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Lecture 1

Introduction to Digital Logic Design


Hai Zhou
EECS 303
Advanced Digital Design
Fall 2011
EECS 303 Lecture 1

Outline

Class administration
Digital design methodology
Representations of Digital Design
Introduction to Mentor Graphics tools
READING:
Chapter 1
Chapter 2

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Class Administration
Lectures twice a week, Tuesday-Thursday 3:30-4:50PM
Instructor:

Hai Zhou
Office: L461 Tech
EMAIL: haizhou@northwestern.edu
PHONE: 491-4155

Teaching Assistant
Peng Kang
Office: M314 Tech
EMAIL: pengkang2011@u.northwestern.edu

Web Page: www.eecs.northestern.edu/~haizhou/303/

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Class Prerequisites
EECS 203: Introduction to Computer Engineering
Need to have basic understanding of digital systems, logic gates,
combinational and sequential logic

Need to have been exposed to UNIX since we will use the


Mentor Graphics tools on SUN workstations
Class will form a background for other classes in Computer
Engineering

EECS 357: Introduction to VLSI CAD


EECS 355: ASIC & FPGA Design
EECS 361: Computer Architecture
EECS 391: Introduction to VLSI Design

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Class Administration
Required Textbooks:
Mano and Kime, Logic & Computer Design
Fundamentals, Prentice Hall.

Classnotes
Copies of lecture transparencies to be made available

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Class Grades
5 Homeworks
25% of grade

5 Labs
25% of grade

Midterm exam
20% of grade

Final exam
30% of grade

Homeworks and labs will be due at the beginning of class on the due
date
A penalty of 10% per working day will be assigned to late assignments or
labs

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Lab Work
You will be introduced to the use of a commercial computer
aided design tool from Mentor Graphics
Will use the Sun workstations in the Wilkinson Lab (3rd floor M
wing of Tech)
Lab Hours: Open
There will be 5 labs

Lab 1: Tutorial on Mentor Graphics (simple logic)


Lab 2: Design of combinational logic (8-bit adder)
Lab 3: Design of ALU and shifter
Lab 4: Design of a simple 8-state finites state machine
Lab 5: Use of VHDL for combinational and sequential design

EECS 303 Lecture 1

The Process of Design


Design
Implementation
Debug
Design
Initial concept: what is the function performed by the object?
Constraints: How fast? How much area? How much cost?
Refine abstract functional blocks into more concrete realizations
Implementation
Assemble primitives into more complex building blocks
Composition via wiring
Choose among alternatives to improve the design
Debug
Faulty systems: design flaws, composition flaws, component flaws
Design to make debugging easier
Hypothesis formation and
skills
EECStroubleshooting
303 Lecture 1
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Digital Systems
Digital vs. Analog Waveforms

+5

+5
1
V

Time

Time

Digital:
only assumes discrete values

Analog:
values vary over a broad range
continuously

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Digital Hardware Systems


Boolean Algebra and Logical Operators
Algebra: variables, values, operations
In Boolean algebra, the values are the symbols 0 and 1
If a logic statement is false, it has value 0
If a logic statement is true, it has value 1
Operations: AND, OR, NOT
X

X AND Y

X OR Y

NOT X

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
1
1
1

0
1

1
0

EECS 303 Lecture 1

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Digital Hardware Systems


Combinational vs. Sequential Logic
X1
X2 Xn

Switching Network -

Z1
Z2
Zm

Network implemented from


switching elements or logic
gates. The presence of feedback
distinguishes between sequential
and combinational networks.

Combinational logic
no feedback among inputs and outputs
outputs are a pure function of the inputs
e.g., full adder circuit:
(A, B, Carry In) mapped into (Sum, Carry Out)
A
B
Cin

Full
Adder
EECS 303 Lecture 1

Sum
Cout
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Digital Hardware Systems


Sequential logic
inputs and outputs overlap
outputs depend on inputs and the entire history of execution!
network typically has only a limited number of unique configurations
these are called states
e.g., traffic light controller sequences infinitely through four states
new component in sequential logic networks:
storage elements to remember the current state
output and new state is a function of the inputs and the old state
i.e., the fed back inputs are the state!
Synchronous systems
period reference signal, the clock, causes the storage elements to
accept new values and to change state
Asynchronous systems
no single indication of when to change state
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Case Study of a Simple Logic Design:


Seven Segment Display

Chip to drive digital display


L1
L
4

L
6
L2

L
5

L
7
L3

Case Study (cont.)


L1
L
4

L
6
L2

L
5

L
7
L3

B3

B2

B1

B0

Val

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

L7

Case Study (cont.)


Implement L4:

Some gate level implementation


of the Boolean function for L4

Representations of Digital Design:


Switches
A switch connects two points under control signal.
Normally Open

when the control signal is 0 (false), the switch is open


when it is 1 (true), the switch is closed

Normally Closed

when control is 1 (true), switch is open


when control is 0 (false), switch is closed
True

Control

True

Closed
Switch

Control

False
Normally Open
Switch

Open
Switch
False

Normally Closed
Switch
Open
Switch

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Closed
Switch 16

Switch Representations

Examples:

routing inputs to outputs through a maze

EXAMPLE:
IF car in garage
AND garage door open
AND car running
True
THEN back out car

Car in
garage

Car
running
Car can
back out

EXAMPLE:
IF car in driveway
OR (car in garage
AND NOT garage door
closed)
AND car running
THEN can back out car

