives to
Recruitment

Outsourcing
Contingent Workers
Professional Employer
Organizations--Employee Leasing
Overtime

There are three types of


recruitment needs

Planned: It arises due to the changes in the


organization and its policy.

Anticipated : It is a need which can be


predicted by looking at the changes in the internal
and external environment

Unexpected: It is a need which arises due to


sudden deaths, resignations accidents or illness.

purpose and importance

To attract and encourage candidates


To help organization in selecting best suited candidates
by creating a pool of applicants.
To Determine the present and future requirement with
the help of human resource planning and job analysis.
acts as a bridge between employer and job seeker.
helps in meeting the legal and social obligations related
to work force composition.
helps in identifying the potential employees of the
organization.
It makes effective use of various sources and
techniques for all types of jobs.

Recruitment practices

In centralized recruitment central office


performs all the process of recruitment.
Commercial banks generally follow the c
In case of decentralized recruitment all the
functions related to recruitment is performed
at zone or unit level. For example
recruitment of lower level employees in
railways. entralized recruitment practices.

Internal Environment of
Recruitment

INTERNAL FACTORS
Companys pay package
Quality of worklife
Organizational culture
Career planning and growth

Internal Environment of
Recruitment

Size of the company


Geographical spread of the
operation
Companys growth rate
Role of trade union
Cost of recruitment
Companys image

Internal Environment of
Recruitment
Human Resource Planning
Promotion Policies
Firms Knowledge of Employees

External Environment
of Recruitment
Legal Considerations
Corporate Image
Socio-economic factors

External Environment of
Recruitment

Supply and demand


Employment rate
Labour market condition
Political, legal and governmental
factors
Information system

The Recruitment Process

Human Resource Planning


Alternatives to Recruitment
Recruitment Planning- (Yield Ratio & Type)
Use Internal Sources and Methods
Use External Sources and Methods
Contacting Sources
Recruited Individual

Types of recruitment

Internal
External

merits of internal
recruitment

It can be motivational for employees.


It can improve the morale of the employees.
Internal candidates are known to the company
so their suitability can be judged better.
It can generate and enhance loyalty,
commitment, a sense of belongingness and a
feeling of security.
The employee will get a chance for advancement
so more psychological satisfaction at the job.

merits of internal
recruitment

Promotion can lead to increase in salary.


Minimum cost of selection.
The cost which occurs in training, orientation
induction and adaptation of the new employee
can be minimized.
Satisfied trade unions.
Fulfillment of social responsibility of the
organization.
More stable organization

disadvantages of internal recruitment

The organization has limited choice. They are


forced to compromise with quality and settle
for less qualified employees due to the limited
pool of candidates.
It is very negative for the entry of external
talented candidates. It may happen that
existing employees fail to be innovative which
can prevent the organization to be dynamic.

disadvantages of internal
recruitment

When employees are taken


internally then it is based on length
of the service and not on merit.
Internal recruitment can give rise
to in fight. There can be a race for
better position and it may lead to
bitter relationship

advantages of external
recruitment

External source provide large pool


of applicants so there is a wide
choice options of people with
requisite qualifications.
New talent with latest knowledge
and creativity can bring fresh
blood to the organization.

advantages of external
recruitment

Internal candidates are motivated


to work hard because they face
tough competition from external
candidates.
It gives long term benefit to the
organization through balanced
human resource mix with different
expertise and experience.

disadvantages of external
recruitment

It can be very expensive. Approaching


different sources is not an easy task.
It is very time consuming. There is a
proper process of external recruitment
organization has to follow it.

disadvantages of external
recruitment

There is no guarantee that new


employee will adjust in the
organization. In that case there will
always be uncertainty in the
organization .
External recruitment can be de
motivational for the existing
employees

Internal Methods

Promotions and Transfers


Job Posting
Employee Referrals

External Sources of
Recruitment
Campus Recruitment: High Schools and
Vocational Schools, Community Colleges,
Colleges and Universities
Competitors and Other Firms
Unemployed
Older Individuals
Military Personnel
Self-employed Workers

