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REFLEXES

By: Dr.Chaman Lal


B.S.PT, PPDPT, Dip. in sports Injuries,
MPPS(PAK),
PG in Clinical Electroneurophysiology (AKUH),
Registered.EEGT (USA),
Member of ABRET, AANEM & ASET (USA).

REFLEXES
Reflex: It is the motor response to a sensory
stimulus OR
An efferent response to the afferent
stimulation
It is a rapid, predictable response to a stimulus.
It is Unlearned, involuntary, "hard-wired" into
our neuroanatomy at the cellular & tissue level.

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Reflex classification
Reflexes are classified according to:

1). Development
2). Site of information processing
3). Nature of resulting motor response
4). Complexity of neural circuit involved

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Methods of Classifying Reflexes

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Reflexes
Functional types:
Somatic: Elicited by external stimulus, results in
motor response of skeletal muscle; likely to
register consciously.
Autonomic (visceral):
Elicited by internal,
visceral stimulus; results in response by visceral
smooth muscle, or gland, or both; unlikely to
register consciously.
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Reflex Arc
Five components
1. Receptor (sensory
cell)
2. Sensory neuron
3. Integration center
(association neuron,
synapses)
4. Motor neuron
5. Effector (muscle or
gland cells)

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Examples of Reflexes:
Flexor reflex (Withdrawal, "hot stove")

1. receptors sense pain


2. sensory impulse to spinal cord
3. synapse to association neuron, synapse to
motor neurons polysynaptic
4. motor neurons to flexor muscles to
5. withdraw offended body part from stimulus

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Examples of Reflexes:
Stretch Reflex (Knee jerk)

1. Muscle spindles sense stretch of muscle,


2. Increase rate of sensory impulses to spinal
cord
3. One synapse to motor neuron(s) monosynaptic
4. Motor neurons stimulate muscle to contract
& restore tension.

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Muscle Spindle
Muscle spindles are sensory structures in skeletal muscles
Detect stretch, tension in muscle

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Examples of Reflexes: Reciprocal inhibition


Simultaneous inhibition of motor neuron to antagonistic muscle
"reciprocal inhibition"
Polysynaptic

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Examples of Reflexes: Crossed extensor reflex


1. Stimulus sensed on one side
2. sensory neuron to spinal cord,
3. synapse with association neuron; synapse
with motor neuron (to withdraw on same side)
& impulse crosses to opposite side, synapse
with motor neuron (to extend opposite limb)
4. Motor neurons to muscle cells/ motor units
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Righting Reflex
These are series of reflexes concerned with
the maintenance and restoration of
equilibrium.
Pushing the patient off balance elicits a
series of mass movements designed to
resotre balance and save him from falling.
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Postural Reflexes
The erect posture is maintained by a complex
series of reflexes known collectively as the
postural reflexes.
The efferent response in this instance is a motor
one, the anti-gravity muscles being the principal
effector organs. Afferent stimuli arise from a
variety of sources all over the body, the most
important receptors being situated in the
muscles themselves, the eyes and ears.
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Effect and Uses


Neuromuscular co-ordination
Normal Joint ROM & Stability is maintained by
this.
Circulation is improved
Temporary relaxation is attained
Postural reflexes are conditioned to reproduce a
satisfactory pattern of posture by repeated use of
these patterns. This is the basis of postural reeducation
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