Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

UNDERWATER

CONSTRUCTION

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT &


1
1
RESEARCH, PUNE

INTRODUCTION
UNDERWATER CONSTRUCTION
TECHNIQUES:
1.CAISSONS
2.COFFERDAMS

UNDERWATER CONCRETING
Placement Methods
1. TREMIE
2. PUMP METHOD

3. TOGGLE BAGS
4. BAG WORKS

ONS
The term caisson has been derived from the French word CAISSEE, meaning BOX.
Watertight retaining structure, permanent in nature.
Large & hollow that is sunk down through the earth.

Constructed in such a manner so that the water can be pumped out.


Used to work on foundation of bridge pier, building columns, construction of concrete
dam or for the repair of ships.

Working inside a Caisson

TYPES OF
CAISSON
BOX CAISSON

Control post
Pontoon

Ballast water

Grab
Ground water
level

OPEN CAISSON

Circumferential
gap

Shoe

PNEUMATIC
Large inverted box on which pier
CAISSON
is built.
Compressed air is used to keep
the water
and mud out.
Used to work on riverbed or
quicksand's.

SUCTION
More suitable for off
CAISSON

shore construction.
Upturned bucket
embedded in marine
sediment.
Embedment achieved
by pushing or by
creating negative
pressure.
6

ADVANTAGES OF CAISSONS

Economic.
Slightly less noise and reduced
vibrations.
Easily adaptable to varying site
conditions.
High axial and lateral loading capacity.
Minimal handling equipment is required
for placement of reinforcing cage.
Placement is sometimes possible in types
of soil that a driven pile could not
7
penetrate

Dangers encountered:
Caisson diseaseis so named since it
appeared in construction workers when they
left the compressed atmosphere of the
caisson and rapidly re entered normal
(decompressed) atmospheric conditions.
Construction of theBrooklyn Bridge, which
was built with the help of caissons, resulted
in numerous workers being either killed or
permanently injured by caisson disease
during its construction.
8

RDAMS
Temporary structure, designed to
keep water and/or soil out of the
excavation area.
TYPES OF COFFERDAMS

Dikes
Cellular cofferdams
Rock-filled crib cofferdams
Concrete cofferdams

Suspended cofferdams
9

Working inside a Cofferdam

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET


JAMMU

10

COMPONENTS OF COFFERDAM
Sheet piling
Sheet piling is a
manufactured construction
product with a mechanical
connection interlock at both
ends of the section. These
mechanical connections
interlock with one another to
form a continuous wall of
sheeting.

Bracing frame
Concrete seal

Bracing
frame

Sheet
piles
11

ADVANTAGES OF COFFERDAM

Allow excavation and construction


of structures in otherwise poor
environment.
Provides safe environment to work.
Contractors typically have design
responsibility.
Steel sheet piles are easily installed
and removed.
Materials can typically be reused on
other projects.
12

Comparison Between Caisson And


Cofferdam
CAISSON
Permanent
structure
Plan of small area
Water height
more than 12m

COFFER DAM
Temporary
structure
Plan of larger
area
Water height up
to 12m

13

13

UNDERWATER
CONCRETING

It is a process in which the prepared


concrete is poured below the water
surface by using suitable methods.

PLACEMENT METHODS:

Tremie Method
Pump Method
Toggle Bags
Bagwork
14

14

TREMIE
METHOD
A Tremie is a
watertight pipe.
Generally 250mm in
dia.
Funnel shaped
Fig: schematic of a tremie method
hopper at its upper
end and a loose
plug at the bottom.
It is supported on a
working platform
above water level.

15

PUMP METHOD
Pumping concrete directly
into its final position,
involving both horizontal and
vertical delivery of concrete.
Pumping concrete has the
advantage of operational
efficiency with potential
savings of time and labor.
For massive underwater
concrete construction of
navigation structures, the
pump method should be
prohibited.
16

TOGGLE BAGS:
Toggle bags are ideal
for small amounts of
concrete placement.
The bag is filled in the
dry with wet concrete.
Used for repair work.
The
concrete
is
squeezed out by a
diver.

BAGWORK:
Bags are made of
open weave material.
Diver-handled bags
are usually of 10 to 20
litres capacity but
1cum bags can be
placed using a crane.

Used only in special cases like repair works, etc.


17

A CASE STUDY ON BRIDGE


FOUNDATION

Akashi Kaikyo
Bridge,
Japan
(Completed in
1998)

The two main tower foundations are large doublewall steel caissons filled with tremie concrete.
18

CASE
STUDY
The project required that a large volume of
tremie concrete be placed up to 57m
below the water surface.

19

All the tremie concrete was produced


on a
floating batch plant.
Each tremie placement was carried
out continuosly day and night for
3days.
Each tremie pipe covered a 100-m2
area.

20

The total of 50,000 cum of concrete


was placed in the steel caisson.

21

CONCLUSION
Cofferdams are temporary structures and used in cases
where the plan area of foundation is very large, depth of
water is less and for the soft soils, where soils allow easy
driving of sheet piles.
Caissons are permanent
structures and becomes
economical in cases where the plan area of foundation is
small, large depth of water and for loose soils.
Suction caisson anchors are gaining considerable
acceptance in the offshore industry.
At present, the tremie placement method is the standard
way of placing high-quality concrete underwater. The other
placement method are not able to reliably place high-quality
underwater concrete for major structures, although they
may find application in special cases
For massive underwater concrete construction of navigation
structures, the pump method should be prohibited.
22
22

THANK
YOU!
Presented By:

SUNAY JAISWAL
ANKUSH SINGH
SIDDESH HUPRIKAR
NITIN KUMAR
AMIT SINGH

AP14101
AP14125
AP14126
AP14137
AP14192
23