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STRUCTURE II

SPRING 2015
Pertemuan I: 1 Maret 2015

Modul 1 : Sentences and Clauses


Modul 2: Conjunctions (Unit 1)

Meiliza Fitri

Universitas Terbuka
Korea Selatan

MODUL 1 : SENTENCES AND


CLAUSES

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
A.

Independent Clauses

B.

Dependent Clauses

C.

Types of Dependent Clauses

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES

A. INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
Clause [noun; countable] : kelompok kata
yang saling berhubungan yang memiliki
subjek dan predikat.
Independent Clause (main clause):
Kelompok kata yang saling berhubungan yang mempunyai
subjek dan predikat dan dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat
yang lengkap dan utuh.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
A. INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
Rudy is my son.
I know that boy.
English is an international language.
I have been to Singapore.
We visited Kuta beach last year.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
B. DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Dependent Clause (subordinate clause):
Anak kalimat, mempunyai subjek dan predikat, tetapi tidak
bisa berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat yang lengkap karena tidak
mengekspresikan pemikiran yang lengkap.
Menggunakan subordinate conjunctions: who, that, whether,
if, when, until, after, although, because, since, whereas,
before.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
B. DEPENDENT CLAUSES
That he is a banker.
If you go by bus or by train.
After you arrive in Bali.
Whereas Anita is diligent.
Why he cried.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
C. TYPES OF DEPENDENT
CLAUSES
Dependent Clause, dapat berfungsi sebagai
Kata benda (noun clause)
Kata sifat (adjective clause)
Kata keterangan (adverbial clause)

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
C. TYPES OF DEPENDENT
CLAUSES
1.

Noun Clause

Dapat berfungsi sebagai:


.

Subjek

Objek kata kerja atau preposisi

Pelengkap

Subordinate conjunction yang digunakan:


That, whether, if, what,....etc.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
C. TYPES OF DEPENDENT
CLAUSES

1. Noun Clause as subject


How he gets the money is his own affair.
What they did does not concern me.
2. Noun Clause as transitive object
I dont know where he lives.
It is true that plants need water in order to live.
3. Noun Clause
My question is why you did not come last night.
My concern is how to pay the workers.
Karena sifatnya sebagai kata benda, noun clause bisa diganti dengan kata ganti it.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
C. TYPES OF DEPENDENT
CLAUSES
2. Adjective Clause
Berfungsi sebagai:

Kata sifat (menerangkan kata benda)

Relative pronouns yang digunakan:


which,who, whom, whose....etc.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
C. TYPES OF DEPENDENT
CLAUSES

2. Adjective Clause
The boy who/that gave me the book is
Mr.Anwars son.
The car that he drives is very
expensive.
He gave the money to the man who
had done the work.
Here is the book which/that describes
animals.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
C. TYPES OF DEPENDENT
CLAUSES
3. Adverbial Clause
Berfungsi sebagai:

Kata kata keterangan (menjelaskan kata kerja, kata


keterangan, atau seluruh kalimat)

Relative pronouns yang digunakan:


When, after, while, before, as soon as....etc.

UNIT 1 : CLAUSES
C. TYPES OF DEPENDENT
CLAUSES

3. Adverbial Clause
You may begin when you are ready.
While he was walking home, he saw
an accident.
After she finished dinner, she went
to bed.
They sat down wherever they could
find empty seats.

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
Sentence [noun; countable] : kelompok
kata yang yang memiliki subjek, predikat,
dan mengekspresikan suatu informasi yang
utuh.
A.

Classification by Types

B.

Classification by the Number of Full Prediction

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
A. CLASSIFICATION BY TYPES
1.

Declarative sentences (statement)

Carol is happy.

The child ate dinner.

I have just bought the books.

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
A. CLASSIFICATION BY TYPES
2. Interrogative sentences (questions)

Did the child eat his dinner?

Is it your dictionary?

Are you Surya?

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
A. CLASSIFICATION BY TYPES
3. Imperative sentences (commands and request)

Stop that bus!

Be quite, please!

Help!

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
A. CLASSIFICATION BY TYPES
4. Exclamation sentences (exclamation)

What a good dinner that was!

What beautiful hair she has!

How beautiful she is!

How far his house is!

What + countable/uncountable noun


How + adjective or adverb

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
B. CLASSIFICATION BY THE
NUMBER OF FULL PREDICTION
1.

Simple sentence

Tedi bought a house.

Ratih is happy.

Ratih and Rita swim everyday. (compund subject)

I like to swim and hike everyday. (compound predicate)

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
B. CLASSIFICATION BY THE
NUMBER OF FULL PREDICTION
2. Compound sentence
a)

The rain fell, and the wind blew.

b)

I want to attend school, but my family needs me.

c)

He was tired, so he went to bed.

d)

The players tried their best to win; however, I do not expect them to win.

e)

Mr. Sujudi is the richest man in his town; moreover, he is very generous.

a) to c) : main clause + coordinate conjuction + main


clause
d) to e) : main clause + transition (; linking word,) +
main clause

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
B. CLASSIFICATION BY THE
NUMBER OF FULL PREDICTION
3. Complex sentence

You should lock the doors before you leave the house.

Although John is a good athlete, he does not spend too


much time in sports.

Since that happend a long time ago, I would not hold it


again.

UNIT 2 : SENTENCES
B. CLASSIFICATION BY THE
NUMBER OF FULL PREDICTION
4. Compound complex sentence

Although the farmers always work long hours, they seem


to enjoy their work, and they usually have a long time rest
during the dry season.

Some people fell on other people, and some people


landed on the floor when the bos stopped abruptly.

MODUL 2: CONJUNCTIONS (UNIT


1)

CONJUNCTIONS
Unit 1 Coordinate Conjunctions
Unit 2 Subordinate Conjunctions
Unit 3 Correlative Conjunctions

UNIT 1 COORDINATE
CONJUNCTIONS
A.

Structural Unit Joined by Coordinate Conjunctions

B.

Functional Unit Joined by Coordinate Conjunctions

UNIT 1 COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS


A. STRUCTURAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATE
CONJUNCTIONS
and
but
or
yet
so
for

UNIT 1 COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS


A. STRUCTURAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATE
CONJUNCTIONS
Anton and Tony.
Wind, earth, or fire.
Slipped and fell.
Listen, write, or read.

[nouns]
[nouns]
[verbs]
[verbs]

Tall and slim.

[adjectives]

Stupid but pretty.

[adjectives]

Slowly and carefully.


Late or early.

[adverbs]
[adverbs]

UNIT 1 COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS


A. STRUCTURAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATE
CONJUNCTIONS
Joining Words
Anton and Tony fought each other.
Is she laughing or crying?
That blond girl is pretty, sexy, but stupid.
The thief moved quickly and quitely.

UNIT 1 COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS


A. STRUCTURAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATE
CONJUNCTIONS
Joining Phrases
My mother, my eldest sister, and my little brother look alike.
Is he typing his English report or playing games on the

computer?

He spends his free time to play the piano, compose music,

and writing poetry.

Is Juno here on vacation or on business?

UNIT 1 COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS


A. STRUCTURAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATE
CONJUNCTIONS
Joining Clauses
I dont know when he left town, or why he wanted to do so.
I will go with you after I have finished my work, or after I

have my lunch.

Nothing will change if you tell him now and then leave or if

you just leave without telling him anything.