External Sources of
Recruitment
Gate Hiring and contractors
Unsolicited Applicants/Walk-ins
Internet Recruitment
Companies must evaluate the
recruitment process very carefully
on different criteria such as cost,
time, quality labour market condition

External Recruitment
Methods

Advertising
Employment
Agencies - Private
and Public
Recruiters
Special Events
Internships
Executive Search
Firms
Sign-In Bonuses

Sign-In Bonuses

3 out of 5 companies
use signing bonus as
recruitment tool
Used where severe
shortages of highly
skilled workers exist
Dollar amounts vary
dramatically

SELECTION

Selection

The process of choosing from a


group of applicants the individual
best suited for a particular position
and an organization
Goal of the selection process is to
properly match people with jobs
and the organization

Essentials of Selection
Procedure

Job Analysis
Employee Specifications
Recruitment

Factors Affecting Selection


Decision

Profile Matching
Organizational and Social
Environment
Successive Hurdles
Multiple Correlation

Environmental Factors
Affecting the Selection
Process

Legal considerations
Decision making speed
Organizational
hierarchy
Applicant pool
Type of organization
Probationary period

The Selection Process

Job Analysis
Recruitment
Application Form
Preliminary interviews
Review applications and interviews
Selection tests
Employment interviews
Reference and background checks
Selection decision
Physical examination

Preliminary Interview

Removes obviously unqualified


individuals
Ask a few straightforward questions
May qualify to work in other open
positions
Telephone interviews
Videotaped interviews
Computer interviews

Types of Employment Tests

Cognitive aptitude
Psychomotor abilities
Job Knowledge
Work-sample (simulation)
Vocational interests
Personality Interest Test
Aptitude Test

Types of Employment Tests


(Continued)

Drug and alcohol


Genetic
Internet

Cognitive Aptitude Tests


General
reasoning ability
Memory
Vocabulary
Verbal fluency
Numerical ability

Psychomotor Abilities Tests


Strength
Coordination
Dexterity

Job Knowledge Tests

Measure a candidate's
knowledge of the duties of
the position for which he or
she is applying
Are commercially available

Work-Sample (Simulation)

Tests that require an applicant to


perform a task or set of tasks
representative of the job
Such tests by their nature are job
related
Produces a high predictive validity,
reduces adverse impact, and is
more acceptable to applicants

Vocational Interests

Indicate the occupation in which a


person is most interested and is
most likely to be satisfied with
Primary use has been in
counseling and vocational guidance

Personality Tests
Traits
Temperaments
Dispositions

Drug and Alcohol Testing

About 71 percent of alcohol and drug


abusers are employed
Few issues generate more
controversy today than drug testing
Drug testing in the U.S. is becoming
more commonplace
There is a 2-6 percent positive rate
among tested applicants

Genetic Testing

Determines whether a person


carries the gene mutation for
certain diseases, including heart
disease, colon cancer, breast
cancer and Huntingtons disease
6 to 10 percent of employers were
conducting genetic tests

The Employment Interview


Goal-oriented conversation in
which interviewer and
applicant exchange information
Interview planning
Content of the interview

Content of the Interview


Occupational experience
Academic achievement
Interpersonal skills
Personal qualities
Organizational fit
Candidates objectives

Types of Interviews

Unstructured
(nondirective)
Structured
(directive or
patterned)
Behavior
Description

Unstructured (Nondirective)
Interview

Asks probing, open-ended


questions
Encourages applicant to do
much of the talking
Often time-consuming
Different information from
different candidates
Potential legal woes

Structured (Directive or
Patterned) Interview

Situational questions
Job knowledge
questions
Job-sample simulation
questions
Worker requirements
questions

Methods of Interviewing

One-on-one interview - Applicant meets


one-on-one with an interviewer
Group interview - Several applicants
interact in the presence of one or more
company representatives
Board interview - Several of the firms
representatives interview one candidate
Stress interview - Anxiety is intentionally
created
Realistic job previews - Job information is
conveyed to the applicant in an unbiased
manner