Garage
door open

Garage door
closed

Car in
garage

Car
running

True
True

Car can
b ack out
Car in
driveway

Floating nodes:
what happens if the car is not running?
outputs are floating rather than forced to be false
Under all possible control signal settings
(1) all outputs must beEECS
connected
303 Lectureto
1 some input through a path
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(2) no output is connected to more than one input through any path

Switch Representations

Implementation of AND and OR Functions with Switches

A
False

A
output

True

AND function
Series connection to TRUE

False

B
output

True

OR function
Parallel connection to TRUE

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Representations of a Digital Design


Truth Tables
tabulate all possible input combinations and their associated
output values
Example: half adder
adds two binary digits
to form Sum and Carry
A

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

Example: full adder


adds two binary digits and
Carry in to form Sum and
Carry Out

Sum Carry
0
1
1
0

A
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
1

NOTE: 1 plus 1 is 0 with a


carry of 1 in binary
EECS 303 Lecture 1

B Cin Sum C out


0 0
0
0
0 1
1
0
1 0
1
0
1 1
0
1
0 0
1
0
0 1
0
1
1 0
0
1
1 1
1
1

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Representations of Digital Design:


Boolean Algebra
values: 0, 1
variables: A, B, C, . . ., X, Y, Z
operations: NOT, AND, OR, . . .
NOT X is written as X
X AND Y is written as X & Y, or sometimes X Y
X OR Y is written as X + Y

Deriving Boolean equations from truth tables:


A B
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

Sum Carry
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
1

Sum = A B + A B
OR'd together product terms
for each truth table
row where the function is 1
if input variable is 0, it appears in
complemented form;
if 1, it appears uncomplemented
EECS 303 Lecture 1

Carry = A B

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Representations of a Digital
Design: Boolean Algebra
Another example:
A

B Cin

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Sum Cout
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1

Sum = A B Cin + A B Cin + A B Cin + A B Cin

0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
Cout = A B Cin + A B Cin + A B Cin + A B Cin

EECS 303 Lecture 1

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Gate Representations of a Digital Design


most widely used primitive building block in digital system design
Standard
Logic Gate
Representation

Half Adder Schematic


A

Inverter

AND

Net 1

SUM
B

OR

Net 2
CARRY

Net: electrically connected collection of wires


Netlist: tabulation of gate inputs & outputs
and the nets they are connected to
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Representations of a Digital Design:


Gates

Full Adder Schematic


A

\Cin \ B \ A
Cin B
A

Cin

SUM

A
B

Cout

B
Cin

Cout

A
Cin

Fan-in: number of inputs to a gate


Fan-out: number of gate inputs an output is connected to
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Technology "Rules of Composition" place limits on fan-in/fan-out

Waveform Representation
dynamic behavior of a circuit
real circuits have non-zero delays
Timing Diagram of the Half Adder
100

200

A
B
SUM
CARRY

sum
sum
propagation
propagation
delay
delay
circuit hazard: 1 plus 0 is 1, not 0!
Output changes are delayed from input changes
The propagation delay is sensitive to paths in the circuit
Outputs may temporarily change from the correct value to the
wrong value back again to the correct value: this is called
a glitch or hazard EECS 303 Lecture 1
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Block Representation of a Digital Design


structural organization of the design
black boxes with input and output connections
corresponds to well defined functions
concentrates on how the components are composed by wiring

A A Sum

B B Carry

B Carry

HA

Sum

Sum

HA

Cout

Cin

Cin

Full Adder realized in terms of


composition of half adder blocks

A
B

Sum

Sum

FA

Cin Cout

Cout

Block diagram representation


of the Full Adder

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Introduction to Mentor Graphics Tools


The Mentor Graphics CAD system has many
components
You will use a small portion of the tools for this course

Falcon Design Framework


Design Architect for entering logic designs
Quicksim for simulating the designs
QuickHDL for entering and simulating the VHDL designs

Read through and execute Lab 1: Mentor Graphics


tutorial

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Introduction to Mentor Graphics


Typing source /vol/ece303/mgc.env on Sun workstation
will set up env for 303 labs
Typing dmgr for Design Manager will create a window
for running several tools
Mentor Graphics is not a single tool but a series of design
tools that uses object oriented data representation to
simplify the design process
Data created in one tool (e.g. design architect) can be
shipped to another tool (e.g. quicksim) for simulation
A schematic is merely a pictorial representation of a circuit

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Viewpoints in Electronic Design Objects

Data created by DESIGN ARCHITECT is saved


in
Component
Viewpoint

A component is a collection of models used to


describe the functional, graphical aspects
Component data is made of a schematic and a symbol
A symbol is a graphical model of the input and output
pins
A schematic is a functional model of how outputs are
related to input values

A viewpoint can be thought of as a filter that


other applications use to process component
data

EECS 303 Lecture 1

Component

Viewpoint

Electronic Design Object

Symbol for
XOR

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Moving Design Data


Students familiar with UNIX, please refrain from using
UNIX commands to move directories or files
You MUST move these objects using the Design
Manager
Failure to use Design Manager will result in data
corruption
Design Architect will store the absolute pathname to a
design
Quicksim will try to use the symbol to look for the design
from that pathname

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Summary

Class administration
Digital design methodology
Representations of Digital Design
Introduction to Mentor Graphics tools
NEXT LECTURE: Memory Elements
READING:
Chapter 4

EECS 303 Lecture 1

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