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and Methods
in Education
A thousand teachers,
a thousand methods.
-Chinese Proverb

Different approaches differ in the level of
teacher and student participation. We start
describing these approaches from that approach
with the highest to the lowest level of teacher
direction or from the lowest to the highest level of
student participation. On the basis of student
and teacher involvement, these methods are
categorized as direct/expository approach or
guided/exploratory approach.

Basic Concepts

It is a set of principles, beliefs, or

ideas about the nature of learning
which is translated into the
It is a systematic way of doing
something. It implies an orderly
logical arrangement of steps. It is
more procedural.

Two Types of Teaching Approaches



Expository Method




Exploratory Method

Problem Solving

When to use :
Direct Instruction/

Instruction Approach
Direct instruction is a way of teaching which is
aimed at helping students acquire some basic
skills and procedural knowledge.
It is straight forward and is done in a step-bystep manner. The emphasis is on how to
execute the steps of the entire procedure.
This may involve a simple or a complex skill
such as solving a problem by using
mathematical equations.

It includes presentation and recitation, as

well as teacher-student interactions.
Attention is focused on every detail of the
Content mastery and over learning of
fundamental facts.
Teachers need to arouse of heighten the
interest of the students.

Performance-based subjects such as Science,

Mathematics, Music and Physical Education are
taught by this technique.

Strategies use in Direct Instruction:

1. Lecture and Student Recitation
2. Deduction
3. Expository/didactic method
4. Demonstration method

To employ this methodology, follow these


-Provide the rationale

-Demonstrate the skill

-Provide guided practice
-Check for understanding and provide
-Provide extended practice and transfer

Characteristic of a Direct Instruction:

Teacher-directed and teacher dominated
Teaching of skill. The students gain how rather
than what (procedural knowledge). Each step
must be mastered
Step by step procedure with no step missed
Lesson objectives easily observed behaviours
that can be measured accurately. The level of
performance can be assess from the number of
steps performed correctly
Form of learning through imitation ( behavioral

Sample Lessons with Step-By-Step Tasks
Executing steps of a folkdance
Steps in preparing a meal
Writing a letter
Solving Math problems

Deductive Method
Teacher-dominated approach
It begins with the abstract rule, generalization,

principle and ends with specific examples and

concrete details
Cover a wider scope of subject matter
Learning is passive process, the learners do not
take part in the generation of conclusion or
Drill or exercises come after the explanation of the
rule or principle

Example: Geography
The teacher begins her lesson with a
generalization that geographical location
influences peoples way of life.
She will present a map of the Philippines. Then
study the map with them.
Those who live in wide plains like Central Plain
of Luzon, Cagayan Valley have rice as main
product and farming as main occupation.
Those who live near the sea are fishermen.
Their main product is fish.

Example: Science
Teacher define: All animals with backbone are

classified as vertebrates.
Teacher give examples: dog is vertebrate

because it possesses backbone. Fish, frog and

cow are vertebrates, they possess backbone

Example: Math
Teacher Explain the rule first: To add similar

fractions just add the numerators then copy the

Then teacher begin will gives examples.
After which she will give written exercises for her

Advantages of Deductive Method:

Wider scope of subject matter because the

instruction is direct by stating at once the rule or

the principle at the beginning of the class.
Teacher do not have to worry on what questions

to ask for learners to generalization or


Disadvantages of Deductive Method

Passive learning. Less involvement on part of the

The learners do not take part in the generation of
conclusion or generalization.
Learners involvement will be drill or exercises that
come after the explanation of the rule or principle
Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Teacher
begin the lesson with the abstract with what the
learners do not know

Inductive Method
It begins with specific details, concrete data and

examples and ends with an abstract

Learners are more engaged in the teaching-learning
Learning becomes more interesting at the outset
because we begin with the experiences of our students.
Begin with what they know.
It helps the development of our learners higher order
thinking skills. To see patterns and analyze the same in
order to arrive at generalizations requires analytical

Inductive Method
It requires more time and so less subject matter

will be covered
Need much time to lead students to formulate
Teachers got to ask the right questions, organize
answers and comments to pave the way to the
derivation of generalizations or principles

Advantages of Inductive Methods

The learners are more engaged in teaching-

learning process. The learners formulate the

generalization or rule.
Learning becomes more interesting at the outset
because teachers begin with the experiences of
the students. Teachers begin with what they
It helps the development of the learners higher
order thinking skills. To see patterns and analyze
the same in order to arrive at generalizations
requires analytical thinking.

Disadvantages of Inductive Method

It requires more time and so less subject matter

will be covered. Teacher needs much time to

lead students to the formulation of
It demands expert facilitating skills on part of the
teacher. Teacher got to ask the right questions,
organize answers and comments to pave the
way to the derivation of

Deductive Method

Inductive Method

1. It does not give any new


1. It gives new knowledge

2. It is a method of verification.

2. It is a method of discovery.

3. It is the method of instruction. 3. It is a method of teaching.

4. Child gets ready made
information and makes use of it.

4.Child acquires first hand

knowledge and information by
actual observation.

