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You are on page 1of 22

follows mainly on chapter 4

in Turcotte and Schubert

textbook.

From the sun:

2x1017 W

4x102 Wm-2

Derives surface processes:

Water cycle

Biosphere

Rain

Erosion

From the Earth interior:

4x1013 W

8x10-2 Wm-2

Derives deep Processes:

Mantle convection

Geodynamo

Plate tectonics

Metamorphism

Volcanism

Earth

Earthquakes: 1011 W

Sun

Three mechanisms for heat transfer: conduction, convection and

radiation.

Conduction:

A diffusive process wherein

molecules transmit their kinetic

energy to other molecules by

colliding with them.

Convection:

A process associated with the

motion of the medium. When a

hot material flows into a cold

material, it will heat the region

- and vise versa.

Radiation:

The transfer of heat via electromagnetic radiation. Example - the

Sun.

In the lithosphere, the temperature gradient is controlled mainly

by conduction.

Convection in the lithosphere does play a role in:

Mid-ocean ridges in the form of hydrothermal ocean

circulation.

Volcanism and emplacement of magmatic bodies.

Heat flux is the flow per unit area and per unit time of heat. It is

directly proportional to the temperature gradient.

One dimensional Fourier's law:

dT

q = k

,

dy

where:

q is the heat flux

k is the coefficient of thermal conductivity

T is the temperature

y is a spatial coordinate

Question: why is the minus sign?

Question: is q a vector or a scalar?

Units:

q is in [Wm-2]

k is in [Wm-1K-1]

where W is read watt, and is equal to Joule per second.

A substance with a large value of k is a good thermal conductor,

whereas a substance with a small value of k is a poor thermal

conductor or a good thermal insulator.

T:

The heat flux is given by:

T

q=k

.

l

Example 2: a composite slab

H.F. through slab 2:

T2 Tx

q2 = k2

.

L2

Tx T1

q1 = k1

.

L1

k2

T2

k1

heat

Tx

T1

T2 T1

L2

L1

q1 = q2 =

.

(L1 /k1 ) + (L2 /k 2 )

Or more generally:

Tn T1

qn =

.

Li /ki

i=1,n

medium thickness, L. Thus, the important quantity is L/k, often

referred to as thermal resistance.

Highest heat loss at midocean ridges and lowest at

old oceanic crust.

With temperature

gradient of 20-30 K/km,

and thermal conductivity of

2-3 WK-1m-1, the heat flux

is 40-90 mWm-2.

Heat flow measurements: the global heat flow map on the

previous slide is based on a compilation of individual

measurements whose distribution is shown below.

from continental areas.

strongly correlated with the

surface concentration of the

radioactive heat producing

elements.

Eastern US

Norway+Sweden

Sierra Nevada

areas, surface heat flow

systematically decreases with

the age of the surface rocks.

Latter we will see that this

effect can be attributed to the

decrease in the crustal

concentrations of the heat

producing isotopes due to

progressive erosion.

The concentration of the heat producing isotopes in oceanic

crust is about an order of magnitude less than in continental crust.

The oceanic crust is about a factor of 5 thinner than the

continental crust.

Thus, the contribution of heat producing elements is negligible!

There is a systematic

dependence of the surface

heat flow on the age of the

sea floor.

Later we will see that this

can be understood as

gradual cooling.

thickness y; the heat flux out

of the slab is q(y + y), and the

heat flux into the slab q(y).

The net heat flow out of the

slab, per unit time and per unit

area of the slab's face, is:

q(y + y) q(y).

In the absence of internal heat production, conservation of

energy requires that:

q(y + y) q(y) = 0.

as:

dq (y) 2 d 2q

q(y + y) = q(y) + y

+

+L

2

dy

2 dy

Ignoring terms higher than the first order term, leads to:

Thus:

d 2T

dq

q(y + y) q(y) = y

= yk

= 0.

2

dy

dy

d 2T

= 0.

2

dy

Question: in the absence of internal heat production, how does

the geotherm look like?

If there's nonzero net heat flow per unit area out of the slab, this

heat must be generated internally in the slab. In that case:

d 2 T

dq

q(y + y) q(y) = y

= yk

= yH,

2

dy

dy

where:

H is the heat production rate per unit mass

is the

density

Question: what is the source for steady-state internal heating in

the Earth lithosphere?

The previous result may be integrated to determine the geotherm,

i.e. the temperature as a function of depth.

Hereafter we consider a half-space,

with a surface at y=0, where y is a

depth coordinate increasing

downward.

1) q=-q0

at

y=0

2) T=T0

at

y=0

Starting with:

d 2T

H + k 2 = 0,

dy

dT

Hy = k

+ C1.

dy

dT

Hy = k

+ q0 .

dy

y

H = kT + q0 y + C2.

2

q0

H 2

T = T0 + y

y .

k

2k

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