5. It is quick process.

5. It is a slow process.

6. It encourages dependence on
other sources.

6. It trains the mind and gives

self confidence and initiative.

7. There is less scope of activity

in it.

7. It is full of activity.

8. It is a downward process of
thought and leads to useful

8. It is an upward process of
thought and leads to principles.

Lets Review our Understanding:

Between the deductive and the induction method,
- which method is more teacher-directed?
- which one engages more the learners in
conceptual understanding?
- which demands more teachers skillful

Lets Review our Understanding:

Between the deductive and the induction method,
- which tend to depth retention of learning?
- which learning method is more predictable?
- which engage to learn faster for large number
of facts and concrete concepts?

Demonstration Method
Demonstration is a learning activity which is

performed by a student, a group of 3 to 4

members or a teacher while the rest become
Teachers show how to operate, manipulate an
equipment while the class observes

Demonstration Method
Teacher should be knowledgeable in preparing the

apparatus needed according to the steps to be

The rest of the class becomes focused on the
activity and concentration on the subject is

Advantages of Demonstration Method

It follows a systematic procedure, students will

be able to learn from a well-tried procedure

since the demonstrators are selected and
adjudged to be skilled
The use of expensive equipment and
machines will be maximized
Possible wastage of time, effort and resources
will be avoided since the demonstration is
supposed to be well-planned in advance

Advantages of Demonstration Method

It will not result to trial-and-error learning as

what happens with unplanned learning activities

Findings are reliable and accurate since the
procedures has been tried before
The value of confidence is developed among
the demonstrators for such hands-on
demonstrators for such hands-on demonstration
Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled
among the observers

Lets Review:
1. Modeling
a. is a direct teaching activity.
b. is seldom used by effective teachers.
c. allows students to imitate from demonstration
or infer from observation the behavior to be
d. both a and c.

2. Direct Instruction is more appropriate when

a. cooperative learning is not an option.
b. the teacher needs to arouse or heighten
student interest.
c. attempting to achieve content mastery and
overlearning of fundamental facts.
d. both b and c.

3. This method of teaching presents a general

concept by first defining it and then
providing examples or illustrations that
demonstrate the idea until it achieve the
concept mastery.
a. Inductive
b. Deductive
c. Directive
d. Demonstrative

4. Mr. Cruz is very careful in his classroom about

using his class time efficiently and having active
student practice. To do this, Mr. Cruz uses an
instructional sequence of review, presenting
new content, practice, feedback, and
reteaching. He is attempting to achieve the
goals of
a. mastery learning
b. indirect instruction
c. lecturing
d. cooperative learning

5. Among the methods/approaches

discussed, which teaching method/s is use
in Guided/Exploratory Approach?
a. Direct Instruction
b. Deductive Method
c. Inductive Method
d. both b & c

Indirect instruction method is best
used when the learning process is
inquiry-based, the result is discovery and
the learning context is a problem. This
can come as
1) Inquiry method/discovery method
2) Problem solving method

We will not help children learn if we
tell them everything they need to know.
Rather, we must provide them the
opportunities to explore, inquire and
discover new learning. The core of
inquiry is a spontaneous and a selfdirected exploration.

1. Its emphasis is on the processes of

gathering and processing of information

2. Its dependence on firsthand experience
with objects and phenomena occurring
in the environment is certainly in
agreement with the most often cited
theory of Piaget on intellectual
3. The inquiry approach which
predominantly allows some degree of
freedom develops initiative and
divergent thinking.

4. A deep sense of responsibility is developed

when learners are left to manage their own

learning, be it in pursuit of answers, mastery of
content or simply solving a problem that
confronts them instantly.
5. Educators strongly believes that facts and
concepts that learners discover by themselves
become stored as part of their permanent
6. Experiencing success in inquirybased/discovery lessons builds up the learners
feeling of confidence.
7. Participation in inquiry activities strengthens
learners intellectual capabilities.



Problem solving is a teaching strategy

that employs the scientific method in
searching for information. The five basic
steps of scientific method or
investigatory process are:
Sensing and defining the problem
Formulating hypothesis
Testing the likely hypothesis
Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of
Formulating conclusion

1. This method is most effective in

developing skill in employing the science

2. The scientific method can likewise be used
effectively in other non-science objects.
3. The students active involvement
resulting in meaningful experiences
serves as a strong motivation to follow
the scientific procedure in future
4. Problem solving develops higher level
thinking skills.

5. A keen sense of responsibility, originality

and resourcefulness are developed, which

are much needed ingredients for
independent study.
6. The students become appreciative and
grateful for the achievement of scientists.
7. Critical thinking, open-mindedness and
wise judgment are among scientific
attitudes and values inculcated through
competence in the scientific method.
8. The student learn to accept the opinions
and evidence shared by others.

Thank you!